The roof is one of the basic elements of any home. Therefore, it is important that its type corresponds to the design features of the dwelling, creates comfortable living conditions, reliably protects from bad weather and at the same time looks aesthetically pleasing. The semi-hip roof has become widespread today. Despite the apparent complexity, it is quite possible to build it yourself.
The semi-hip roof has two or four slopes. The hip (end slope) can be a triangle or a trapezoid. Pediments also come in the form of these shapes. The side slopes are trapezoidal. If in the hip roof the hips are triangles and reach the eaves, then in the half-hip roof they are combined with pediments of a different shape. A half-hip roof is created in cases where the area of the required room cannot be entered into a triangular shape.
The hip roof limits the use of the attic space to the sloping triangular shape of the ramps
Distinguish between a gable and a four-pitched half-hip roof.
The Dutch roof creates the ideal conditions for arranging the attic
The semi-hip Danish hipped roof differs from the Dutch gable in the number of slopes, the shape and placement of the hips
The basis of the calculation is: calculation of the area, the angle of inclination of the roof and its height, the pitch of the rafters, the consumption of the roofing material.
It is quite easy to calculate the area of a half-hip roof. We divide the roof into separate geometric shapes, calculate their area and summarize the data obtained.
To calculate the area, roof slopes are broken into simple geometric shapes.
The area of a four-pitched half-hip roof is calculated using the formulas for the area of a trapezoid, rectangle and right-angled triangles
The amount of slope affects the complexity of the roof. With its increase, the design becomes more complex, and the cost - more. Here it is necessary to take into account the wind and snow load. If the place is windy, then the slope must be made smaller, as this reduces the resistance of the roof to the wind. In practice, the slope should be no more than 30 °.
With a significant snow load, we increase the slope so that the snow does not linger on the roof. In general, the angle of inclination varies between 20 ° and 45 °. The choice of slope is also influenced by the convenience of movement in the attic space, especially for attic roofs.
The choice of roofing material is also important. Its appearance affects the slope. Roll materials are used for flat and low-slope roofs (up to 22 °). Bituminous roofs and folded metal sheets are laid both on flat (from 2.5 to 3 °) and on low and steep roofs. Other types of roofing materials are suitable only for low-slope and steep-slope roofs: fiber cement sheets, corrugated board, seam roofing (from 4.5 °), metal tiles, bituminous tiles, ceramic tiles, slate (from 22 °), high-profile piece tiles and slate ( from 22-25 °). In the diagram, these corners are indicated in blue.
In some cases, in particular when arranging the lower roof or an additional layer of waterproofing, the permissible angles can be changed, their range is expanded. The additional range is indicated in the diagram in red.
For special types of roofing, the permissible slope angle can be increased
Knowing the angle of inclination, it is not difficult to calculate the height of the skate. This is done according to the formula h = b: 2 x tgА, where b is the width of the house, A is the slope of the slope, h is the height of the ridge. Example: the width of the house is 10 m, the slope of the slope is 30 °. The tangent of an angle of 30 degrees is 0.58. Then the height of the ridge is determined as follows: h = 10: 2 x 0.58, which is equal to 8.62 m.
The step is the distance between two adjacent rafters. Most often it is equal to 1 m.The minimum value is 60 cm. The specific value of the step is calculated by a certain sequence of actions:
Example: approximate step - 1 m; roof height in the ridge - 10 m; hip base - 13.26 m; half of the base of the hip - 6.63 m. 102 + 6,632 = 144 m (rounded). The square root of 144 m is 12 m. Thus, the length of the ramp is 12 m. We divide the length of the ramp by the approximately selected step size (12: 1 = 12 m). Add 1 to the resulting number (12 + 1 = 13 m). Divide the length of the slope (12 m) by the resulting number (13 m). The result is 0.92 m (rounded). We get the optimal value of the step of the rafters.
