New generation greenhouses are not only technological structures, but also environmentally friendly. An example of such greenhouses is the solar bio-vegetarian, developed by the physics teacher from Ukraine A. Ivanov.
Unambiguously solar bio-vegetarian is a new technology in the world of growing garden crops. Currently, such designs can be found both in small private farms and in large, business-oriented ones. Ivanov's solar vegetarian has gained such fame due to the following benefits:
From this video you will learn what a bio-vegetarian is and why it is worth building on a summer cottage.
Before talking about the design features, a few words should be said about its inventors. It is believed that the first solar vegetarian, which is also known as "biofactory" and "solar greenhouse", was invented by the Soviet physics teacher from Kiev A. Ivanov.
In addition, there is information about the Chinese inventor Wang Lei, who also patented the rights to build a solar greenhouse. However, in the recent past, the technology received a new round of transformation: the Russian inventor S. Konin made modifications to the drawings of the structure, which is why the invention of the vegetarian is often credited to him.
Bio-greenhouses of the Scandinavian type have also gained fame, which, in fact, are Ivanov's greenhouses, but are called so because of the popularity of ecological gardening in Western Europe. It is from the Scandinavian countries that the fashion for ecological gardening and year-round cultivation of crops in greenhouses comes to Russia. So, in fact, greenhouses based on Scandinavian technology, bio-vegetarians Konin and “smart” greenhouses do not exist, since they are all just additional names of Ivanov's Soviet design.
This sustainable gardening system has several key features:
Thanks to all of the above advantages and features, the user of this gardening facility, with the correct installation of the irrigation and lighting system, is able to grow vegetables in large volumes all year round. Even if no additional lighting is installed, the growing season can be extended by two months.
Moreover, the microclimate, which is closest to the natural one, allows the use of a minimum amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (most often, the owners of biofactories turn to vermiculture and vermicompost).
Do-it-yourself step-by-step instructions for building a bio-type greenhouse begin with the choice of the drawing and the dimensions of the structure. The floor plan can be found on the Internet or ordered from a design firm, but the dimensions will need to be thought out in advance. They depend on your financial capabilities, area size and requirements. Typically, the size of the room is between 4 m wide and 6 m long. Height - for your height.
The main thing to consider during construction is the level of inclination of the floor and ceiling. In order for the lighting to be complete, the beds are built in a cascade, for which the floor level should be located at an angle of 30–35 °. The ceiling should be parallel to the floor.
As already mentioned, the rear north wall should be solid and covered with insulation and reflective material. The best option would be to attach the building to the wall of the house.
When proceeding with the step-by-step implementation of the instructions for building a new generation greenhouse, you should start with preliminary preparation.
The real experience of self-organization of a bio-vegetarian indicates that the choice of a place for a room plays an important role in construction. Since the design provides for maximum lighting, the place should be well lit by the sun, there should be no trees and shrubs nearby.
As for the slope, it can be both natural and artificial. However, it is best not to locate the greenhouse in a low area where there are risks of water accumulation.
It is difficult to build a biofactory yourself, but the choice of high-quality materials greatly facilitates the task:
Also for construction you will need tools: jigsaw, drill, screwdriver, drill, hammer, level, vessels for mixing concrete and mortar, as well as other professional-type construction tools.
The construction plan includes the following steps.
On a prepared flat plot of land at a distance corresponding to the drawings, holes are made in the ground with a depth of 5–6 cm, where the support pipes are then installed. Reinforcing bars are installed inside the pipes, and everything is poured with concrete together. The required angle of inclination is determined using the building level, after which the pipes are cut off and the reinforcement cage, sheathed with wooden boards, is installed. Holes are made inside for ventilation and drain pipes, after which the foundation is poured with concrete. Further, around the frame, you can make an earthen embankment, plant it with flowers or low shrubs.
A frame made of metal bars is connected by a welding machine or strong bolts, which is an unsuccessful option for a long-term structure. After that, the frame is installed inside the cement pipes, and galvanized steel water drains are placed on the bottom.
Wooden frames and polycarbonate sheets are used as cladding. Frames are made in advance, then fixed on a metal frame, after which you can start installing polycarbonate using self-tapping screws. Do not forget to treat all wooden elements with an antiseptic, moisture-repellent liquid before installation, and paint if necessary.
Doors and windows are installed last. In order not to disturb the structure, it is better to choose wooden frames for doors and windows, and polycarbonate glazing. The door is placed on the end wall, and the windows can be additionally equipped with an automatic opening system.
