Hot chili peppers: growing from seeds at home and in the garden, planting and care


Garden plants

Red peppers, hot peppers, hot peppers or chilli - dried or fresh fruits of some varieties capsicum (Latin Capsicum annuum), species of the genus Capsicum of the Solanaceae family. There are about 30 species in the genus. The name "Chile" has nothing to do with the country of the same name, but comes from the Aztec word meaning "red" in translation. Capsicum is native to the tropics of Central and South America, where the locals cultivated it long before Europeans arrived on the continent.
Red hot peppers are often confused with black hot peppers, although they are not related and generally belong to different families. The fact is that before the discovery of America, Europeans already knew black Indian pepper, so they also called chili pepper because of its hotness. Today red hot peppers are grown all over the world, but most of all in Thailand and India.

Planting and caring for hot peppers

  • Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in February-March in areas with a cold climate and in January-February in areas with a warm one. In open ground, seedlings are planted during the budding period, when the average daily temperature in the garden rises to 15-17 ˚C.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: lightweight, water-permeable.
  • Watering: frequent and plentiful, especially during flowering and fruiting: the soil on the site should not dry out. In the heat, you will need daily watering, and in a drought, you will have to water the beds twice a day.
  • Top dressing: at the beginning of the growing season, fertilizers containing phosphorus and magnesium are applied to the soil, and as the fruits ripen, the amount of nitrogen must be reduced.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: aphids, spider mites, Colorado beetles, whiteflies, scoops, thrips, bears and naked slugs.
  • Diseases: white, brown and black spots, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial cancer, streak, gray, white and apical rot, verticillosis, fusarium and peronosporosis.
  • Properties: the plant has medicinal properties.

Read more about the cultivation of hot pepper below.

Bitter pepper - description

Red hot pepper is a shrub up to 60 cm high with branched and stiff stems in the lower part. Its leaves are elliptical, petiolate, pointed to the top, the flowers are large, grayish with purple or white. The fruits of the pepper are proboscis or spherical in shape, they are berries with a small-sized pericarp. The color of the fruit can be of different shades - from yellow or red to dark olive. Hot peppers are a close relative of tomato, therefore, the rules and conditions for growing these crops are very similar to each other.

Growing hot peppers from seeds

Sowing chili seeds

The cultivation of hot peppers begins with sowing seeds for seedlings in February or March in cool regions and in January-February in warm regions. The soil mixture can be purchased at the store, or you can prepare it yourself: mix non-acidic high peat, humus and river sand in equal proportions. Seeds of hot pepper also need to be prepared for sowing: first, immerse them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, and then wrap them in a damp cloth and wait at 25 ºC until they bite. After that, the seeds are very carefully, so as not to break off the sprouts that have appeared, are embedded in moist soil to a depth of 5-10 mm, observing a distance between them of at least 5 cm.The seeds are sown in boxes or peat pots, which are covered with film or glass and placed before the emergence of shoots to a warm place.

Growing hot pepper seedlings

The seeds of different varieties of hot pepper germinate at different rates, but as soon as the seedlings begin to appear, the crops must be rearranged to light. If the plants lack lighting, a phytolamp or other lighting device should be placed above them at a height of 25-30 cm: daylight hours for the normal development of seedlings should last at least 18 hours, otherwise the seedlings will stretch out painfully. And remember to keep the substrate slightly damp, while avoiding waterlogging. From time to time between seedlings, it is advisable to loosen the soil.

Hot pepper pick

At the stage of development in seedlings of two pairs of true leaves, the seedlings need to be cut into shallow pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm - if you put them in a deeper dish, then by the time the seedlings are planted in open ground, the root system will be more developed than the fertile ground part, and this it is advisable not to allow it. Before starting the procedure, the seedlings are watered. Try not to damage the root system of the seedlings when diving, but if the center root is too long, shorten it.

Before planting in the ground, hot pepper seedlings are fed twice - two weeks after the pick and two weeks after the first feeding. Fertilizers are applied in the form of a solution of Krepysh, Agricola, Solution, Fertika Lux or another suitable preparation.

Growing hot pepper at home

If you are going to grow peppers at home, when picking, transplant the seedlings into a pot in which a layer of drainage material is laid under the soil mixture. Place the pots of pepper on a southern, southeastern or southwestern windowsill, but if there is little light, arrange artificial lighting for the plants. When the unpicked plants reach a height of 20 cm, pinch the top of them to increase tillering.

Caring for hot peppers at home includes regular watering and periodic feeding. Pepper is poured with settled water at room temperature, which is poured not on the surface of the soil, but into a pan under the pot. As soon as the water from the pan disappears, you need to add more.

During spring and summer, paprika is fed with a complex mineral fertilizer for domestic plants. Do this on wet soil after watering. When airing the room, make sure that the pepper does not end up in a draft.

When flowering begins, the pots of pepper need to be shaken slightly for pollination to occur. In winter, when heating devices work intensively, it is advisable to cover the radiators with a damp cloth - this measure prevents excessive drying of the air. A plant that is one year old needs to be replanted every spring in new soil and a larger pot.