However, if the thickness of the rafter legs is more than usual, then the distance between the rafters can be made larger.
|Distance between rafters in meters||Maximum length of a rafter leg in meters|
The calculation is carried out after the installation of the rafters. It should be taken into account that the amount of material should always be greater than the roof area, since its consumption is increased by hydro, steam, and thermal insulation, as well as the method of laying - overlapping. In addition, additional elements play a role. Some materials require the installation of additional crate. This applies, for example, to roof tiles on a soft base.
Losses of material are also possible due to the presence of trapezoidal and triangular slopes. They can be around 30%. The solution would be to use bituminous tiles or piece material.
An example of material calculation in the manufacture of slate roofing:
The calculation of the roofing material is carried out using simple mathematical operations.
An example of calculating the material for the manufacture of roofing from metal tiles:
For example, the optimal dimensions of a sheet of metal tiles are: width from 1.16 to 1.19 m, length - 4.5 m. The overlaps are 6–8 cm. The useful dimensions of the sheet are determined by subtracting the overlaps from the total dimensions. We take 0.07 m as an average.Then the width will be 1.10 m (1.17 - 0.07), and the length - 4.43 m (4.50 - 0.07). The useful area of the sheet will be 4.873 square meters (1.10 x 4.43). Roof area - 26.7 sq.m. When multiplied by a factor of 1.1 - 29.37 sq. M. The number of sheets is 7 (29.37: 4.87). The exact value is 6.03, but round up.
A roofing pie is made in the same way as for any pitched roof. Its device does not depend on the type of roof, but on the insulation and coating material. Insulation must be present, especially if a residential mansard roof is being made.
A roofing cake consists of the following components:
The reliability of the roofing pie of the roof depends on the availability and quality of all its elements.
If the roofing cake is presented in cross section, then it will look like this:
Warmth and comfort in the attic depends on the observance of the technology of installation of the roofing pie
The rafter system is the frame of the entire roof. It rests on the load-bearing walls of the building, and hydro- and vapor barrier, thermal insulation, and roofing material are mounted on it. Rafters are hanging and layered. Inclined ones are based on a ridge, a Mauerlat and intermediate supports, which can be internal load-bearing walls, support posts made of timber, mounted on floor beams. Hanging rafters have no intermediate supports. In the rafter system of a half-hip roof, both types of rafters can be used. If there are no internal walls and it is impossible to put supports for the ridge device, then the hanging method is used. When supports can be installed and there is an internal load-bearing wall, a layered system is used.
The constituent parts of the rafter system are:
Rafters are the most important elements of the roof rafter system.
In a house with an attic, the upper floor has a smaller area. This is due to the roof slopes. Therefore, such a structure is often called a "house for one and a half floors." Most often, the attic is equipped under a gable (Dutch) roof, since there is more space for living quarters there. Above the ceiling of the attic, an attic is made with dormer windows for lighting and ventilation. In this case, the ceiling is beveled only in two places, which makes the attic more convenient. In addition, the Dutch roof is distinguished by the presence of vertical gables into which windows can be installed, which is cheaper than installing sloped windows. When arranging the roof rafter system, layered rafters are used. This gives strength and increases the reliability of the entire system. Vertical walls can also be created in the attic. Then the rafter system is complemented by vertical partitions.
A feature of the Dutch-type semi-hip roof device is a short hip, which is formed by installing a horizontal crossbar between the ordinary rafters, called a "hole" (support board). If in addition to the ridge run in the rafter system there are two lateral parallel to it, then the hole rests on them.
Ways to strengthen the rafter system:
The rafter system of the attic roof can be steel, wood, combined. For private construction with a small number of floors, wood is more often used. The Mauerlat is made of 10x10 cm or 10x15 cm timber. For the manufacture of rafters, crossbars, side girders, tightening, struts, a 5x15 cm board is used. The moisture content of the wood should be natural (15%). The 1-3rd grade of conifers is selected without deep cracks and numerous knots. All wooden parts are treated with an antiseptic, as well as an anti-fire compound. Compliance with all technical conditions when selecting wood is mandatory, since the attic is a living space.