At the last stage, the equipment of the greenhouse is carried out.
An additional irrigation system for a standard set of crops (cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.) is not required, as moisture accumulates from the air exchange system. As a result of ventilation in the room, condensation accumulates from the moisture contained in the soil, which serves as a moisturizing element. This system allows you to keep the microclimate in the greenhouse in its original form.
Heating is provided by fans installed at the base of the pipeline. The fans can be powered by electric boilers or other air heating systems.
Ventilation is carried out by laying a pipeline at a depth of 50 cm. For this, small holes are made in the pipes, after which they are connected and laid on a 20-cm layer of expanded clay. The pipeline is connected to the air exhaust system on one side and fans on the other. The pipeline is laid at an angle and closed from the outside with a net.
The beds in the vegetarian are collected in the form of boxes, which are placed in a cascade type. As the material of the boxes, you can use both wood and building stone or brick.
When building a solar plant, pay attention to the tightness and correct location of the building, since technology errors can lead to the loss of functionality of the room.
It's nice when there is a do-it-yourself greenhouse in the country. And it's not so much about saving money as about what we build for ourselves and with love. Therefore, greenhouse tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables seem especially tasty to us. But sometimes the desire to build a greenhouse makes the summer resident think. Where to put it? What material to build from? Which is the best greenhouse? And a lot of other questions arise when we are planning such a grandiose business))
How to build a greenhouse with your own hands
Let's first look at what kind of greenhouses there are, and then I'll tell you how to build a greenhouse with your own hands in one weekend.
Through the efforts of two men, a cheap house for permanent residence with an attached garage was built. Initially, the garage was not provided for in the project and was added after the completion of the house.
ready frame house attached garage
In general, the project changed as the discussion proceeded on the advice of other builders and the requests of the spouse. The original layout of the house included 6 rooms on two floors.
During construction, it was decided to equip two bathrooms, while on the first floor the toilet and bath should be separate. The area of the living room and the location of the stairs have also changed. The living room was too narrow and elongated in relation to the initial project. The staircase was also planned to be uncomfortable and steep. After the changes, these shortcomings were eliminated.
The pig room in summer and winter has some differences. The main difference between the two buildings is their insulation. In the warm season, the room heats up due to the sun and the general temperature outside, while in the winter period the building needs additional insulation, because pigs are very sensitive to cold and drafts. Most often, a simple structure is used for keeping in the summer, sometimes even without the usual roof, but only with a canopy. The next difference is ventilation. In summer, additional ventilation is possible thanks to open windows and doors. In winter, this is impossible due to sudden temperature changes and heat loss. It is also necessary to provide a separate room for the slaughter of pigs.
All about raising pigs at home, this link will tell you.
Of course, the most difficult and critical part of the construction is the construction of the bathhouse box. The higher the walls and the heavier the roof, the more powerful the foundation must be; therefore, in some cases, it is not possible to build a building in one season. We have to lay the foundation of the bath in the winter, to collect the walls from a bar. And only in spring, after the completion of all shrinkage processes, it will be possible to build a steam room and even put it into operation.
The required amount of work associated with the construction of the bath box depends on how lucky you are with the soil on the site. Since most of the owners plan to build a bathhouse near the main household, the foundation and the box should not create problems, first of all, with the drainage of groundwater on the site.
The approximate amount of preparatory work is as follows:
Foundation project with a "patch" for the steam room
The final stage of preparation is the filling of a sand-crushed stone cushion under the slab for installing the furnace. It will be necessary to build the foundation for the furnace in advance and strictly according to the project.
The best base option would be a strip foundation, reinforced with steel or fiberglass rods. At first glance, you can build a foundation in a simpler way. Well, this impression is erroneous, since the box in the bath is very light, and if the walls are made of a foam block, then the entire building will be held precisely due to the rigid reinforcement of the foundation.
Easiest to build on a concrete tape
For a standard bath of 6x6 m or 6x4 m, shallow types of foundation tapes are used, laid on a sand cushion. After the trench is dug, a sand and gravel mixture is poured onto the bottom, waterproofing and a reinforcing cage 25-30 cm wide are laid.For a bath, you can make a direct pour into the ground, the strength of such a tape will be enough to withstand the weight of the walls and roof. In this case, the stiffness of the base is considered more important than its bearing capacity.
