Part 2. Read part 1
When the canvas is prepared, you need to pick up a handle (kosovishche) for it. The author of numerous publications about braids N. Rodionov advises using a Christmas tree for this purpose. Here's what he writes: “The braid (the handle of the braid) must be elastic and durable. Such properties are possessed by a kosovish made, for example, from flat young spruce. ".
I am in no way going to dispute this statement, but, following the advice of experienced mowers who thoroughly know their business, I use exclusively aspen for mowing. For spruce, firstly, has heavy wood, and secondly, spruce is always very knotty, and knots are the weak point of any wood. Aspen is lightweight and strong enough.
I also happened to see braids with a braid made of metal. For example, a homemade braid had a braid made of an aluminum pipe. In the 80s, one could find a small braid in the store, also equipped with an aluminum braid.
But since we are talking about a braid made of wood, we will continue talking about it ... The chosen braid with a length of 170-200 centimeters must be dried. Otherwise, the wet wood will dry out during operation, the canvas will begin to dangle on the mow, and the mowing will turn into continuous torment.
To secure the braid at the end of the kosovishche with a knife or ax, a bevel is made at an angle of 20-30 degrees, 7-10 centimeters long. In the center of the bevel, perpendicular to the blade, a recess is hollowed out (see figure 6)... It should be such that the fore-end fits freely in it (protrusion on the heel of the braid). We sharpen the free end of the string. This is convenient in that when sharpening the blade, the kosovish with its sharp end abuts the ground and does not slip.
You can fasten the braid to the handle in various ways: in the old fashioned way - using metal split and continuous clamps with a lag screw (see figure 7, pos. 1 and 2)... And you can also use more modern methods, for example, weld the braid to a piece of pipe or fix the braid to the braid with a bolt and nut (see 3 and 4).
And yet, so far, the most common, simple and reliable method of fastening is with a metal ring and a wooden wedge. (see 5)... Any metal pipe of a suitable diameter is suitable for the ring. The width of the ring is 30-40 millimeters, the thickness is as small as possible. Instead of one ring, you can use two narrower ones.
Now let's get down to the wedge. Its only, but extremely important function is to keep the heel pressed against the bevel of the handle in the ring. And here, unconditional preference should be given to a wedge from an apple tree trunk or branch. In the absence of such, the use of birch or mountain ash is permissible.
There are several requirements for a wedge. First of all, it must occupy the entire space in the ring, without gaps, in order to exclude movement during mowing, both of the forearm and of the wedge itself. When the wedge is driven into the ring, its upper end should be flush with the butt of the braid. That is, flush. And the lower end protrudes so much from the ring that, if necessary, it can be easily knocked out (see figure 8).
For the braid to be fully ready for work, it remains to attach the handle. It is placed on the kosovishte according to the height of the mower. This is done like this ... The scythe is placed with its pointed end on the ground, and a mark is made at the level of the mower's navel. This is where the handle is installed for a particular person. The handle is usually positioned at a 45 degree angle to the plane passing through the belt and braid. Before putting the handle on the string, it is advisable to hold it in water for 3-4 days. This increases the chance that it will not crack when installed.
The handle is most often made of sufficiently elastic wood (bird cherry, vines and other tree species). On a handle 35-40 centimeters long and 2.5-3 centimeters thick, a notch is selected for about a third of the thickness. And sometimes half. Its length is about 8 centimeters.
Then a groove is made in the notch (see figure 9, pos. 3), which prevents cracking of the workpiece when bending it around the string. At the ends of the blank handle, grooves are cut for a cord or wire (see 4).
In the place where the handle will fit the braid, we put a coarse-grained strip of sandpaper or a thin rubber gasket with a granular surface outward.
Then we take the handle by the ends, bend it around the kosovishche and tighten it with a strong cord or soft wire. Preferably copper, as aluminum wire stains your hands. We carefully hide the ends of the wire so that they do not accidentally injure the hand during mowing. We cut off the part of the handle wood that has broken off from the outside with a knife.
The handle can be made from an aluminum tube of a suitable diameter. The technology is the same as for wood. Only the tube should be flattened very carefully. This should be done gradually, every now and then trying it on in the Kosovishte. If you flatten a lot at once, it may turn out that the ends of the tube will close around the braid, and there will be nowhere to insert your fingers.
Remember that the gap between the ends of the handle should be at least 4-5 centimeters. Holes are drilled at the ends to tighten them. In order for the handle not to budge, you can cut a shallow groove on the string, just under it. Or drill a tiny hole from the back of the handle and drive a stud into it.