The distinctive elements of the Dutch roof truss system are a short hip, a hole, a shorty and a truss truss
There are a lot of roofing materials on the modern market. Let's consider some of them.
Soft tiles are made of fiberglass or felt treated with modified bitumen. It is resistant to changes in ambient temperature. On top, a coating is applied, consisting of basalt granulate or mineral chips. This gives the material color and protects from ultraviolet radiation, precipitation, temperature changes.
The dimensions of the elements of soft tiles avoid a large amount of waste of roofing material
Benefits of soft tiles:
Ondulin is a type of soft roof. It is also called euro slate. In the production process, fibrous cellulose impregnated with purified bitumen is pressed at high temperature. Pigments and resin protect against negative external influences. Environmentally friendly. The composition of the material, unlike conventional tiles, does not include asbestos.
Ondulin has a beautiful appearance and good performance
Pros of ondulin:
Cons of using:
Metal tile is a sheet of metal made in the form of a tile. This sheet has protective layers. The upper one is polymer.
The metal tile has durability and the ability to quickly install
If the issues of noise and heat insulation are solved due to the heat-insulating layer, then the inefficiency of installation with a complex roof profile is difficult to bypass.
Slate (asbestos) is made from sheet asbestos cement and other fiber-cement materials. It can be flat and wavy. To cover houses, wave is more often used.
Slate is an excellent material for budget-conscious developers.
Advantages of slate:
Profiled sheeting is a sheet of galvanized steel sheet produced by cold rolling. Such a sheet is profiled and for rigidity it is given a wave or trapezoidal shape. The material used for the roof is coated with a polymer coating in order to protect it from corrosion and give it an aesthetic appearance. Roofing corrugated board has a wave height of 35 mm.
Decking combines high quality and reasonable price
Advantages of a corrugated roof:
Cons of coverage:
The choice of material for the roof always remains with the developer. Here it is necessary to take into account the financial possibilities, is it planned to arrange the attic, aesthetic preferences. The impact of roof imperfections with skillful use can be reduced. So, the correct arrangement of the roofing pie can remove the problem of poor sound insulation of metal tiles and corrugated board. However, from the point of view of saving material, it is better to use a soft roof or ondulin, since, due to the complex profile of a half-hip roof, it is more rational to use materials with small sheet dimensions.
Complementary elements are called standard components used in the installation of the roof. Their tasks are to protect the roof from leaks, sudden convergence of large masses of snow, wind, dust and improve the appearance of the roof:
Skates increase the protection of the roof from dust and moisture
Installation of snow guards is mandatory for areas with cold climates
The valleys provide additional moisture protection for the roof
Chimney gaskets are a necessary element of the roof of a house with stove heating.
Ebb tides are used in the construction of any house
The chimney is necessary for the normal operation of the ventilation and heating systems of the house.
Without roof slats, the roof is vulnerable to external influences
The main feature in the arrangement of a half-hip roof is the installation of its rafter system. Let's consider step by step how it is produced.
Mauerlat is the basis of the roof truss system
The upper ends of the rafters are glued to the ridge beam
Rafters are the main part of the rafter system
The length of the upper edge of the pediment is the initial value for calculating the distance between it and the extreme rafter
Pre-marking plays an important role in the quality installation of the side rafters
It is important to keep the side rafter blank in the correct position
The side plane of ordinary rafters is an important element when marking the upper cut of the corner rafter
Accuracy in measurements is essential for the quality manufacture of the corner rafter
Distance measured on the top cut helps in marking the bottom cut
Sawing off the workpiece completes the production of the side rafter
Reliable fastening of the corner rafter is the basis for the reliability of the future structure
The marking of the central corner rafter is done at the point of its articulation with the Mauerlat
Stretched lace for accurate markings
The upper cut of the half-hip rafters forms a "beta" angle
The "psi" angle is formed by two rafters
Compliance with the exact values of the angles of the sawn down ensures high-quality production of rafters
When measuring the distance between the edge of the saw and the end of the rafter, the measurement lines should form a rectangle
Accurate use of measurements of the width of the cornice and previously made rafter elements allow you to get a high-quality average rafter
Installation of rafters, half-hips and rafters is an important stage in the arrangement of the rafter system
In the manufacture of stingrays, the data of stingrays is used.