The tape poured with concrete is covered with foil and left for at least a month. And if for some reason you have to build in winter, then at least 3 months, for strength and shrinkage. The upper basement of the bathhouse foundation will need to be built of red brick. Pre-concrete is treated with mastic waterproofing or sheets of roofing material are laid, only after that it is possible to build a basement up to 30 cm high.
Foundation construction is considered one of the most expensive.For example, if you order the construction of a foundation tape for a 6x6 m bath, then most firms will agree to build for a price tag of at least 1.8-2 thousand dollars.
In order for the bath to be used normally, it is first of all necessary to provide for the presence of sewer pipes and a water supply. All other communications, including electricity or gas, are supplied "by air". Therefore, before building a brick basement for a bath, pipes are laid in its wall, through which water supply and sewerage will be brought in in the future.
If this is not done, then after the walls have been erected, you will need to drill holes in the base with special carbide ring drills. The technology is quite mature, but it requires certain costs and equipment.
With the laying of foam concrete blocks, everything is quite simple, the first row is laid on the waterproofing with the obligatory joining with a reinforcing belt. Foam blocks are easy to process, so building a wall of foam block material is not particularly difficult, you just need to monitor the level and vertical deviation of the masonry.
According to the project, the box should shrink
The assembly of walls from a bar is somewhat more difficult. First, you need to decide on the selection of material for the first three crowns. It is this part in any bath project that is considered the most vulnerable, the timber often rots and is damaged due to a large amount of moisture and poor waterproofing between the base and the crown. Immediately you need to decide how to seal the gaps between the foundation and the timber. Polyurethane foam or any other mixture will not work for this purpose; the gap can only be closed with mastic waterproofing.
Building a bath box from a bar is no more difficult than from foam blocks. Another thing is that the walls are less rigid and require additional packing of cracks with a special jute material or dried moss. The technology looks antediluvian, but in fact, this is the best option for a bath, if you need to build a room that will stand for at least 20 years.
After assembling the main box, it often becomes necessary to re-plan the interior, build additional partitions, separate part of the space for household purposes, storage of firewood and inventory.
According to the project, up to 80% of the surface of the walls of the bath is sewn up from the lining
Capital partitions inside the bathhouse are placed in the process of erecting walls, all the rest are made in a frame method, for example, in a log bath they are sewn from wooden slats or the remains of a bar. For foam block buildings, a partition can be built from a profile and plasterboard sheets. This is not unusual, a foam block box, as a rule, does not shrink, so there is no threat of destruction of additional partitions.
First of all, the soil must be isolated from the bath room, otherwise moisture and water vapor will penetrate and destroy wooden structures. The earthen foundation is covered with sand, laid with an insulating film, after which it is possible to solve the question of how to build insulation and drainage of water into the sewer.
The easiest way is to lay a layer of expanded polystyrene sheet with a thickness of at least 100 mm. Waterproofing is laid on top of the insulation and a concrete screed is made. This is the so-called subfloor, through which the dirty water will be discharged into the sewer intake manifold. Wooden logs are laid on top of the subfloor and the final floor is laid. Traditional planks are laid with a gap between the floorboards in order to provide ventilation and moisture removal from the underground.
The humid atmosphere inside the bath requires special measures to protect the ceiling. The ceiling has to be made double, in the form of a sandwich. In the lower part of the ceiling, sewn with cladding, a layer of reflective thermal insulation is laid and air vents are made, thanks to which it is possible to ventilate the room and remove condensate accumulated after bath procedures.
The structure of the roof of a bath can most often be single-pitched or gable, usually not insulated, with a cold attic. The main part of the thermal insulation is laid directly on the floor, therefore the rafters and roof lathing are protected only by waterproofing and roofing. Moreover, the gables of the roof are made with enlarged ventilation windows in order to improve the removal of water vapor accumulating in the under-roof space.
It is better to build the overlap and roof with backfill insulation.
For large bath boxes, according to the project, the roof is often installed according to a four-slope scheme, thus it is possible to reduce the pressure on the walls and reduce heat loss due to improved wind flow.
It is impossible to build a comfortable and at the same time warm bath without choosing the right stove. For modern projects, metal and cast-iron wood-burning stoves are most often used, resembling potbelly stoves in structure. They quickly warm up, give a huge amount of heat, and most importantly, there is no need to try to build a particularly strong foundation, it will be enough to lay a sheet of thermal insulation on the floor.
