Long before the start of planting activities, gardeners are preparing for the upcoming struggle for the harvest, acquiring a variety of fertilizers and pest control products. This mainly applies to potatoes, since almost everyone grows it, and it is very often affected by diseases and pests (especially the Colorado potato beetle). To minimize troubles and provide themselves with a good harvest, gardeners practice preventive treatments with special means - in particular, Prestige.
Prestige, manufactured by Bayer, is an insecticidal and fungicidal agent that provides plants with reliable protection against diseases and pests throughout the growing season. Basically, pre-planting treatment of potato tubers is practiced, but the drug can also be used to protect the root systems of other plants. Prestige is effective against the Colorado potato beetle, rictoniosis, soil pests, bacterial and fungal rot. Its impact is directed at factors such as:
One application of this drug in terms of effectiveness corresponds to two treatments for pests and diseases, therefore Prestige significantly reduces both physical effort and material costs for growing potatoes.
Prestige is highly effective against the Colorado potato beetle, rictoniosis, soil pests, bacterial and fungal rot
If your site is located in close proximity to neighboring ones, all owners should carry out Prestige treatments. Otherwise, no matter how many sprays you do, pests from nearby areas will fly over and over again.
Among other things, the drug has an anti-stress effect on plants, thereby increasing their resistance to adverse environmental factors. The result of this is an increase in germination and formation of shoots, growth of deciduous mass, activation of photosynthesis processes. That is why, after processing with this agent, not only the quantity, but also the quality of the final product increases.
The active ingredients are imidacloprid (140 g / l) and pencycuron (150 g / l). The first of them penetrates into the organism of pests, paralyzing and causing death, and the second is a pesticide with a long-term protective effect.
|Active ingredient name||Chemical class||Mechanism of action||Spectrum of activity|
|Imidacloprid||Neonicotinoid||Blocking the transmission of nerve impulses at the level of the postsynaptic membrane receptor.||Homoptera, beetles (Coleoptera), thrips (Thysanoptera), lepidoptera (Lepidoptera)|
|Pencicuron||Contact pesticide||Inhibition of mycelium germination, inhibition of biosynthetic processes with the participation of sterol and free fatty acids inside fungi, reduction in the content of transport forms of glucose.||Rhizoctonia and common scab|
The fungicidal effect of the drug is maintained throughout the entire growth period, and the insecticidal protection lasts 45-60 days. The peak of the initial activity of Prestige occurs a few hours after treatment.
Release form of the drug - plastic bottles with a volume of 10 and more milliliters
The drug is sold in plastic bottles with a volume of 10 ml or more. Depending on the selected treatment method, it must be diluted in proportions of 1:10 or 1:20 (for spraying, a more concentrated solution is needed, for soaking the roots - a weaker one). On average, to spray 10 kg of potatoes, you will need up to 250 ml of solution.
The useful properties of the product are described above - it significantly reduces the cost of growing potatoes, increases yields and protects plantings from most dangerous diseases and pests. However, the drug also has significant drawbacks.
Although Prestige is a moderately hazardous substance, potatoes with residues of them may pose a health hazard
The main disadvantage of Prestige is its toxicity. Although the instruction says that the agent has a third class of toxicity, that is, it belongs to moderately dangerous, it is impossible to eat tubers in which residues of this substance have been preserved. It is also forbidden to use greens of treated plants for livestock feeding.
The peculiarity of the Prestige preparation is that its active components move up from the planting tubers, but do not go back down. This protects the young potatoes from toxic effects. After 53 days from the date of processing of the planting material, even the remains of the product are not observed in the potatoes.
According to the instructions, the poison that gets into the tubers during spraying is completely removed from them only after 50-60 days. Therefore, it is impossible to pickle early potatoes with Prestige - toxic substances simply do not have time to come out before the time of harvest. This drug is recommended only for medium and medium late varieties.
Purchase the Prestige drug only at specialized outlets and check for the presence of the established information on the label
Prestige is produced exclusively by Bayer and is sold in specialized stores.