Planting hot peppers in open ground

When to plant hot peppers in the ground

Planting hot peppers in open ground is carried out at the stage of formation of the first buds of seedlings. A prerequisite is also the establishment of the average daily temperature at the level of 15-17 ºC.

Two weeks before planting, hot pepper seedlings are hardened, which consists in daily "walking" the seedlings in the open air. You need to start with 15-20 minutes, but gradually the duration of the session is increased until young plants can spend the whole day in the air. Once the plants are accustomed to the environment in which they will grow, they can be planted in the garden.

Chili Pepper

Neither bitter, heavy cold soils can be tolerated on sweet peppers, therefore peat and humus must be added to the clay soil for digging to the depth of the shovel bayonet. If your soil is light and permeable, fertilize it in autumn with rotted manure at the rate of 2 buckets of organic matter per m² of the plot. Although you can apply fertilizer directly to the hole when planting seedlings.

How to plant hot peppers in open ground

Make holes in the soil at a distance of 30-40 cm with a row spacing of 60 cm. You can plant peppers in a nesting way, according to a scheme of 50x50 cm, placing two seedlings in one hole. The depth of the hole should be such that the seedling sinks into it to the root collar. Put a tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer in each hole, mix it well with the ground, carefully remove the seedling with an earthen clod from the pot and transfer it into the hole. Fill the hole with soil by half or a little more, pour a third of a bucket of water into it, and when it is absorbed, fill the hole with earth to the top. After planting, mulch the bed with peat and, if necessary, tie the bushes to the supports. If at night the air temperature is below 13-14 ºC, cover the bed with peppers with a non-woven material, throwing it on dug arcs. You need to plant seedlings on a cloudy day or in the late afternoon, after sunset.

Growing chili peppers in a greenhouse

Experts say that chili peppers grow much better in a greenhouse than outdoors. This can be explained by the fact that in greenhouse conditions it is easier to control the temperature regime, and the level of air humidity in the greenhouse is more stable than in the garden. Pepper seedlings are planted indoors when the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, and night temperatures are set at 10-12 ºC. Before planting, the seedlings are hardened in the way we have already described.

The optimum daily temperature for growing chili peppers in a greenhouse is 16-18 ºC. In a heated greenhouse, plants are often watered, but not abundantly; in an unheated greenhouse in cool weather, watering is reduced. Moisten the soil with warm water. After watering, remember to loosen the soil around the bushes and remove weeds. From the moment the fruits are formed, the plants are fed once a week with liquid fertilizer for tomatoes. Bushes of tall varieties are tied to supports. If at the end of summer ripening of fruits begins to slow down, hang the bushes pulled out of the soil on the eaves of the greenhouse "upside down" - this measure will accelerate ripening.

Keep in mind that it is better to grow self-pollinating varieties indoors, but if you plant peppers that require pollinators, you will have to do this yourself. You will need a soft pollen brush or a fan to do this, but sometimes shaking the plants is enough.

The last collection of fruits is carried out before the onset of severe frosts, after which the bushes are transplanted into flowerpots and transferred to a heated room on the windowsills. With the onset of spring, they can again be planted in a greenhouse or in open ground.

Outdoor care for hot peppers

How to grow hot peppers

When the seedlings reach a height of 30-35 cm, their tops are pinched. After that, the bushes acquire a compact form, side shoots appear on them, which will also bear fruit. If you want to grow large peppers, remove a few flowers on the bush, then the remaining fruits will be larger. The optimal number of fruits on a bush is 25 pieces, the rest is better to remove. At air temperatures above 30 ºC, hot pepper stops pollination, and in order for it to happen, you need to shake the bushes a little. By the way, do not plant bell peppers next to bitter chili: these crops are easily pollinated among themselves, so the distance between them should be at least 3.5 m.

Watering the chili peppers

Pepper is a moisture-loving culture and it especially needs moisture during flowering and fruiting. Do not allow the soil in the garden to dry out too much. Be prepared to water the peppers daily in summer, and even twice a day in extreme heat. Water for irrigation should be warm. To do this, a large container is installed in the garden in the bright sun and filled with water. During the day, the water can settle and warm up. After watering, you can loosen the soil between the plants and remove weeds.

Top dressing of hot peppers

At the beginning of the growing season, chili peppers need phosphorus and magnesium, and before ripening the fruits, you need to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied. In general, feed hot peppers with the same fertilizers as tomatoes, and at the same time.

Pests and diseases of hot pepper

The most dangerous pests for nightshade crops are aphids, spider mites, Colorado beetles, whiteflies, scoops, thrips, bears and naked slugs. However, pepper is a more resistant plant than tomato, so it is not very often damaged by insects.

Of the diseases, hot peppers are affected by the same ailments from which tomatoes and eggplants suffer: white, brown and black spots, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial cancer, streak, gray, white and apical rot, verticillosis, fusarium and peronosporosis.