Gable cornice filly are mounted first
Wind planks protect the attic space from blowing
Build-up of corner rafters significantly increases their resistance to stress
Installation of heat, hydro, vapor insulation, as well as roofing is similar to other types of pitched roofs.
The semi-hip roof, made of modern materials in compliance with the technological conditions for arranging the rafter system, thermal insulation, steam and waterproofing, creates the possibility of multivariate use, ensures long-term operation without additional repairs and allows you to create comfortable conditions for living and working.
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Gazebos have recently become a very frequent occurrence in suburban areas and summer cottages. What kind of forms for their buildings the owners do not come up with in order to organize a comfortable resting place. If there is no desire and means to build an unusual gazebo, there is a classic version in the form of a square or rectangle. The structure is quite simple to build thanks to the uncomplicated roof. We will now talk about how to make a hipped roof for a square and rectangular gazebo with our own hands.
At the design stage, you should choose the right roof structure, based on the shape of the house and its purpose. Roofs are divided into types, which differ in the number of hips and slopes. The main types of roofs that are in modern construction:
Mono-pitched - simplicity of construction and comparative low cost of implementation makes this type of roof popular. Used for outbuildings, warehouses and garages. Rarely - for a private house.
Gable - the classic version of the roof, which consists of two parts. It makes it possible to equip an attic.
Flat - it is used mainly in the climatic zone, where a small amount of precipitation is foreseen. Otherwise, water will accumulate on the roof surface and flow into the house.
Hip roof - it is also called four-slope. It features a complex design and high performance characteristics.
Half-hip, the Danish roof can be gable (mansard) or hipped roof.
Tent - a kind of hip roof for private houses, resembles a tent in design. Differs in ease of installation and high functionality.
Multi-pliers - consists of tongs, many valleys, gables and blocks. Provides a natural drainage of rain and melt water.
Dome or conical the roof is used mainly on round and multi-faceted buildings.
Complex roofs - are installed in private houses on two floors with outbuildings and utility rooms. Installation of such a roof can only be done by experienced professionals.
Attention: Collapsible bench (Scheme 1 (b))
If a bench in the shape of a quarter or a semicircle will be located around a tree, detachable backrests will be required for individual modules, which are easy to dismantle. To solve this problem, two holes are drilled in the cross member of the backrest and in the plywood headband of the seat module, into which bolts with a wing nut are screwed. Slats are inserted into the slots between the legs of the back and the bench - they work as a spacer and provide a stable position for the back.
4. In the crossbars, according to the marking, blind holes with a diameter of 10 mm are made (using a Forstner drill), and then the holes are drilled with a six-millimeter twist drill
5. Crossbars and posts are fastened with waterproof wood glue. When it grabs, bolts are screwed into the six-millimeter holes to the very bottom of the ten-millimeter blind holes
6. Blind holes are closed with wooden dowels. The dowels are planted on waterproof wood glue. All fasteners must match the holes and each other
7. As soon as the glue hardens, the projections of the wooden dowels are cut off with a chisel. Slices are cleaned and polished so that the surface of the bar turns out to be even, and the keys are invisible
8. Exactly at a distance of 30 cm from the base of the back legs and 2 cm from the edge of the bar, drill holes for the bolts. After that, with the help of glue and bolts, the lower crossbar of the back is attached. In the future, the crossbar is connected to the bench.