Another feature of the Prestige is its rather high price. At the same time, keep in mind that there are a lot of fakes of dubious quality on the market, which, although they will cost an order of magnitude cheaper, will not have the proper effect. Therefore, you need to buy the drug only in trusted stores that distribute products on a legal basis. Check that the product label has an established list of information and manufacturer's instructions. All information must be indicated in the language of the state where the drug is sold.
When using Prestige, the manufacturer's instructions must be followed exactly. For areas with a large amount of wireworm, the solution is made at the maximum allowable concentration.
According to the manufacturer's instructions, Prestige can be used both for treating tubers before germination, and for pre-planting dressing and protection of the root system of seedlings. In all cases, the product should be diluted immediately before use and mixed thoroughly. It is impossible to store the ready-made solution.
When working with the drug, always observe the necessary safety measures
Since the drug is toxic, standard precautions should be followed when preparing the liquid and subsequent processing:
In case of contact with skin, eyes or mucous membranes, immediately rinse the exposed area with plenty of water. If the substance gets inside, take activated charcoal (1 tablet per 10 kg body weight) or white clay tablets and seek medical attention. The same should be done if you notice symptoms of poisoning (nausea and vomiting, dizziness and headache, rash).
The containers that you used for preparing the working fluid and for spraying should be thoroughly washed and stored in a place where children and animals cannot reach them.
If you want to process potatoes with Prestige before laying them for germination, you will need to carry out the following manipulations:
Each potato tuber must be coated with Prestige solution for at least three quarters
Spraying is carried out approximately 10-15 days before laying for germination. Before planting tubers in the ground, the etching procedure is repeated.
Before planting, the seed must be processed as follows:
Tubers should be sprayed two hours before planting in the ground. The planting material is delivered to the site in a package - this procedure helps to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and increase protection during the growth period.
Carry out the pre-planting treatment of potatoes with Prestige two hours before planting the tubers in the ground
On the packaging of the Prestige preparation it is not mentioned whether it is possible to process cut tubers with it. However, experienced gardeners strongly recommend not to do this. Use the product only for spraying intact potatoes.
Prestige can be used not only for dressing potato tubers, but also for protecting other crops. In this case, dilute 10 ml of the product in a liter of water and stir until completely dissolved. The roots of the seedlings should be dipped into this solution and left like that for 6-8 hours. After that, young seedlings must be removed and immediately, without waiting for drying, planted in a permanent place. The action of Prestige starts from the moment of processing. The active ingredients disintegrate within 30 days.
After soaking in Prestige solution, young seedlings are immediately planted in the ground
When soaking the root system, do not allow the preparation to get on the green part of the seedlings - only the roots should be in the solution.
Prestige itself is not a fertilizer - there are no trace elements in its composition that can provide plants with the substances necessary for development. The tool is intended solely for getting rid of diseases and pests, so it is pointless to use it as a top dressing. However, Prestige can be used in conjunction with other fertilizers and treatments, after having carried out a compatibility test. It is very simple to do this: take some preparations (in a 1: 1 ratio) and dilute this mixture with water. If precipitation is observed, the sharing of these funds is prohibited.
Prestige is considered compatible with most complex mineral fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides and insecticides that are used on potatoes. However, on a case-by-case basis, the chemical compatibility should be checked in the manner described above. It is also worth making sure of the appropriateness of the simultaneous use of drugs.
Good results are obtained by using Prestige together with Maxim
The combined use of Prestige and Maxim has a very good effect. The latter not only protects plants from diseases, but also strengthens their immunity, and is also a growth stimulant. Processing is carried out at the rate of 100 ml of Prestige and 70 ml of Maxim per 100 kg of potato tubers. The scheme is the same as for conventional processing - the tubers are laid out on a film and sprayed with a solution.
In order to save planting material, many gardeners practice tuberless methods of growing potatoes - in particular, from sprouts. The essence of this method is that sprouts are separated from the mother tubers and planted in small containers (for example, disposable cups), and then grown like any other seedling. You can also use peat or paper cups for rooting, placing them close to each other in a box, the bottom of which is covered with a thin layer of sand. For watering the soil in containers, use a solution of boric acid, manganese or copper sulfate (1/5 hour per 10 liters of water). When potato sprouts form good roots and form leaves, they are planted in open ground in a permanent place and looked after according to standard agricultural techniques.