Chili Pepper Processing

We talked about all these pests and diseases many times, so we will not describe them again - you can find information about them in the articles posted on the site about growing tomatoes, eggplants and sweet peppers. Let us briefly recall that fungal diseases in emergency cases are treated with fungicidal drugs, among which Abiga-Peak, Bayleton, Bordeaux mixture, Gamair, Maxim, copper sulfate, Oxyhom and others are most often used, and bacterial and viral diseases are incurable. As for pest control, the best insecticidal and acaricidal preparations are Agravertin, Akarin, Aktellik, Karbofos, Karate, Kleschevit and others.

However, the use of pesticides can lead to disastrous consequences for your health, so try to get rid of the problems with folk remedies - although they do not work so radically, there is much less harm to health from them. And if you follow the agrotechnical conditions of the crop and take proper care of it, you can reduce the risk of plant disease or occupation by pests to a minimum.

Collection and storage of hot peppers

Red hot peppers can be used both at the stage of incomplete maturity and after full ripeness, therefore, if necessary, it can be harvested as soon as the fruits are formed. If you plan to put the pepper for long-term storage, then wait for it to fully biological maturity, otherwise it will be poorly stored: the storage time of red hot peppers depends on a special substance, the amount of which in the fruits increases as they ripen. That is, the more ripe the fruit, the more bitter substances in it, which manifest themselves during storage as preservatives.

Red hot peppers have pronounced ripening signs:

  • the pods should turn red, yellow, or orange;
  • pepper leaves turn yellow, and dry on the bottom of the bush;
  • if you rub your hand with pepper, a slight burning sensation emanates from the ripe fruit.

Chili peppers are usually harvested at the end of September. It is very simple to prepare it for storage: the pepper is dipped for a few minutes in a bowl of warm water, washed from dust and dirt, rinsed with cold water, wiped off with a towel and dried.

There are different ways to store hot peppers, depending on how you intend to use them. You can store chili fruits by hanging them on a string by the stalk - you can decorate the kitchen with such a garland. It is important that the peppers do not touch each other. Well-dried fruits are put in bags made of dense fabric or in glass jars, covered with parchment and stored in a dry place. You can dry the peppers by spreading them on the windowsill on parchment paper - with regular turning the fruits dry in three weeks, but if you want to speed up the process, cut the peppers in half.

You can grind the pepper in a meat grinder, put the mass on a baking sheet and dry in the oven at 50 ºC. When the pepper has cooled, it is placed in a bag. Some housewives dry the peppers whole for a couple of hours in the oven at 50 ºC, covering the baking sheet with paper beforehand and turning the peppers from time to time.

Many housewives prefer to preserve peppers in sunflower oil.To do this, put the washed peppercorns freed from seeds in a sterile glass jar, pour them with sunflower oil, slightly salt it, roll up the jars with a sterile lid and store in a dry, dark place for 2-3 months.

Peppers are also preserved in marinade. Whole or sliced ​​fruits, from which the seeds have been removed, are put in sterile jars, poured with a sour-sweet marinade and sealed with sterile lids. You can add your favorite spices to each jar - cherry or currant leaves, garlic, basil, cloves. For normal storage, one teaspoon of vinegar per liter jar is sufficient.

Salted pepper has excellent taste: put dill, celery, a few cloves of garlic in a jar of pepper and fill with brine (50-60 g of salt per 1 liter of water). You need to store salted peppers under a nylon lid in the refrigerator or cool cellar.

There is another way that will seem simple and reliable to you: hot peppers are placed in the freezer, where they do not change their color, do not shrink, and most importantly, they retain all their valuable qualities. The fruits of red pepper are washed in cold water, blotted with a towel, laid out in bags, sealed tightly and placed in the freezer. Crushed fruits can also be frozen. They are laid out in one layer on a pallet, frozen, then transferred to plastic bags and put back in the freezer for storage.

Types and varieties of hot peppers

There are more than 3000 cultivated varieties and varieties of chili. The classification of varieties of hot peppers takes into account such characteristics as color, aroma, shape and degree of pungency, which is determined by the scale of the American chemist Wilbur Scoville and is evaluated in ECS (a unit of the Scoville scale). The unit of measure for pungency indicates the amount in a particular plant variety of the alkaloid capsaicin. We offer you an acquaintance with the most popular varieties and varieties of hot peppers:

Trinidad pepper

- this family is distinguished by a pleasant pungency, an original type of fruit and a persistent fruit aroma. Varieties:

  • Trinidad Small Cherry (160,000 USD) - the fruits of the plants in this series look like orange or red round berries with a diameter of no more than 2.5 cm with a characteristic cherry aroma. Of greatest interest are the late-ripening varieties of the Moruga Scorpion Red and Moruga Scorpion Yellow series.
  • Trinidad Scorpion (855,000-1463,700 USS) - These small, bright yellow peppers are grown to produce tear gas and paint to protect ships from shellfish buildup. They are so hot that they collect and process this pepper in chemical protection suits;
  • Family 7 Pot - this series is represented mainly by late-ripening chili varieties. The fruits of these varieties are distinguished by an unusual, like a mint shape, a characteristic fruity aroma and a high content of capsaicin. These are close relatives of the Trinidad scorpion. The most popular of the varieties are Primo (800,000-1,000,000 ECU) with bright red fruits and Gigantic - a variety with very large fruits of the same heat, the most popular.