9. The leg and crossbar of the bench are glued together and tightened with a clamp, which is removed when the composition hardens
10. As soon as the glue hardens, the joint is fixed with two screws, which are screwed in diagonally
11. A rectangle is cut out of the laminated plywood to fill the back of the bench. The length of the plate must exactly match the distance between the posts in the clear. Measure 10 mm from the front edge of the rack. On the inside, slats with a section of 20 x 20 mm are attached. Then a plywood back is mounted to these slats.
12. The seat frames, formed by the legs and crossbars of the bench, are also filled with waterproof and durable bakelized plywood, which increases the rigidity of the entire structure. Frame width - 39.5 cm (taking into account the thickness of the wooden posts)
13. The same applies to the long side of the bench. Plywood is inserted between the legs. The protrusion here is also 10 mm. A square rail is used for fastening. The surface of the joined wooden elements must be smooth
14. To obtain beveled elements, you need to saw off the bars for the bench frame at an angle of 22.5 °. Before performing this operation, you need to transfer a drawing at a scale of 1: 1 to lumber and plywood.
15. To enliven the geometric design of the bench, the plywood back is attached with a slight slope relative to the ledgers and frame posts. The angle of inclination of the fixing rails should not exceed 4-5 °
16. The seat is made of three planed boards 14 cm wide. A gap of 1 cm is left between them. The boards are connected using rails. The slats are screwed onto the back of the seat. They should be located at such a distance from the edge that the seat fits onto the bench frame without moving. The seat must be lifted to remove it. The dimensions of the boards, the cutting angle should be transferred from the drawing
Throughout the summer season, the garden bench is poured with rains, then the sun is baking. And then there are recurrent summer and early autumn frosts, cold fogs and severe hail. In order for the miracle shop to serve for many years, durable and moisture-resistant materials must be used for its manufacture.
In our example, the legs and crossbars of the back and bench, as well as the removable seat, are made of larch, which perfectly resists rotting and other types of biological damage. Bakelized plywood is used to fill the backrest and seat module frame. This material is not afraid of rain or snow. And even a chemically aggressive environment does not take it.
Bakelized plywood has a wear-resistant laminated coating and does not need painting. As for the wooden structure of the bench, it is treated with antiseptic compounds. First, a colorless bactericidal primer is applied, and then a glazing antiseptic. You can also use yacht varnish or natural oils designed to protect garden furniture and parquet (terrace board (more about the device of a summer terrace)). © T. Gagarina
The hip roof has found wide application in construction due to its strong design feature, durability and a fairly original design, which has a beautiful appearance.
The roof structure allows for a spacious residential attic floor with magnificent mortise windows, and the streamlined shape reduces aerodynamic loads from strong winds.
The rafter system of the hip roof consists of four slopes: two of which are lateral (in the form of a trapezoid), and two more are hip (in the form of triangles). Thus, the structure has two vertices, united by a ridge run.
It is important to follow the basic rules for linking structural units, the reliability and strength of the entire structure will depend on the quality of their fastening. To do this, use only high-quality sawn timber and polished nails.
Connection diagram of the main structural units
There are a lot of options for the execution of hip roofs, in addition to the standard there are still: (half-hip Dutch and Danish, hipped roofs, as well as broken roofs).
If, for example, the length of the hip slope of the roof is less than the side ones, such a structure is called half-hip (Dutch). Such a structure withstands strong suction loads with dignity, and thanks to the sharp slopes, the snow on it almost never lingers for a long time. This type is more similar to the classic gable roof, however, in terms of its characteristics, it significantly surpasses it.
Semi-hinged roof (Dutch)
The Danish half-hinged roof is a little more complicated in execution. The design difference lies in the fact that the hip part is no longer at the bottom, but at the top of the vertical pediment, which can be replaced with a beautiful frame with glass.
Danish half-hip roof
For buildings with walls of the same length (square), a hipped roof is perfect. Unlike the hip, which has a ridge girder, the hip-roof does not have one. The structure looks like this, four absolutely identical roof slopes converge at one top point. thus forming a pyramidal geometric figure.