According to the project, a gas stove-heater can be simply cut into the partition
The second most popular is the electric heater. Its use solves a huge number of problems, for example, there is no need to look for a way to build a safe chimney. At first glance, a trifle, but according to statistics, it is the improper arrangement of the chimney in the ceiling and on the roof that is the main cause of fires for a wooden bathhouse.
The use of electric heating elements will require a separate project and build in accordance with all the rules of the PUE, the grounding of the bath. Otherwise, the slightest violation of insulation can become fatal for the owners and visitors of the steam room. If we compare the economic part, then the use of firewood is considered more profitable than electric heating.
The walls inside the bathhouse require an obligatory device for additional thermal insulation and vapor barrier. It is necessary to insulate both foam block and timber structures, regardless of the thickness of the walls. In addition, it will be necessary to build a ventilation gap between the outer wall and the insulation layer, otherwise the condensate that falls out will quickly lead to the destruction of the timber or foam blocks.
The inner surface of the walls of the steam room and the rest room must be finished with linden, aspen or cedar clapboard. Often, the project of a steam room is selected in such a way that the consumption of a rather expensive lining is minimal. It is necessary to build the decoration of the shower room, dressing room and auxiliary rooms from conifers. In modern projects, this part of the cladding is usually made of waterproof MDF boards.
In addition to the stove, a full-fledged washing room and a dressing room should be equipped in the design of the bathhouse, so you have to purchase at least a shower cabin, plumbing fixtures for the toilet and a boiler or heating tank to obtain hot water.
Most connoisseurs of hot steam prefer to build and equip a full-fledged recreation room with furniture, a sofa, room heating, and, most importantly, effective ventilation.
Oddly enough, but a long stay in a relatively small room with heated air and a large amount of water vapor is possible only with a normal supply of fresh air. Therefore, in any project, it is very important to provide and build a full-fledged forced ventilation, and not rely on simple ventilation of the room with the help of windows, vents and vents.
If you opted for a cesspool toilet, try building it yourself. It won't cost you a lot, but some building skills will do the trick.
First you need to choose the right place for the future toilet:
When choosing a place for a toilet in the country, do not forget to provide an entrance for a sewer truck. The length of the pumping hose is 6-7 meters, 3 of which will be in the pit.
After choosing a place, decide on the type of cesspool: with a filter bottom or sealed. A sealed structure will cost more: the cost of consumables is higher, and the more frequent call of the flush trucks. The costs of arranging a pit with a filtering bottom are less, but the risk of contamination of the surrounding area should be taken into account, and if the liquid goes into the soil, problems may arise with pumping out solid waste using sewage equipment.
To equip the pit, you need to clear a place and dig a rectangular pit. The size of the pit depends on the size of the family and the frequency of visiting the dacha. The soil at the bottom is carefully tamped.
The pit can be built from different materials: brick, plastic, concrete.
In order to lay out a pit of brick, a layer of sand, 10-15 centimeters thick, is poured onto the bottom of the prepared pit, and poured with concrete. It is advisable to use reinforcement and filler, crushed stone is better. After the concrete base hardens, the walls are laid out with brickwork and plastered. In order to better seal the structure, it can be treated with bitumen mastic. The walls of the structure should be 10 cm above the ground level.
You can equip a sealed pit by placing a metal or plastic container in the pit. The top of such a tank is completely cut off. In order for the soil not to displace the plastic container, it is fixed with weights.
You can build a pit using concrete rings. Since they are difficult to position accurately, such a pit cannot be considered completely sealed. In this case, the pit is dug out according to the size of the ring. After installing the first ring, they begin to undermine its base so that the ring gradually lowers under its own weight. When space is formed on top for the second ring, it is also installed. Thus, the required number of rings is installed, the latter should protrude 10 centimeters above the ground. After installing the last ring, the bottom of the pit is covered with a layer of sand and poured with concrete.
For the construction of a monolithic concrete pit, after preparing the pit, sand is poured onto the bottom, reinforced with access to the sides and concreted. After hardening, formwork is installed for the walls and poured with concrete. After removing the formwork, defects in concrete are sealed with a cement-sand mortar.
Above the cesspool must be covered. The overlap can be done by laying logs on top of the pit, covered with roofing material or polyethylene on top and concreted or sprinkled with soil, slag or crushed stone. Be sure to equip a hatch through which the sewage will be pumped out, and leave a hole for the ventilation pipe.
After arranging the pit next to it, a foundation of the appropriate size is poured and a toilet house is erected.