Naga Jolokia (970 000-1 001 304 EU)

- This pepper is grown by the Indian tribe Naga, and it is used to make pepper smoke bombs. But there are also edible varieties of this group:

  • Naga Morich, or Dorset Naga (1,000,000 ECU) - a variety for gastromasochists;
  • Bhut Jolokia (800 000-1 001 304 EU) - until recently, the hottest pepper in the world, entered in the Guinness Book of Records, but in 2013 it lost the championship to the Carolina Reaper variety (1 569 300-2 200 000 ECU). Bhut Jolokia pepper is used to make pomegranates used by the Indian police;
  • Bhut Jolokia Chocolate - the same hot pepper, but the Indians cook some varieties of curry with it.

Habanero (350,000-570,000 ECU)

- peppers in the shape of a flashlight, usually bright orange in color. There are legends about this pepper: supposedly once the Indians of Yucatan offered a person a choice: to be sacrificed to the gods or to drink half a liter of tincture of this pepper, and many chose the former. Today, Habanero peppers are used to make Tabasco sauce and to spice up tequila. Of particular interest are:

  • White habanero (100,000-350,000 ECU) - a variety with small white fruits. However, it is not easy to grow it, which is why it is rare;
  • Chocolate habanero, or Congo Black (300,000-425,000 ECU) - a variety grown from Mexico to Jamaica for the preparation of hot sauces;
  • Red Caribbean habanero (300,000-475,000) - Mexicans use the fruits of this pepper for salsa and other sauces.

Jamaican pepper (100,000-200,000 ECU)

- fragrant, but dangerous for humans, pepper, which can cause burns. In terms of pungency, this group of varieties is close to Habanero. Jamaican red and Jamaican yellow varieties are popular in culture. Jamaican pepper is used for making sauces, it is also put in pickles, marinades, meat and dairy dishes. Hottest Jamaican Pepper:

  • Scottish beanie, or Scotch Bonnet (100,000-350,000 ECU) - most often this pepper can be found in the Canary Islands, in Guyana. The Scottish beanie can be red or yellow. The pepper got its name for the similarity of the fruit to the Scottish beret. The pungency of this pepper causes numbness in the limbs and dizziness. They use it for making sauces and first courses, and some gourmets like to enjoy its fruits with fruits and chocolate;

Thai pepper (75,000-150,000 EU)

- This pepper is native to Portugal, but it is grown mainly in Thailand. Thai varieties of hot peppers are used to prepare fish and meat dishes, sauces, salads, as well as to get rid of cellulite. The most famous variety in our latitudes:

  • Thai dragon - variety with red or yellow fruits up to 7 cm in length and up to 8 mm in diameter. It is widely used in Vietnamese, Malaysian, Filipino and Thai cuisine.

Cayenne pepper (30,000-50,000 ECU)

- the name of the pepper comes from the toponym of the port city in French Guiana, through which spices from South America were brought to Europe from the 15th to the 19th centuries. This group includes peppers from Malaga, Tabasco and Tiri Tiri peppers, Malawian Cambuzi peppers and all Thai peppers. Cayenne pepper varieties are used for the preparation of canned food, sausages, marinades. It is also used for medical purposes for the treatment of sciatica. Cayenne pepper is one of the most popular varieties in hobby gardening;

Serrano (10,000-23,000 ECU)

- in Mexico, this pepper is called a time bomb, since its pungency does not appear immediately;

Hungarian waxy pepper (5,000-10,000 EU)

- this pepper with large yellowish fruits is called weakly sharp and is used for stuffing and pickling with rings;

Poblano (1,000-1,500 EU)

- the main pepper of Mexico, the mildest of all. Its large green fruits of an elongated shape with a thick skin taste like prunes; stewed with white nut sauce and pomegranate seeds are traditionally cooked on Independence Day. It is stuffed with cream cheese, seafood, pork, potatoes, beans and other foods.

Among gardeners of the middle lane, the following varieties of red hot peppers are popular: Jalapeno, Thai dragon, Astrakhan, Chinese fire, Satan's kiss, Indian elephant, Shishito, Peter, Sharp tongue, Anaheim, hybrids Spicy bell, Double abundance, New Year's Octopus, Flying moth and others.

Hot pepper properties

Useful properties of hot peppers

How is chili pepper good for you? The composition of red hot peppers includes:

  • vitamins: A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, PP, K, E, C;
  • macro- and microelements: potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese, copper, calcium, sodium, zinc, selenium, phosphorus and others, but in smaller amounts, as well as dietary fiber, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, wax, dyes and the most valuable alkaloid capsaicin.