There are many options for tuberless planting - for example, some gardeners wait until the sprouts take root on the potatoes, and only after that they separate them from the mother tubers. Someone uses small cups for planting, while someone prefers to lay out the sprouts in a box with earth. In general, you can choose among the planting methods the one that you like the most. The preparation of sprouts should begin 1–1.5 months before the intended planting of potatoes in a permanent place.
When growing potatoes from sprouts, it makes sense to process the tubers before laying them for germination.
How can Prestige be useful in this case? Naturally, it is not possible to carry out standard pre-planting treatment, since traditional seed material is not used for cultivation. However, since the sprouts will separate from the mother tubers before rooting, it does not hurt to process the potatoes before sprouting. This is done in the manner described above. This manipulation will help protect young shoots from decay in the early stages of rooting, and subsequently from pests.
Since potato sprouts are grown according to the same principle as seedlings, they can be additionally treated with Prestige according to the same principle before planting them in a permanent "place of residence": the roots of young seedlings are dipped into a solution for 6-8 hours (10 ml of the preparation per liter of water) , and then planted in the ground, without waiting for them to dry. In this case, it is very good to combine Prestige with complex fertilizers, since potato seedlings are deprived of the supply of nutrients that are contained in the mother tuber. For the same reason, in the future, you need to regularly feed the plants. The first feeding is carried out when young shoots reach a height of 10-18 cm, after 2-3 weeks the procedure is repeated.
It is difficult to argue with the fact that Prestige is one of the most effective means for protecting potatoes. However, due to certain circumstances, many gardeners prefer to use analogue preparations. The most popular are:
|Drug name||Manufacturer||What pests is effective against||Method of use||Hazard Class||Compatibility with other drugs|
|Mospilan||Nippon Soda Co., Ltd (Japan)||Bed bugs, Colorado potato beetle, aphids, greenhouse whitefly, scale insect||The content of one package (2.5 g) is enough to process 8-10 acres [E1]||III The drug is not phytotoxic. Low toxicity for warm-blooded animals||Compatible with most insecticides and pesticides|
|Confidor||Bayer CropScience||Aphids, scale insects, thrips, mealybugs, Colorado potato beetle||Working solution of the preparation: 2 g per 10 l of water||III Moderately toxic for warm-blooded||Compatible with most pesticides and growth regulators|
|Actellic||Syngenta Crop Protection AG (Switzerland)||Complex of leaf-eating and sucking insect pests||Spraying with working solution according to the attached instructions||II Toxic to humans, birds and mammals||Compatible in tank mixes with almost all insecticides and fungicides|
|Aktara||Syngenta Crop Protection AG (Switzerland)||Most pests||Spraying with working solution according to the attached instructions||III Not phytotoxic. Dangerous for bees||Compatible with most insecticides and pesticides, except for drugs with an alkaline reaction|
|Commander||Commercial and industrial company Tekhnoexport (Russia)||Thrips, aphids, Colorado potato beetle, wireworm and other soil pests, cereal flies and other pests - dipterans, cruciferous pests, leaf flies, whiteflies, bugs, etc.||Spraying with working solution according to the attached instructions||III Is harmful to bees. Low toxicity for warm-blooded animals||Compatible with most insecticides and pesticides, excluding alkaline preparations|
|Tanrek||CJSC Firm "August" (Russia)||Colorado potato beetle, aphid, whitefly||Working solution of the preparation: 1 ml per 10 l of water||III Toxic to bees, birds and earthworms||Can be combined in tank mixes with fungicides Skor, Thanos, Topaz, Horus, tick repellents (Omite, Arrivo, Bi-58 new). Simultaneous use with Fitosporin is allowed. Incompatible with products with a strongly alkaline or strongly acidic reaction|
Treatment with all of the above drugs should be carried out in compliance with the necessary safety measures. Spraying should be carried out in calm and cloudy weather. When preparing the working fluid, you must strictly follow the attached instructions. It is unacceptable to exceed the concentration set by the manufacturer.
A good alternative to pesticides are non-toxic drugs - for example, Aktofit. This drug is a biological insectoacaricide that does not accumulate in the soil and plants themselves and does not harm people, animals, bees and earthworms. Effective against ticks, thrips, cabbage whites and other similar pests.