The appearance and arrangement of the toilet building in the country does not depend on the method of waste disposal. You can build a house yourself or use the services of specialists for its construction. There are plastic and wooden houses on sale, ready for installation.
If you decide to start building a toilet for a summer residence with your own hands, then you have at your disposal a huge amount of materials for construction: brick, foam concrete, timber, boards, plywood or plastic. When choosing materials and equipment for the booth, you should adhere to the following rules: the house must be stable and warm, and have holes for ventilation.
For example, consider the construction of a wooden toilet for a summer residence. Wood is used as the main material (boards, beams or lining). You will also need roofing material, slate (or other roofing material), self-tapping screws.
The timber frame is fixed on the prepared foundation. Roofing material is laid between the frame and the foundation for waterproofing. It is advisable to cover the timber with a primer mixture and paint it, this will protect it from decay. The timber processed in this way should be fastened together with wooden crossbars to obtain the frame of the desired size.
Next, we install the racks for the doors and beams for arranging the roof. Roof beams are fixed so that they protrude slightly beyond the edge of the structure. If a pitched roof is planned, the slope is made to the back of the house. Roofing material is laid on the crossbeams of the roof, and then slate.
The frame for the podium with the seat is assembled separately. The frame is sheathed with clapboard and carefully sanded.
Exterior and interior decoration is carried out using any available material, in our case - lining or ordinary boards. Finish the construction with the installation of doors made of planks.
Interesting ideas for building a toilet in the country can be found by watching the following video:
Ventilation is a must for any toilet.
Ventilation of the cesspool should be done. To do this, we insert a plastic sewer pipe 2.5-3 meters long into the hole left for ventilation (the length of the pipe should be 20 centimeters higher than the height of the toilet). The pipe is fastened with clamps to the back wall of the toilet cubicle. Above, we must install protection from atmospheric precipitation.
Separately equip the ventilation of the booth. To do this, you can limit yourself to cutting two holes: one should be at the bottom, and the second (through which air will be drawn from the toilet) - at the top.
Growing broilers is the most common area of chicken poultry farming. Such birds are unpretentious, grow quickly at home, and also have high productivity. One of the most important aspects of raising chickens is preparing and organizing a poultry house. You can build it yourself, but it is important to follow the construction technology. This allows you to save your budget and also take into account all the necessary factors for content. In the article we will look at how to build a chicken coop for broilers on our own, what to look for during this process.
Broiler chickens have distinctive features. This is important to consider not only for breeding and keeping these birds, but also when building a chicken coop. Broiler house specificity:
Read about how to make nests for chickens with your own hands here.
Feeders and drinkers are best placed in different corners of the room (cage), this will reduce the amount of dirt in the coop and simplify the cleaning process.
Depending on the size of the herd and the breed of broilers, birds are kept on the floor or in cages. In industrial poultry houses, special cages are used, in each of which up to 10 chickens can be placed. They are placed on metal or wooden racks arranged in several levels. The cages should be equipped with external feeders and drip troughs to optimize feed consumption.
You can read more about broiler cages here.
In the chicken coop, it is necessary to think over both the foundation and the floor, which will protect the birds from the attack of small rodents and predators. It is recommended to first create a drawing of the room, which displays all the details of the future structure. Floor-standing broiler housing is more suitable for small farms. Thanks to the floor bedding, the feed can be harvested less frequently and the risk of paw damage, which is often the case with caged chickens, is reduced. Poultry farmers note that this method also improves the taste of meat.
You can read about the floor options in the chicken coop in this material.
Broiler chickens are kept in special boxes - brooders, where they create an optimal microclimate and feeding regime. They are placed away from adult birds so as not to disturb the calm and rest.
For year-round keeping of birds, it is necessary to carefully plan the indoor microclimate. This directly affects the health and productivity of chickens, since with a lack of heat, part of the internal energy of the bird goes to its own warming. The temperature in the room should be within 5-23 o С, water and drinkers should not be allowed to freeze. At too high temperatures, weight gain is reduced, there is a risk of respiratory diseases.
The second important point is ventilation, in its absence, it significantly increases the risk of deadly diseases, chickens become less active and lose their appetite. At the same time, the presence of drafts should not be allowed, the speed of air flows should not exceed 2.5 m / s. To control air exchange, it is necessary to equip a ventilation system; the presence of a thermostat and an exhaust hood is a mandatory parameter. It is especially important to organize a forced ventilation system in regions with hot and humid climates.