What is the effect of hot pepper on the human body? It is a good means for stimulating appetite and, having a bacterial effect, relieves intestinal upset, and as an external agent it is used for myositis, rheumatism, polyarthritis, gout, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Chili pepper is useful for its strong antioxidant effect, it stimulates the metabolic process, activating the burning of calories. Bitter pepper increases immunity, increasing the body's resistance to colds, viral and bacterial diseases, thinning the blood, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, tones the nervous system and increases potency. Red pepper is used to treat diseases such as bronchitis and other bronchopulmonary diseases, vitiligo and panaritium. Chili peppers promote the production of endorphins that increase pain threshold and resistance to stress, and recent research has shown that it is effective in treating some of the complications of diabetes.

The harm of bitter pepper - contraindications

The use of hot pepper is contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - gastritis, duodenitis, ulcers, liver and kidney diseases. It is not recommended for patients with angina pectoris, arrhythmia and hypertension. Hot pepper and preparations made from it can irritate the skin, and they are especially dangerous if they come into contact with the eyes, so do not forget to wash your hands after touching them. If you accidentally ate hot pepper, it is useless to drink it with water, it is better in this case to drink milk or yogurt. May relieve burning sensation with a couple of sips of fresh lemon juice.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Solanaceae family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Fruit Garden plants Solanaceous plants per G Plants per O Plants per P


Site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

This burning southerner is very popular in almost all countries with hot tropical climates. In our conditions, habanero pepper can be successfully grown both in the garden and on the windowsill, where it winters well, delighting with the annual abundant harvest of small fruits, similar to lanterns or hearts. The habanero fruit perfectly combines a pungent-pungent taste and a specific aroma.


Growing pepper at home

To obtain short bushes of regular shape with large thick-walled fruits and maximum fruiting, seeds of determinant F1 hybrids are used. It is better to pick up early maturing peppers that do not require pollination.

With the right content, such plants are practically not susceptible to disease, delight homemade fruits with excellent taste and are able to produce a crop for 8-10 months after planting.

In order for the whole process of growing pepper at home to be with a plus sign, the plant needs to create favorable conditions and remember that this is an agricultural hybrid crop intended for cultivation in industrial greenhouses. Light, warmth, high-quality water (free of chlorine), loose nutrient soil, spraying and timely fertilizing are the main and necessary for maximum plant productivity.

In potting pepper cultivation in an apartment (any garden crops), ready-made flower soils and substrates with neutral acidity, sold in stores, are used. If you use ordinary land from a summer cottage, then over time, all indoor plants will suffer from the garden parasites and pests that have appeared. It is advisable to arrange the indoor and garden flora in different rooms so that they do not exchange among themselves their "narrow-profile" diseases and parasitic organisms.

Planting hybrids

Most gardeners, following an incomprehensible habit, grow pepper seeds in three stages: seedling, picking with transplanting for rooting in another container, followed by the final transfer into pots or narrow containers. In indoor cultivation, this process is not necessary, there is no tight deadline for the autumn harvest, there is also no threat of cold snaps and night frosts.

Pepper seeds are planted in flower containers with a height of 20-25 cm, leaving a gap of 50 cm between them, or in separate ceramic containers with a volume of 1.5 to 2 liters. Two seeds are dropped into the hole, spilled well and covered with disposable, transparent cups.

The root volume of determinate peppers is small, so large pots are not necessary.

The containers in which the peppers are planted must be stable so that, in the process of growth and fruit formation, the bushes do not overturn under their own weight and increasing size.

Of the two shoots that have appeared in each planting, the best seedling is left, removing or replanting the weak one separately. The sprouts under the cups are sprayed with settled water, and with the appearance of 6-7 leaves, the shelter is removed and the first top dressing is applied.

With the formation of the first peduncles, all plants are sprayed with a preparation to stimulate flowering, for example "Bud" or "Blossom". This will not harm, but will greatly improve and increase the formation of fruit ovaries in the further growing season of the pepper.

With the appearance of the fruits of the branches, it is better to tie and strengthen the plant itself in order to prevent overturning due to the pouring severity of the crop.

Top dressing

By pursuing growing pepper at home, it is fertilized with humic compounds with a metered content of organic matter and microelements, for example, "Baikal" or "Ideal". Top dressing should be alternated with a mineral group of fertilizers so that an excess of organic matter with active biological organisms and nitrogen does not form in closed planting containers. You can use common potassium and phosphate salts of nutrient granules and powders for indoor plants.

As a substrate, sawdust, vermiculite, ash and a small amount of granular sand mixed with the upper, fertile layer will be a good addition.

Bell peppers are grown not only on window sills, they can be placed in any corner of the room, but this requires continuous 12-hour illumination with "daytime" fluorescent lamps. Such lighting is most often made from economical, inexpensive lamps used to illuminate aquariums and shop windows.

I advise you to read more about how to grow peppers on the balcony, as well as growing seedlings of peppers and eggplants.