Biological product Aktofit is a worthy substitute for toxic agents for potato processing
Against the Colorado potato beetle, Aktofit is combined with another biological product - Bitoxibacillin. Before planting, potatoes are moistened in a solution, and then processed 2-3 more times per season. Since the substances are not toxic, they do not accumulate in the soil and parts of plants, treatments can be carried out at any time. The solution should be prepared according to the instructions.
Many people prefer not to use purchased drugs at all, dispensing with "old-fashioned" methods, that is, treating the tubers before planting with wood ash, a solution of manganese or boric acid. All these methods give good results and are completely harmless.
Applying Prestige is a very effective method of dealing with pests and dangerous diseases. If you do not violate the instructions for use of the product, the risk of harm to health is minimized. However, experienced gardeners still recommend using folk methods, using "chemistry" only if other methods do not work.
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Everyone knows that pests in the garden and in the garden greatly reduce the quantity and quality of the crop. And than just not have to fight with them. Wood ash, birch tar are used. But when even fitoverm does not help, one has to resort to "heavy artillery", using Intavir for processing. Of course, you don't want to poison planting vegetables with chemistry, but sometimes you have to. The main thing is that there is less harm from its use, it is necessary to apply it correctly, observing the exact dosages, and keeping the waiting times.
The effectiveness of its use is marked by numerous positive reviews, although there are also negative reviews. I also like it, I especially have to use it in dry weather, when the cruciferous flea, literally bathing in the ash, still begins to devour young cabbage leaves.
Today I will tell you how to use Intavir correctly, and you yourself make a conclusion whether you need to use this agent in the fight against insect pests or not.
Birch tar is made from birch bark by heating in special sealed containers. The output is an oily viscous mass of dark brown, almost black color, with a pungent characteristic odor. This is just what you need to repel pests in the garden and in the garden. It is used in almost all crops that need protection from insects. These are onions, carrots, all cruciferous and nightshade crops. They can water young seedlings of annual flowers planted in open ground, as well as shrubs and fruit trees.
When using a solution for plant protection, it is necessary to consider some points.
Tar soap can also be used in pest control, but it is not as aromatic as the tar itself. And if you use it, then you need to take much more, which is not entirely economical.
Our ancestors knew a lot about agriculture, and folk recipes always came to the rescue. They are used both to increase yields and to prevent various diseases. To process the seed material, a solution of copper sulfate is used, in some cases, simple potassium permanganate helps, brings positive results and "dusting" with ash. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the following drugs has long been tested:
The drug is used to prevent the appearance of rot, and it is used both before planting potato seeds in the ground, and to ensure long-term storage. The uniqueness of the drug lies in the fact that the main active ingredient (fludioxonil) is of exclusively natural origin. This is a kind of analogue of antibiotics, while the substance that prevents the occurrence of rot is secreted by soil bacteria.
In this case, we are talking about a systemic dressing agent used to treat seed. The drug provides comprehensive protection of potato seeds from surface pests and crop enemies living in the depths of the soil. Insecticide Cruiser, the main active ingredient of which is thiamethoxam, prevents the appearance of the Colorado potato beetle, corn beetle, various flea beetles and other crop pests. Plus, it can be mixed with other micro-additives and pesticides.
This is a fungicide from the group of strobilurins, the main feature of which is a long exposure period and effective prevention and treatment of fungal diseases of potatoes. Under the influence of the drug, fungal spores are destroyed, while Fungicide Quadris can be called universal, since it is used both for processing vegetables and for protecting grapes, it is also a good remedy for garden lawns.
This is a combined seed potato and wheat seed dressing agent that is ideal for preventing many diseases and pests. The main active ingredient of the drug is thiamethoxam, and among the diseases that SELEST TOP can cope with, one can distinguish silver scab, fusarium, formose, anthracnose and other diseases. Among the pests, the impact on pests such as wireworm, Colorado potato beetle and aphids can be distinguished. By using the preparation, you can achieve a stable harvest.