The presence of light is one of the most important microclimate conditions in a chicken coop. With it, you can control the rate of development and growth of poultry, control meat productivity. Lighting is necessary for chickens in the amount of 12-14 hours a day, at night the light can be turned off so that the birds can rest. It is best to use fluorescent lamps or appliances with conventional incandescent bulbs as a source of artificial light. Lighting fixtures are best mounted on the ceiling to create diffuse light that is most beneficial for poultry.
Maintaining optimal daylight hours in the chicken coop reduces the incidence of injury, cannibalism, or pecking in birds.
The chicken coop should be located away from noisy roads; it is advisable to choose a site in a dry and elevated place. The shadow from nearby trees and buildings should not fall on the windows of the house. It is believed that the best location for a poultry house is the southeast side of the site. The structure for broiler chickens differs from the classic chicken coop in the following points:
If a strong wind is constantly observed in the region, then it is advisable to make an additional fence or plant a hedge of climbing plants. The construction itself can be started from scratch or you can use the former utility room, having correctly equipped it from the inside and outside. Read about building brooders for broilers with your own hands at the link.
The volume and area of the chicken coop is largely dependent on the size of the herd. When calculating the size, they are guided by the following indicators - 8-10 adults or 25-30 chickens are comfortable in 1 m 2. However, to keep the young, it is necessary to build a separate cage. To save space and ease of maintenance, wooden or metal cages are placed in racks on several tiers. The last level of cages should be located no higher than 1.5 meters from the floor.
The size of the windows should be at least 1/12 of the entire area of the chicken coop. The thickness of all solid walls is recommended in the range of 20-30 cm. Ventilation openings are located 20 cm from the level and the floor, at the same distance from the ceiling. When planning a ventilation system, you need to take into account the electrical diagram if you plan to use special devices and a thermostat. You can read about building a chicken coop for laying hens with your own hands in this article.
For the convenience of cleaning and working with birds, it is recommended to purchase a small portable ladder ladder so as not to reach for the cages full length of growth.
Self-planning of construction, selection of all components and their transportation can save a lot of money.
To build a do-it-yourself chicken coop for broilers, you will need the following materials (the list may vary depending on your chicken house project):
It is not recommended to save on materials, because due to the peculiarities of the microclimate in the chicken coop, boards and other elements can quickly become unusable.
It is advisable to carry out all work in the summer - this simplifies not only the transportation of materials, but also reduces the effect of moisture on untreated materials. In addition, birds in the warm season can be populated immediately after the end of all work. After preparing all the materials and tools, you can proceed to the construction of the building. Typical building plan:
The last stage of the work is the installation of shelving for the cages, the supply of electricity and the creation of a ventilation system. It is convenient to use a Buleryan stove or simple electric heating as heating. The cages can be made by yourself from wooden slats or metal mesh, or you can buy ready-made steel structures.
It is better to delegate electrical work to a specialist in order to avoid mistakes, which can lead to a short circuit and a fire in the chicken coop.
In this video, a farmer shows a homemade chicken coop for broilers.
Broilers are considered the most popular bird among poultry farmers. Such chickens differ from ordinary breeds in accelerated growth and active weight gain. Before you start growing such a bird, you need to make a chicken coop for broilers with your own hands.
Before building a bird breeding facility, you need to understand the main features of such chicken coops and their difference from structures for keeping layers. The process of keeping regular and meat chickens is different and therefore chicken coops also have certain differences.
Common specifics include the following:
Also, a shed for keeping broiler birds should not have drafts that can make chickens sick.
There are two common breeding methods for broiler chickens that you should be familiar with.
Some poultry farmers prefer to use the cage breeding method. The main advantage of this method is the saving of free space in the chicken coop. Thanks to this, it is possible to save electricity spent on lighting and heating the room.
Growing birds in cages limits their contact with each other. This prevents the emergence and development of infectious diseases. The cells also restrict the movement of broiler chickens, so that they gain body weight faster.
Sometimes people decide not to use cages and raise chickens on the floor. In this case, you do not have to equip the room and equip it with special bird cages.
There are many advantages to outdoor breeding, which is why many poultry farmers are starting to use it. Using this method, you do not have to clean up bird droppings every day. Instead, replacing the straw bedding once a week is sufficient. When breeding birds by the outdoor method, no bins and traces remain on the paws.