Growing chili peppers at home

All operations for caring for chili on the windowsill are quite simple and accessible to any gardener who has basic skills in working with indoor plants.

Necessary conditions for growth

The conditions for keeping chili peppers are determined by its origin: it is a light and heat-loving plant. Lighting on the southern window sill is usually sufficient, in another place morning and evening lighting is needed, and on the northern window sill on a cloudy day - daylight. We must try to provide 12-hour daylight hours for perennial peppers, backlighting is mandatory in winter. In summer, it is advisable to move the pots of pepper to the balcony.

Table: conditions for chili peppers

ParameterValue
Summer air temperature22-28 o C during the day, 18-22 o C at night
Air temperature in winterNot lower than 16 о С
Air humidity65–75%
IlluminationOn the northern windowsill - illumination
Soil moistureModerate

Watering and feeding

Chili peppers are watered frequently, but in moderation. Waterlogging of the soil is no less dangerous than drying it. During flowering and especially fruiting, chili requires more water. It is better to water in the evening, under the root, with warm water (22-30 o C). Depending on the conditions, watering is necessary 1-3 times a week. In case of excessive dryness of the air, the leaves are sprayed from a spray bottle. Some time after watering, the soil is slightly loosened.To eliminate soil acidification, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the room without creating drafts.

Chili is fed at home every two weeks, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers. As organic it is more convenient to use a highly diluted infusion of poultry manure (better - bought in a store, with instructions), as mineral fertilizer - any complex fertilizer. If flowering is delayed, and the leaf mass grows, nitrogen is excluded during the next feeding.

Features of the formation of a bush

If the chili is grown in a one-year version, the pruning of the bush is carried out to a minimum. The crown bud is removed - the very first one, which is laid at the first fork. Then only shoots that are clearly thickening the bush are cut out. Extra stepsons pinch above the first leaf that forms on them. The central shoot is not pinched.

Formation comes down to getting a pretty bush

If it is supposed to grow a bush for several years, then lateral shoots are shortened at the beginning of autumn. Fruiting branches and those that are directed inside the bush are removed.

How to pollinate a bush yourself

Chili peppers do not need to be pollinated by a host, but they can be helped a little. If in the garden this function is performed by the wind, then in the apartment it is enough to slightly shake the branches during flowering, using a brush for pollination seems unnecessary. In the process of shaking, at the same time, you can turn the pots with other sides to the window.

When Chile Needs a Transplant

Perennial peppers are usually replanted every 1-2 years. This is due to the depletion of the soil. The transplant is performed after fruiting. When transplanting, they change the pot and partially - the soil: the old one is left as much as it is retained by the roots when the bush is removed from the pot.

Video: growing pepper on a windowsill


Growing hot pepper seedlings

It is necessary to select a chili variety, taking into account the climate in the region. When growing in a garden, as many videos show, it is important to know both the planting time and how to properly care for the plant. So:

  • in the southern regions, seeds are laid in the soil in January-February
  • in cold regions - in February-March.

Fully growing chili requires site preparation. The plant culture bears excellent fruit on high-quality, enriched soils with a high level of moisture. When watering, it is important that water does not fall on the foliage; it should be poured exclusively at the root. Correct sowing of seeds, planting and caring for hot peppers in the open field are the main factors on the way to obtaining a rich harvest.

Pretreatment of seeds with potassium permanganate, boron creates protection against fungi in the future. To do this, apply:

The dose of the selected preparation and the soaking time are important, otherwise the viability of the seeds is reduced. Sowing material for the formation of fast sprouts should be already in the seedlings. They are placed on wet gauze and covered with another one. In order for the sprouts to hatch, the room must maintain the temperature regime of the air within 20-25 C.

As the gauze dries, it is regularly moistened for 3 days. Complete evaporation of moisture must not be allowed. Sprouted shoots are transplanted into separate pots, 2 pcs. The containers are sent to the light. The grown seedlings are transplanted into other larger pots or bags of 3-4 sprouts. The seedlings are transferred to the garden at 60 days of age.

Before transplanting the bushes to the site, they should be hardened, so they will more actively get used to the new growth conditions. 30 days before the time of the intended planting, it is necessary to open the window frames for 3 hours, but without drafts.

You can get good peppers if you plant seedlings in the garden, the age of which is 70-80 days. The place where planting nests are formed should:

  • high quality coverage
  • have sufficient air and moisture permeability
  • acidity level up to 6 pH.

The garden must be protected from drafts. In the allotted area, properly prepare the soil from the fall, adding slurry or bird droppings. If you apply organic fertilizers right before planting seedlings in the garden, then there is a high probability of burning the delicate roots, which will provoke the death of the plant. In springtime, it is necessary to dig and feed with humus plus superphosphate. This fertilizer can be applied during planting of the vegetable.