This is a preparation intended for the comprehensive protection of potato seeds, vineyards, a number of vegetable and fruit crops from the invasion of caterpillars, coleopteran beetles, including the Colorado potato beetle; it also prevents the appearance of some dipterans. The active ingredients of the insecticide are thiamethoxam and chloranthraniliprol, which, when entering the body of insects, block their nervous system of pests, which leads to their death.
The new granular insecticide is designed to effectively protect potato and onion seeds from wireworms, larvae and adults of other insect pests. While being a deadly danger for the wireworm, the drug, meanwhile, is absolutely safe for the future harvest. The death of pests occurs within 10-30 minutes after contact with the drug.
This insecticide is designed to protect the future potato crop from a variety of pests. The drug, applied directly to the soil, retains its effectiveness for 2 months, and when sprayed on the surface, the effect lasts for 4 weeks, maximum. Pests that encounter it stop feeding after 30 minutes, and death occurs within a day.
The Prestige treater is used to organize an effective fight against the main pest of potatoes - the Colorado potato beetle, although it is indispensable in the fight against other pests. It is used, in particular, to combat the bear, wireworm, aphids, moths and other troubles. The drug is introduced only once before planting, while it acts throughout the entire ripening of potatoes.
Recently, more and more often we hear about the use of everything natural, for this very reason gardeners turn to proven folk remedies for crop protection. One of them is wood ash, which is rich in potassium and phosphorus. Wood ash helps to lower the acidity level, while the roots will be more starchy, and the yield is increased. Ash wakes up before planting seed material, at the rate of 1 kg of fertilizer per bag of potatoes.
For some time now, potassium permanganate has become difficult to obtain and is even sold according to recipes, meanwhile, it is an ideal fertilizer that has been used by not a single generation of gardeners. Although it is believed that potassium permanganate is harmless to humans, it is not advisable to use it constantly and in large quantities. Meanwhile, having prepared the "correct" solution, which is 1 gram of potassium permanganate per glass of water, you can protect potato seeds from late blight and other pathogenic fungi. To do this, it is enough to keep the seed in a solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes.
Ammonia, or ammonia, is 82% nitrogen, but if a certain period of time must pass for nitrogen to be released from manure, then nitrogen is released from ammonia immediately. The fact that the time has come to use fertilizing in the form of ammonia is indicated by the yellow foliage and thin stems of the plant. According to experienced gardeners, ammonia not only contributes to accelerated plant growth, but also is a good means of pest control.
Boric acid is an indispensable "medicine" for potatoes, and this statement is based on the fact that the preparation contains a large amount of boron. This substance promotes the synthesis of nitrogenous substances and an increase in the content of chlorophyll in the leaves. Its use helps to increase the number of ovaries, boric acid helps in the fight against ants and other harmful insects.
BO3H3 is a boron chemical compound that is easily assimilated by plants, known as boric acid, and is widely and successfully used in garden plots. It is a white, odorless powder and is sold separately or in complex dressings at any gardening store.
The influence that boric acid has in the garden is not exaggerated. It has been experimentally proven that due to the introduction into the soil:
The use of boric acid in the garden improves the assimilation of nitrogen, thereby increasing yields and resistance of crops to frost and drought by 25%.
Boric acid is introduced in the garden throughout the entire vegetative process, since it is not transmitted from the grown stems to young ones and constantly requires renewal. Plants on swampy soils with a high carbonate content are especially in need of boron. Also, the element is necessary in the soil with high acidity after its deoxidation with lime or other alkaline substances.
Signs of excess boron on cucumbers
The use of boric acid in the garden is safe in strictly specified proportions, but with its excess in the soil, plants burn the lower leaf plates, the edges of which turn yellow and die off.
Boron must be dissolved with hot water. After the solution is diluted with cold water to the required amount.
The element is used not only as a fertilizer, but also as a stimulant.To accelerate growth, seeds are soaked in 0.2 g of boron, diluted in 1 liter of water. The seeds of tomatoes, beets, onions and carrots are left for 24 hours, cucumbers, cabbage, zucchini - for 12 hours. If there are a lot of seeds, sprinkle them with boron and talcum powder (1: 1).
To prevent boron deficiency in the soil during pre-sowing preparation, the beds are watered with boron solution (1 liter per 1 sq. M.), Loosened and sowed.