It is recommended to find the most suitable place for placing the chicken coop in advance at the dacha. When choosing a place, it is necessary to consider the following points:
When constructing a chicken coop for broiler birds, special tools and materials are used, which include the following:
Before you build a summer chicken coop for 10 chickens, you need to make all the measurements with calculations. Three small broilers will need a square meter of free space. Therefore, if the pen will consist of ten birds, the size of the chicken coop is made at least 2 x 2 meters. If there are ten more chickens, you will have to build a structure measuring 3 x 3 meters.
Having decided on the dimensions, they must make a drawing. It indicates the size of the house, its height and the length of the walls. Also on the diagram, an aviary is marked if the chickens are walking on the street.
The building of a poultry house is carried out in several successive stages.
To build a solid foundation, they dig a trench 40-50 centimeters deep. Then, inside the pit, horizontal beams are laid at a distance of 15 centimeters from each other. The created structure is poured with cement and sand.
When the foundation hardens, you can start laying the floor. The floor covering is made of wood, as it perfectly retains heat and protects the room from temperature extremes.
Boards must be laid on roofing material, which will protect the chicken coop from moisture.
After creating the foundation with the floor, proceed to the construction of the walls. The frame is made of high-strength wooden beams. When installing them, it is necessary to leave small openings for the windows through which sunlight will enter inside. When the beams are installed, they are paneled on both sides with plywood sheets or boards.
The inner side of the walls must be insulated with foam rubber or mineral wool. Some people use polystyrene and wood chips as insulation.
The final stage in the construction of the building is the construction of the roof. Experts recommend creating it from hard and durable varieties of wood. Before laying, all wood is treated with special compounds to improve the moisture resistance of the material. The roof surface is covered with roofing material or any other waterproofing material.
It is recommended to make a gable roof so that snow and moisture do not accumulate on it.
Broilers are one of the most sought-after birds among poultry farmers. This species is characterized by active weight gain and large dimensions. Before you start breeding broilers, you need to equip them with a place of residence.The main advantage is that it does not require a large area to keep birds. A chicken coop for broilers is quite simple to construct with your own hands, if you adhere to all the recommendations, especially since in our age of advanced technologies you can use a video in which everything is described in detail.
Do-it-yourself chicken coop for broilers
A do-it-yourself chicken coop for broilers has many advantages over purchased bird housing. Firstly, this way you can significantly reduce construction costs. Secondly, the premises will be adapted for a certain number of birds, and thirdly, self-built housing for chickens is much stronger than store-bought counterparts.
Housing Standard Requirements:
Containers for food and drink should be located in different parts of the chicken coop (in no case in one). To ensure an appropriate temperature regime in winter, it is necessary to install electric lamps. One of the important nuances in building a chicken coop with your own hands is the location. It is advisable to install the room on dry, sandy soil. If the soil is wet, it must be covered with sand, after drying it out.
In addition to artificial illumination, the room should have a sufficient number of windows to provide access to sunlight. Optimal natural light is essential for the health of broilers. To protect the chicken shelter from drafts, some plant hedges along the walls. It is better to build a chicken coop on a hill so that after precipitation the moisture does not accumulate, but flows down.
When keeping chickens in winter, there must be a vestibule in the hen house. It should be insulated from the outside with metal sheets, and a layer of foam plastic should be laid between them and the wall. From the inside, the vestibule is trimmed with sheets of plywood or fiberboard. The roof is insulated with mineral wool. Windows should also be well processed: cover up all the cracks, it is advisable to insulate the slopes if the openings are large.
An important point on how to make a chicken coop for broilers with your own hands is drawing up a construction diagram. Before drawing up a project, you should decide on the number of chickens. Unlike layers, broilers are kept in small premises. Planting density per 1 sq. m is 50 chickens or 5 adult chickens. Based on these parameters, you can make accurate calculations and draw up drawings.
It is recommended to mount the cages in 2 tiers to save space. The bottom row should be located no higher than 1.5 m from the flooring. The chicken coop can be of any shape, depending on personal preference. It is possible to build a chicken coop for broiler chickens from wood or use a brick for construction, then the structure will be more durable and frost-resistant.
Before building a chicken coop for farm broilers, it is necessary to prepare all materials for construction in advance. The walls, roof and floor of the chicken coop must be insulated. Also, at the planning stage of the building, it is necessary to outline the place of the ventilation system and determine its type. The ventilation system can be of 3 types:
The room will be small, so a natural ventilation system will suffice. Such a system implies ventilation by opening the door and dormer window. It is very important to position it correctly so that the chickens do not get caught in a draft, so you should make a note immediately in the planogram. The location of the window will depend on the location of the cells. It can be located on the roof or above the front door.