Saplings are planted after the formation of 8-12 leaves in them. The landing technology is as follows:

  1. Form the holes with an interval of 400-450 mm from each other, leave 500-600 mm between the rows.
  2. Add a spoonful of fertilizer (superphosphate) to each well.
  3. Take out the seedlings together with the earthen clod and place them in the hole.
  4. Cover with a layer of soil, spill with water.
  5. Cover the top of the planting with mulch.

If weather changes are expected, then the plants must be protected by covering with agrofibre.

The culture usually forms 2-3 stems. Sometimes bushes of hot pepper begin to form even at the stage of seedlings. The signal for action is the formation of a fork on the stem part and the formation of the so-called crown bud in it. It must be removed, and if such elements appear in other forks, then theirs is the same. After the stems are formed, it is necessary:

  • systematically cut out growing stepchildren
  • remove all foliage and flowers that are located below the fork.

Depending on the variety, up to 25-30 peppers must be left on each bush, then pinch the top and excess ovaries. So the plant will direct its forces to the growth and ripening of the remaining fruits. In comparison with agricultural technology for an open garden, growing and caring for chili in a greenhouse has a number of nuances:

  1. In a greenhouse, it is important to maintain an optimal moisture level, about 70-80% (measured with a hygrometer). If the moisture is more than the norm, it is necessary to ventilate, if it is too dry, put buckets of water.
  2. The recommended temperature is 23-28 C. At a higher temperature regime it is necessary to ventilate, and at + 12-15 C it is necessary to heat the room.
  3. To form the ovaries, it is necessary to artificially pollinate with your hands (just shake the bushes) or apply a fan.
  4. When planting, the placement of shoots is tighter, which can lead to a decrease in the number of stems when forming bushes.
  5. Fertilize as well as in the garden, but the amount of nitrogenous substances is reduced by half.

Chili can be grown at home as a perennial crop, but you must follow the recommendations. Peppers need a lot of light, but without direct sunlight. In winter (December-February), the chili is put into a dormant state. This requires:

  1. Stop feeding.
  2. Remove flowers and ovaries.
  3. Reduce water use when watering.
  4. Reduce the temperature regime to + 15-18 C.
  5. Reduce the amount of light.


Growing seedlings of sweet and hot peppers

Healthy and strong seedlings are not fairy tales for gardeners. Many people think that getting strong young pepper plants is difficult, but this is not the case. To do this, you just need to follow some simple conditions of care. Moreover, these conditions will be the same for seedlings of sweet pepper and its hot fellow.

Timing

Peppers are distinguished by their gentle and warmth-loving character. Therefore, compared to other crops, pepper seedlings should be cooked a little earlier. If you tighten up with planting seeds for seedlings, then young pepper plants will not be ready for planting in a permanent place. Their stress can result in a weakened immune system or the death of a seedling.

In our latitudes, the timing of planting pepper for seedlings will depend on the specific variety taken:

  • early varieties can be planted from the second half of February to the end
  • medium varieties should be planted in the first half of March
  • late varieties - in mid-March.

Land preparation

In order to grow ordinary pepper seedlings, universal purchased or garden land may be enough. But if the purpose of planting seeds is to get strong pepper seedlings, then it is better to prepare the ground yourself. This will require the following components:

  • peat
  • humus
  • leavening agents such as sand or sawdust
  • sod land or leaf land
  • superphosphate
  • wood ash.

The soil beneath them contains a large amount of tannins that can negatively affect the root system of young pepper plants.

The soil for the peppers can be mixed according to any of the following formulations:

  1. One part of sod land, river sand and peat. All components must be mixed well and poured with a solution of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and urea. When using chemicals, you should always observe only those dosages that are indicated on their packaging or in the annotation.
  2. One part of sod land, humus and peat. After mixing all the components, you can add superphosphate and wood ash.

The prepared soil must be disinfected. This is done in order to kill all possible harmful bacteria and microorganisms. It is necessary to disinfect the soil immediately before planting seeds or a couple of days before it. This can be done in the following ways:

  • freeze
  • spill with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or antifungal drugs
  • hold over steam
  • bake in the oven.

You can learn more about how to disinfect the ground by watching the video:

Seed preparation

Before growing pepper seedlings, you need to prepare its seeds. After all, the future crop of pepper crops is laid precisely during the preparation of pepper seeds at home. Therefore, you should not skip this procedure. In addition, pre-sowing preparation allows you to increase the germination of pepper seeds, as well as the speed of their germination.

Re-processing of such seeds is not only unnecessary, but can be harmful to them.