Sometimes DIYers make and fix the handle in their own way. (see figure 10)... It turns out to be reliable and practical. It is with such a handle that the braid is depicted in the painting by I. Glazunov: "Mower". For this purpose, a wooden file handle or any straight stick of the appropriate diameter is suitable - such that it is convenient to hold it in your hand. Through holes with a diameter of no more than three millimeters are drilled in the stick and kosovishche. The hole can be pierced with a hot steel bar.
The braid and the handle are connected so that the holes match. A long bolt is inserted into them, no matter which side. So that part of the thread protrudes outward. We screw the nut onto it and tighten both parts. Be sure to place flat washers under the bolt head and under the nut. Otherwise, the head of the bolt and nut will cut deeply into the wood when pulled together, and it will be difficult to hold and unscrew them with a wrench.
A significant drawback of a handle with a bolt is that it is designed for the height of a certain person, and you can no longer move it up or down in a string. However, it is enough to make one or two more holes in the strip at different heights and thereby eliminate this drawback. However, any holes in the braid will, to some extent, weaken its strength. Which is highly undesirable.
Photos and drawings by the author
So, there are quite a few varieties of brushcutters. To choose the right one in terms of parameters, you first need to decide on the scope of work. If we are talking about a garden plot, a trimmer or an electric scythe will do, if autonomy is important, a gasoline one. Battery models can work in both cases, but they are relatively expensive and still require recharging - they are not designed for large volumes of work far "from the outlet". The power for domestic use does not really matter, 1 kW for electric or 1 hp. for gasoline engines it is more than enough to work on an area of several "acres". For professional and intensive use, it is better to choose more powerful petrol cutters. If the main task is lawn care, the rule is different: the lighter, the more accurately you can process the grass, and here the trimmer has an advantage.
If you plan to work with a knife, you need a braid with a straight bar. Most summer residents do not need a knife: the volumes are not the same, and the readjustment will take too long. It's another matter if you use a scythe to treat areas with powerful weeds and bushes - here you can't do without a knife. Hay for animals can only be mowed with a knife: trimming of the line in the feed is not allowed.
And the last thing you need to imagine is the annual volume of work. A petrol cutter with a simple engine can have a resource of 50-100 hours, the more complex the engine, the usually longer the resource and the entire scythe. If the volume of work per year is small (a few "hundred parts" of a vegetable garden or no more than 10 operating hours), there is little point in spending on the most modern models. If intensive exploitation is supposed (and the funds allow), then, of course, it makes sense to take the equipment at a higher level.
Battery technology has progressed so far that modern lithium-ion battery-powered trimmers can easily cut even tall and stubborn grass
A transformer is an electrical device with the help of which an alternating electrical voltage decreases or increases. Such transformers are called step-down or step-up transformers. It should be noted that there are also such devices that leave the value of the alternating voltage unchanged, they are called galvanic.
Any transformer consists of the following main parts:
The transformer has in its design two or more windings connected by inductance. They can be either wire or tape type and are always covered with an insulating layer. The windings are wound on the magnetic circuitmade of soft ferromagnetic material. The primary winding is connected to the voltage source, and the secondary winding to the load.
The general principle of operation of the device, regardless of its type and purpose, is as follows. An alternating voltage is applied to the primary winding of the device, this leads to the appearance of alternating current in it. This current, in turn, leads to the creation of an alternating magnetic field in the core, under the influence of which an alternating electromotive force (EMF) appears in the windings. When the secondary winding is connected to the load, alternating current begins to flow through it. The winding to which electricity is supplied is called primary. Second, connected to the load and consuming current, is called secondary.
Depending on the design of the device, there are:
According to the cooling method, transformers are air-cooled and liquid-cooled. In addition, devices with combined cooling, liquid-air are produced.
The main technical characteristics of devices include:
The main indicator of the device is the rated power, the unit of which is volt-ampere (VA). Low-power devices are considered to be transmitting tens of volt-amperes, medium power - hundreds, and large - up to several thousand volt-amperes.
Separately, I would like to dwell on an important parameter such as the transformation ratio. This value shows the value of the ratio between the input and output voltage and is directly proportional to the ratio of the number of turns of the corresponding windings.
Below is the text of the book, broken down by pages. The system of automatic saving of the place of the last read page allows you to conveniently read online for free the book "Smart Vegetable Garden in Details", without having to search again every time where you left off. Do not be afraid to close the page as soon as you go to it again - you will see the same place where you finished reading.
Smart vegetable garden in detail
For the kindly given opportunity
for which many thanks to him.