Foliar feeding of tomatoes with boric acid
For spraying in the summer, use a spray that forms a foggy cloud. Foliar dressing is carried out on both sides of the leaf only in the evening or in cloudy weather. For best results, add 1-2 grams of manganese.
Root irrigation (on average - 0.2 g of boron per 1 liter of water) is carried out only with an obvious boron deficiency. Before irrigation with bromine, the plant is watered with water to avoid root burn. This procedure is effective on sod-podzolic soils or sandy-peat soil.
In different garden crops, the lack of one or another element is manifested in different ways. For each plant grown under certain conditions, a strict dosage must be observed so as not to destroy the plant. For feeding with boron, if there are signs of shortage, watering with a solution is used, and for prevention, only spraying.
The lack of boron in a tomato is expressed in the following symptoms:
Foliar feeding of tomatoes with boric acid (10 g of boron per 10 l of water) is carried out during the ovary and at the stage of formed green fruits to improve taste and stimulate rapid growth.
Fertilizing tomatoes with boric acid can be carried out at the stage of the fourth leaf with a mixture of 0.5 g of boron, 10 g of superphosphate and 8 g of potassium chloride per 10 liters of water. On average, this amount of mixture is enough for 200 bushes.
Processing tomatoes with boric acid and iodine is suitable for protection against late blight from June 15. Dry leaves are sprayed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate after 7 days - with boric solution (1 g per 10 l of water), and a week later - with a weak 1% iodine solution.
Preventive treatment of tomatoes with boric acid in the greenhouse is carried out once a month by spraying with boric acid. For a 10-liter bucket, take 2 g. Boric acid can be replaced with Borax. If signs of boron deficiency are found, the treatment is carried out with a more can-centered solution - 10 g of boron per 10 liters of water.
Boron deficiency in cucumbers can be recognized by the following:
Foliar feeding of cucumbers with boric acid is carried out three times during the growing season with complex fertilizers: Kelkat Bora, Bor-Mag, Green Belt - according to the instructions.
Spraying with a mixture of 5 g of boric acid and 2 g of manganese sulfate outdoors at intervals of 14 days prevents the ovaries from falling off and increases the yield. In greenhouses, such processing of cucumbers with boric acid is carried out twice a month.
To increase the fruiting time at the flowering stage, cucumbers are sprayed with a mixture of 0.5% potassium chloride, 5% superphosphate, 0.1% magnesium sulfate and 0.03% boron in equal proportions.
Boron deficiency in cabbage is manifested in the formation of a hollow head of cabbage. In color, you can observe such signs as:
Fertilizing cabbage with boric acid with manganese sulfate is carried out three times: during the formation of buds, during flowering (if there are 5 leaves) and fruiting (10 g of manganese sulfate and 1 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water). Boron makes the pump more dense and increases the yield.
Top dressing of cauliflower with boric acid and molybdenum (2.5 g per 1 liter of water) is carried out at the stage of 4 leaves to accelerate the maturation of the heads for a week.
The lack of boron in pepper is manifested in the following signs:
Fertilization of pepper with boric acid is carried out three times during the growing season and only on moist soil in a proportion of 0.1 g per 1 liter of water.
Boron deficiency in sugar beets is expressed in the development of apical ulcers and heart rot (gray rot from the inside of the fruit). The dining room has internal wormholes with the smell of putrefaction.
Rot of the heart of sugar beet with a lack of boron
Feeding beets with boric acid is carried out 2 weeks after the first fertilization at the 5-leaf stage with a solution of 1 g per 10 l of water. To strengthen the leaf plate, spray with a mixture of 15 g of potassium chloride, 5 g of boric acid and 1 tbsp. l urea (carbamide).
The competent use of boric acid in the garden will accelerate the ripening of fruits, improve their taste and protect against diseases. Having determined the lack of boron from the photo and the description of external signs on the plants, you will be able to start applying fertilizers in a timely manner and save the crop from death.
Prevention of parasites from trees is carried out by spraying certain drugs down the barrel, which, when hit on a pest or larva, destroys them.
This prophylaxis is the most effective means of killing and preventing parasitic insects.