An example of a house with a hipped roof
Broken roofs are very rare due to the complexity of the structure. However, their appearance is so mesmerizing that for a long time you cannot take your eyes off her. It represents itself, a set of many slopes, arranged at different angles relative to the walls. It is very problematic to make such a roof with your own hands, without having sufficient experience behind your back, therefore it is better to entrust this business to professional roofers.
The calculation of the rafter system of the hip roof is carried out taking into account the following prerequisites:
Table of parameters of the distance between the rafters, depending on the section of the timber and the type of wood
The calculation of the roofing material is carried out according to the formulas, taking into account the angle of inclination of the roof. The optimal roof slope for different types of roofing materials is shown in the table:
Table - angle of inclination of the roof depending on the roofing material Table - angle of inclination of the roof depending on the type of coverage
The slope of the rafter angle determines the placement of the rafters. In turn, the laying of the intermediate rafter is calculated as follows:
The ratio between the length of the rafters and their placement is calculated using a correction factor, the value of which depends on the angle of inclination of the roof slope. The length of the rafter leg is determined by multiplying the laying by a factor.
Material prepared for the site www.moydomik.net
To know how much roofing material to buy, you need to know the total roof area.
To do this, you need to break the entire roof into simple geometric shapes and make a calculation for each of them.
Calculation of the area of the hip roof - formulas
Calculation of the area of the hip roof allows you to determine in advance not only the cost of purchasing roofing materials and installation, but also to determine the requirements for materials, as well as the need for arrangement and the exact configuration of the lathing.
Photo 1. Crohn of one-year-old 2 years after planting without pruning
Photo 2. Pruning a two-year-old seedling: a - before pruning b - after pruning
Photo 3. Pear 2 years after planting a two-year seedling without pruning with numerous lateral branches: flowering 2 years after planting b-pear after leaf fall
Photo 4. Small-sized spindle-shaped (colonial) crown of an apple tree at the age of 13 years
© Author: V. KHROMENKO, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
The most responsible for the formation of the crown are the first years of a tree's life, when its main pattern is determined and skeletal branches are laid.
The main stage of the formative pruning of apple and pear trees falls on July.By this time, all overwintered buds awaken, the strong ones give a big increase, the weak ones demonstrate their futility. On 2-3-year-old trees, several strong branches are chosen, directed evenly in different directions and not interfering with each other.
Doubled, duplicating each other, growing inside the crown, at an acute angle, as well as weak branches are cut into a ring.
The skeletal branches and the central conductor left are slightly shortened. This will cause accelerated lignification of the branch, as well as the growth of second-order shoots, which will make the crown lush and accelerate the entry into fruiting. In the future, every year in July, you need to prune all young shoots.
It is preferable that the main branches extend from the trunk at a large angle: in this case, the branch will better hold the load. If the angle is sharp, then the young branches are carefully bent aside with guy wires. But it is important not to overdo it so that a crack does not appear at the base. If it occurs, immediately cover the damage with garden varnish.
Do I need to prune the seedlings planted in autumn or spring two years?
This question should be answered positively. As observations show, seedlings are usually sold without any preliminary pruning, especially from individual entrepreneurs. And sellers themselves rarely explain the rules for the formation of the future tree.
Since the balance between the root and ground systems is significantly disturbed during the digging of a seedling, it is necessary to bring it into a certain correspondence due to minimal pruning. This is done by shortening the shoots, usually to the outer bud, taking into account the subordination of the branches, and sometimes by thinning. In this case, competitors and weak shoots are removed first.
Pruning young seedlings is easy. As a result, the crown will be well formed, the survival rate and subsequent intensive growth of the plant will be ensured. Such pruning is best done in the spring, when the seedlings planted in the fall start to grow and those branches that have died or are damaged by snow or hares become clearly visible. In the spring, this operation is carried out when planting seedlings.