“There are few good books. I hope that with the advent of this one, there will be even fewer of them. "
May all and sundry grow stronger and prosper!
Those who are familiar with my past creations already know how to arrange a fruitful and beautiful garden, in which there is almost no place for struggle and hard work, and time passes, mainly, for obtaining various pleasures, such as: creativity in design beds and the formation of plants and trees, the undercut of a motley lawn, invention and the device of all new tricks that allow you to do nothing, reasonable types of plant care with anticipation, admiring the blossoming flowers and newly-appeared corners of the design, as well as pouring fruits and greens of vegetables (practically - the main pleasure for which we keep the dachas), aloof from everyday problems, friendly barbecues and even such rarities as just messing around and sleeping in broad daylight, with complete peace of mind.
In other words, this book is about success.
About five years ago I made an epoch-making discovery for myself: success is not just a centner of vegetables and fruits.
Success is to create a summer cottage that gives you constant pleasure. And vegetables, and fruits, and a sea of beauty, and all this to receive without stress and fatigue, without anxiety and routine, but with pleasure - this is success!
The discovery of the essence of success turned my life into a new, much more grateful direction.
Since then, I have been busy with constant invention, search and arrangement of my site towards an ideal state. Every year I change something, check it, compare it.
Progress towards the goal is not quick, but noticeable. This makes life pleasant: after all, the essence of happiness lies precisely in this difference - albeit not much, but today is better, more successful than yesterday!
I share this search with you. Precisely by search.
I do not give ready-made instructions, but I offer directions with examples and experience.
I do not pretend to be an integral technology - it is still far from it. I invite you to move together.
«Smart vegetable garden in detail", Unfortunately, is richer and heavier than" Smart Garden ". On the other hand, it is much fuller.
There will be more specific techniques and methods, devices and recipes. There will be a general theory and applied "philosophy" - for those who are not yet familiar with it.
Like "Smart Garden in Detail", it is better to read this book slowly, from time to time, as there are many small books.
I will do my best to make the book fun. This is another discovery of mine: the more fun a book is, the easier it is to put it into practice.
Despite the abundance of material, the book is still, first of all, about how to minimize unproductive work and add you a bit of personal freedom.
I myself am a big bummer. I take off my hat to hard work, but I am sure: this is not our way out - we are already working much more than is necessary.
It's just that our work on earth is not effective enough. A real bummer, Bummer with a capital letter, will not lift a finger until he figured out how to save himself from unnecessary work, but to get more.
What a useful quality, right?
Now, let me introduce myself:
Sometimes I have a feeling
I am Nikolai Kurdyumov, for friends and wife - Nick... My body recently celebrated its fortieth birthday, but to me myself - no more than twenty-seven.
In Timiryazevka, my wife Tatyana and I studied at the very beginning of the eighties and used to the fullest the opportunities available back then to travel through the mountains and rivers, take photographs, delve into theatrical and musical life, and never part with the guitar.
Then, three adorable kids appeared, and we got carried away by pedagogy and health systems.
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult.Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is not suitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but this is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and alternation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.
Often, when a not particularly experienced person in the field of agriculture undertakes to mow the grass, he notices that the scythe does not mow the grass, but simply crushes it. At the same time, you need to make great efforts to somehow mow the coveted area. It is also interesting that sharpening the braid does not give a significant result. The secret lies in the thickness of the cutting blade, the thinner it is, the easier it will be to mow the grass. In other words, the scythe should cut the grass like a razor. It is in order to make the blade of the scythe thinner that it is beaten off. The advantage of this method is that upon impact, the metal becomes stronger and a kind of hardening also occurs. Thus, the braid will need to be sharpened less often.
Beating the scythe is a complex and demanding operation that requires special attention and patience (a thorough beating lasts about half an hour).
The most important thing in this process is not to rush, otherwise the braid can be ruined. It often happens that after an incorrect beating off, the scythe simply breaks during work.
As for the numbers, the maximum blade can be beaten off to a width of no more than 3 mm, 1.5-2.5 mm is considered optimal. Otherwise, the braid may break during operation.
Step three: use the scythe when breaking the scythe
For those who are massively engaged in the release of braids, it will be useful to have such a device as a braid.
That, in fact, is all. After beating, the blade needs to be sharpened and after that you can start mowing the grass. If everything is done correctly, then during work it will immediately be felt that the scythe is cutting the grass, and not tearing it and crushing it, as it was before. At the same time, it will be quite easy to mow, and the grass will be mowed to the very root, of course, here a lot depends on the mower.