Another way to treat trees is biological agents. When using biological agents, the parasite does not die instantly, but in the interval from three days to two weeks.
We will help you deal with the choice
garden shredders Hammer. Review of power tools from the brand Hammer, reviews of the tool on the website: HM-Tools.Ru
For the processing of trees used the most effective way of getting rid and prevention is spraying... However, it is important to remember that the result of prevention will be after duplication of treatment during the vegetative period.
Correct processing will bring a high yield. Do not treat chopped potatoes with the product.
Skrinnikova Natalia Andreevna 1
1MBOU "School No. 8 of the city of Vyborg"
1MBOU "School No. 8 of the city of Vyborg"
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As you know, one million tons of finished sunflower oil accounts for about 300 thousand tons of fibrous waste. According to the researchers, the use of secondary food products, such as the husk of sunflower seeds, will reduce their accumulation, which will be relevant in developed countries, and create composite environmentally friendly materials to be used in construction.
Turkish researchers believe that the husk of sunflower seed, which is a by-product in the production of edible oil, can be used as an environmentally friendly filler in the manufacture of concrete, but I suppose that in our country it is more relevant to produce chipboard (particle board), as chipboard - the most common material in the manufacture of furniture and interior decoration. In connection with this, a goal was set and the following tasks were identified:
Purpose: make chipboard based on sunflower seed husk and study its physical characteristics.
find out possible ways to make chipboard at home
to make chipboard based on sunflower seed husk
make chipboard based on sawdust
compare the physical characteristics of the created copies of chipboard.
I. Main part
The role of the sunflower in our time
Sunflowers are valued not only for the kernels that are used to make vegetable oil, but also by-products formed during the processing of seeds are widely used: baskets, meal, cake, sunflower husks.
The husk is separated during the preparation of sunflower seeds for the extraction of oil during the hulling process, the meal - during the extraction of oil by extraction, and cake is formed if the oil is obtained by pressing.
This sunflower waste, due to its high protein and vitamin content, is considered one of the most valuable and relatively cheap feed for farm animals.
When separating sunflower kernels at oil presses, a large amount of husk is formed - about 14% of the total amount of seeds. It is costly and difficult to dispose of it in such volumes. Fortunately, there are now several options for the profitable disposal of sunflower husks:
Construction is one of the most important sectors of the domestic economy. Its state largely determines the level of development of society and its productive forces.
In this connection, I consider the possibility of using sunflower husks in construction to be one of the most profitable options for the disposal of sunflower husks.
For example, Turkish researchers have found that the use of husks reduces the density of concrete and helps to increase the resistance of the material with sharp temperature changes from minus to plus and in the opposite direction.
Chipboard is a sheet composite material made by hot pressing of wood particles, mainly shavings, mixed with a binder of non-mineral origin with the introduction, if necessary, of special additives in continuous tape, caterpillar or extrusion units.
Particleboard was created in the 1940s by German inventor and Luftwaffe fighter pilot Max Himmelheber as an alternative to plywood, which at the time became difficult to produce due to wood shortages. The first commercial prototype was made in a factory in Bremen during World War II.
Currently, they are widely used for the manufacture of cabinet, upholstered and other furniture, building elements, cars and in the production of packaging.
Making chipboard at home
The production of wood-based panels can be carried out on a small scale of production or subsidiary farming. The main limitation is the size of the resulting slabs - no more than 50 × 50 cm.
Manufacturing technology is a miniaturized industrial process in which automatic stages are replaced by manual labor:
PVA-M glue and wood glue will be used as a binder in the work.
II. Design part
In the work, the chipboard manufacturing technology described above was used, but the stage of hot pressing of the billet was skipped due to the lack of special equipment. After shaping under pressure, the product is air-dried.
Since the product being created did not fully comply with the chipboard manufacturing technology at factories, in order to compare the properties of the standard and created chipboard, chipboard was made from a mixture of sawdust (pine 85% and spruce 15%) according to the technology described above.
Description of the stages of work
The description of the stages of work is carried out simultaneously, the description of the chipboard made of husk is shown on the left side (figures with the letter "a"), the description of the chipboard made of sawdust is shown on the right side (figures with the letter "b").