First of all, after all the drawings are outlined and the project is drawn up, it is necessary to make a foundation. It is he who will protect the room from the penetration of rodents, which carry the infection and all kinds of predators. To do this, dig holes 300 cm deep and put a wooden formwork, then pour concrete and wait until it dries completely.
A plank floor is laid on top of the concrete foundation. Roofing material can be used for waterproofing. A simpler option is possible, without a foundation, but it is only suitable for keeping chickens in the summer. To make a wooden building warmer, it must be covered with iron sheets from the outside.
To build the structure itself is only half the battle; it is also necessary to process it correctly. We need to disinfect the walls. Processing can be carried out using:
High-quality ventilation will help in winter to ventilate the room from ammonia vapors that accumulate during the overheating of the litter and droppings. In winter, it is important to provide the chickens with good lighting; for this, fluorescent or LED lamps should be installed in the chicken coop. It is advisable to make a gable roof. Another important rule regarding how to build a chicken coop with your own hands for broilers is to insulate to the maximum, then the number of chickens will delight with good production performance at any time of the year.
The next stage is do-it-yourself beautification of the poultry house from the inside. Initially, illumination is done. Optimal placement of LED lamps - 1 lamp per area 3 x 2 m. Mostly broilers are kept in tiered cages equipped with trays for collecting feces, feeders and nipple drinkers, which can be mounted both outside and inside. Cages should be larger than those for layers.
Insulate the floor with straw or sawdust bedding. Subsequently, such a litter will become an excellent fertilizer for the garden. The litter is periodically changed in the summer, and in the winter they put 8 cm of sawdust or other biomaterial and gradually add it as needed. Ultimately, by the spring, its height reaches 30 cm. In the cages, the floor and trays for collecting feces are made at a slight incline.
The outside of the cages can be equipped with an egg collection chute. The key to the well-being of chickens is thorough hygiene of the room, cages, feeders and drinkers. To cleanse the cells, it is necessary to transfer all livestock for a while to another place and disinfect it with soapy water or a solution of potassium permanganate. Then the cells are dried using a building hair dryer. To protect the livestock from parasites, it is necessary to put boxes with ash and gravel in each cage.
For the most part, broilers are kept in semi-dark rooms, however, if you equip them with free range in the summer, you can improve the quality of meat and reduce feed costs. To do this, a hole is made from the poultry house right in the front door. The sizes are calculated based on the largest individuals. In winter, walking should be limited, so it is important to equip the manhole with a lock.
The walking area should be surrounded by a fence so that the chickens are not attacked by predators and do not stay in the same area with other domestic animals. Above you need to make a canopy that will protect the bird from rain and heat. The walking area can be equipped with portable feeders and drinkers.
Feeders and drinkers can also be built with your own hands from scrap materials. The constructions are best done of the automatic type. Broilers need enough feed, so you need to make sure your feeders are full at all times. This is not very convenient, especially if you have a large household and a lot of things to do. Chickens also have a habit of crawling into feeders with their paws and scattering feed, which makes it unusable and is quite costly for your pocket, so a hopper feeding system is ideal.
Depending on the size, such a feeder can hold an amount of feed, which is enough for a minimum of knocking. It is beneficial to install nipple drinking systems. This allows the hens to have free access to water and keep it clean. Such a system is very easy to construct with your own hands. From a large plastic tank, water is fed into flexible hoses, and from them it enters the nipples, and then into the drip pans. In winter, you can put an ordinary boiler in the water tank to heat the water.
It is not difficult to build a chicken coop for broiler chickens with your own hands. The main thing is to draw up a plan in advance, make drawings and a project, and decide on the dimensions. You can use step by step photos with instructions. All sizes will depend on the number of chickens. Unlike egg-oriented pestles, broilers do not require a large room. One of the most important nuances is the arrangement of the bird house from the inside. In advance, you should think about the location and type of the ventilation system. Its location will depend on the location of the cell batteries. You can clearly see how exactly a house for chickens should look like by looking at numerous photos on the Internet.
A self-built pestle house will cost much less than a purchased one. It is quite possible to independently calculate the optimal sizes suitable for the livestock. Another plus is the reliability of the design, because in stores you can often find a Chinese counterfeit. The safety of such structures is a big question.