Some gardeners do not carry out pre-sowing seed treatment, considering that it will take a long time. In fact, it will not take long, and the benefits will be enormous. Seed preparation includes:

  1. Selection of live seeds. This is a very important and necessary procedure that will allow all empty and dead seeds to be rejected in advance. To do this, you need to dilute a little salt in water - a small pinch will be enough for one glass. Soak the seeds in this salty solution for 5-10 minutes. Under the influence of salt, all damaged and light seeds will be on the surface of the water, and heavy seeds with an embryo inside will sink to the bottom of the glass. All that remains to be done is to catch and discard the seeds floating on the surface, and rinse high-quality seed over running water and dry.
  2. Hardening. It is not necessary to harden the seeds, but it is very desirable. Seedlings grown from hardened seeds will have increased immunity and will more easily transfer the transplant to a permanent place. Only dry seeds should be hardened. To do this, they must be put in the refrigerator overnight for 3–6 days, on the lowest shelf, where the temperature does not drop below +2 degrees. In this case, the daytime temperature should be from +20 to +24 degrees.
  3. Disinfection of seeds. As in the case of soil disinfection, this procedure is necessary so that young plants do not get sick with bacterial or putrefactive diseases. To do this, the seeds must be soaked for 15–20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After that, they must be rinsed. Also, biofungicidal preparations, for example, "Fitosporin", can be used for disinfection. But after treatment with these drugs, it is no longer necessary to rinse the seeds.
  4. Germination. Peppers can be attributed to the "garden dumb." Their seeds can germinate within 20 days. Therefore, it is better to plant slightly hatched seeds. This will significantly reduce the appearance of the first shoots. You can learn more about this procedure from the video:

From seeds that have undergone this treatment, exceptionally strong and healthy seedlings will grow.

Planting seeds

When all the preparatory steps have been passed, you can plant pepper seeds in the ground. Since all nightshade crops tolerate transplanting and picking very poorly, it is better to sow seeds immediately in separate containers of 2 things.

Pepper seeds are planted in prepared containers with soil to a depth of 1 to 1.5 centimeters. Until full-fledged shoots appear, containers with seeds should be covered with glass or foil. In addition, the temperature regime is of great importance:

  • before the first shoots appear, the planted seeds must be provided with a temperature regime of +20 to +28 degrees
  • after emergence, the daytime temperature should be in the range from +20 to +22 degrees, and the nighttime temperature should be between +15 and +17 degrees.


How to grow peppers in containers

If your summer gardening plans include growing multiple vegetables in containers, peppers should be on your planting list. With careful care of the right varieties, peppers can grow better in pots than in a garden, especially in cool or windy climates. At the beginning of the season, the peppers grown in containers have warmer roots than they can have deep in the ground, and later, when the plants are loaded with fruit, moving them to a sheltered place will not break off the fragile branches.

Not all varieties are suitable for containers. In my experience and the experience of others, such as the seasoned Pennsylvania growers, small-fruited, bushy peppers are the best choice for pots, however, one of the reasons I grow peppers in containers is to keep them nearby. with a kitchen door for quick picking, so I prefer bell peppers and mildly hot jalapenos.

If I was limited to growing all peppers in containers, I would prefer Redskin or Mohawk for sweet peppers and possibly Apache for more spice. Interesting little thing: All three of these excellent container varieties were bred in the UK.

Peppers in pots

Whether you start planting seedlings or planting your own, you will quickly find that young pepper plants benefit from "planting" in a container of the next size every two weeks. Use a good quality potting potting soil and leave the roots untouched with every repotting. the new container should provide about two inches of new growth space on all sides. By the time my peppers are in their permanent pots, I usually replant them four times. In hot weather, large pepper plants often need to be watered daily, so when growing peppers in containers, I prefer to use lightweight water-retaining plastic pots.

Depending on your climate, your peppers may grow well on a garden table, but in hot weather the plants benefit from having their roots shaded from the bright sun, easily by placing the pots in a shallow drawer or planter, or even in a cardboard box. Dark colored pots can overheat on sunny days if not shaded.

Pepper Feeding and Drinking Container

Peppers may have few insect pests, but they have an increased need for careful feeding and watering. Let's talk about water first, because peppers grown in containers should never dry out, and they grow best in a constant, low humidity environment. Watering frequency depends on the weather, but you can easily tell how dry the pots are by tilting them slightly to gauge their weight. Very light pots are dangerously dry. If the large peppers in the pot dry out to the point of wilting, you will need to water them several times to fix it.

The easiest way to feed container grown peppers is to use water soluble liquid plant food about every week when the plants are well hydrated and stress free.Undernourished plants have pale green leaves and few new growths, while well-fed plants are busy producing large quantities of flowers and fruits.

I often alternate homemade liquid fertilizers with a variety of commercial products, which makes pepper feeding as intuitive as it is a science. If I bought a fertilizer specifically for potted peppers, it would be a good source of all three essential nutrients, as well as calcium and magnesium. to prevent nutritional stress during fruit setting. Most organic fertilizers formulated for tomatoes will fill the bill, but be sure to read the label so you know what your peppers are getting.

Supporting peppers

Peppers with a tendency to grow broadly like 'Redskin' don't need stakes, but erect jalapenos do benefit from being tied to a secure stance - or maybe two or three. Germination hoops are great for larger plants, or you can make a wire cage to fit your pot. Not only can you place your bets, but you can also move the container-grown peppers to a place protected from the wind and strong sun when loaded with fruit.


Watch the video: Pepper Growing Mistakes - How to Avoid or Fix Them..How to Grow Peppers.


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