Stage 1. Preparation of the mixture.
|Fig. 1 "a". Husk of sunflower seeds||Fig. 1 "b". Sawdust mixture (85% pine, 15% spruce)|
Stage 2. Adding a binder and mixing the mixture.
|Fig. 2 "a". Mixing husk with PVA-M glue||Fig. 2 "b". Mixing a mixture of sawdust with PVA-M glue|
Since PVA-M glue is not moisture resistant, and the central part of the product did not dry well, it was decided to make another piece of chipboard, using quick-drying moisture-resistant wood glue as a binder.
|Fig. 3 "a". Mixing husk with wood glue||Fig. 3 "b". Mixing a mixture of sawdust with wood glue|
Stage 3. Shaping under pressure.
|Fig. 4 "a". Compressed product from seed husks||Fig. 4 "b". Compressed product from a mixture of sawdust|
Stage 4. Air drying.
|Fig. 5 "a". Air drying of seed husk product||Fig. 5 B". Air drying of a product from a mixture of sawdust|
Since the glue cannot dry without air, it was necessary to open the package and remove the press. Due to the lack of a press, the manufactured product increased slightly in width (1-2 mm), but this did not affect its physical characteristics.
Stage 5. Coating with an additional layer of glue.
|Fig. 6 "a". Coating with a layer of glue chipboard made of husk (d.v. - PVA-M glue)|
|Fig. 7 "a". Coating with a layer of glue chipboard made of husk (d.v. - joiner's glue)|
When removing the packaging from the manufactured product, the surface layer of glue was removed from the seed husks. To prevent the surface shells from peeling off, an additional layer of glue was applied. After drying, he created a thin transparent film that smoothes the surface of the product. The product created from the sawdust mixture did not require an additional layer of glue due to the fine size of the sawdust.
Stage 6. Trimming the edges.
|Fig. 8 "a". Chipboard from seed husks. Front view||Fig. 8 "b". Chipboard made from a mixture of sawdust. Front view|
|Fig. 9 "a". Chipboard from seed husks. Side view||Fig. 9 "b". Chipboard made from a mixture of sawdust. Side view|
Due to the lack of special technical equipment, the width of the products is slightly different, but this does not have a strong effect on the physical characteristics of the chipboard. Approximate width:
Physical characteristics of manufactured chipboards.
The manufactured chipboards were tested for the following physical characteristics:
By the weight of the item, 1 and 2 copies, 3 and 4 copies were compared.
The processed data are presented in table 1.
Table # 1. Physical characteristics of manufactured chipboards.
|№ Instance||Product strength||Product weight compared to another piece||Moisture resistance and buoyancy|
|1||Strong||Easier||Not moisture resistant|
|2||Strong||Heavier||Not moisture resistant|
Instance 3 is larger than instance 4, but mass 3 is still less than 4
Instances 1 and 2 float, float when immersed in water, but lose their strength, since PVA-M glue is water-soluble. They take their original form (strength) after prolonged drying
Instances 3 and 4 float, when immersed in water they float, they did not lose their strength after contact with water, drying is not required.
(Photos of moisture resistance and buoyancy are presented in Appendix # 2).
In the course of the work done:
The literature on this topic has been studied
Chipboard is made on the basis of husk from sunflower seeds of two types: binder PVA-M glue and wood glue
Chipboard was made on the basis of two types of sawdust: a binder PVA-M glue and wood glue
A comparative table of the physical characteristics of the created copies is given (Table 1).
I believe that using the husk from sunflower seeds as a material for the production of chipboard is more profitable and more relevant than a mixture of sawdust, since:
Wood is used almost everywhere and always, so using seed husks instead of sawdust can reduce the impact on the environment.
Due to the semicircular shape, the husks from sunflower seeds are stronger than sawdust (when comparing husks and sawdust of the same size)
A product based on hulls is much lighter than a product based on a mixture of sawdust, and this physical characteristic is important in production
Although chipboard based on husks is lighter than chipboard based on a mixture of sawdust, the strength of both copies is the same.
Thus, in the course of this work, the set goals were achieved and the corresponding tasks were solved. The relevance of the work is substantiated.
IV. List of sources used