The homeland of the red oak is North America, where it mainly grows, covering part of Canada. It grows in height up to 25 meters, and the life expectancy reaches about 2000 years. It is a deciduous tree with a dense, tent-shaped crown and a thin trunk covered with smooth grayish bark. The crown is covered with thin, shiny, up to 2.5 cm long leaves. Begins to bloom with the beginning of leaf blooming from 15-20 years of age. The fruits of the red oak are red-brown acorns up to 2 centimeters long. It can grow on any soil except lime and waterlogged.
Planting is done in early spring, before the leaves begin to bloom. To do this, a small depression is made in the ground and a seedling is lowered into it, making sure that the remains of the acorn are at least 2 cm from the soil level. For its planting, places with good lighting and lime-free soil are selected, as well as places located on a hill so that moisture does not stagnate. After planting, during the first 3 days, the seedling is watered regularly. Caring for a red oak is reduced to the regular pruning of dry branches and the organization of wintering of young plants. For the winter, plants take shelter in the first 3 years of life, wrapping burlap or other material around the trunk that can protect the young tree from severe frosts. An adult tree does not need such protection.
For propagation of oak, its fruits (acorns) are used, which are harvested in late autumn under healthy and strong trees to grow the same strong and healthy seedlings. It can be planted both in autumn and spring, although it is very difficult to keep them safe and sound until spring. Best of all, they survive the winter under the trees, and in the spring you can collect already sprouted acorns.
Diseases and pests
In general, red oak is resistant to pests and diseases, but still sometimes it is exposed to some diseases and is affected by pests. As a disease, necrosis of branches and trunk can be noted, and as pests - powdery mildew, fruit cap moth, oak leafworm. He especially suffers from powdery mildew, which does not respond to treatment.
In medicine, the bark and leaves of red oak are used for the preparation of decoctions and infusions, as well as for the manufacture of medicines. Infusions and decoctions are used in the treatment of eczema, varicose veins, gum disease, spleen and liver diseases. Tinctures from young oak bark can improve blood circulation, have the ability to increase immunity, and raise the tone of the body.
The blanks are made during the period of sap flow, and the leaves are harvested in mid-May. The prepared raw materials are dried under the sheds. When stored properly, oak bark retains its medicinal properties for 5 years.
Use of wood
Oak wood, strong and durable with a light brown to yellowish brown shade that darkens over time. He played a pivotal role in transforming the United States industry and is a symbol of the state of New Jersey. At the dawn of the industrial revolution of this country, wheels, plows, barrels, looms, reinforced concrete sleepers and, of course, furniture and other utensils of everyday demand were produced from it. Its wood is heavy and hard with good flexural and resistance properties. When applied, the bark bends well. It lends itself well to physical handling. When using screws, it is advisable to pre-drill the holes. It is easy to polish and can be easily processed with various dyes and polishing agents. Nowadays, it is used for the manufacture of furniture, decoration elements, veneer, parquet, parquet boards, doors, interior decoration, lining production.
The oak is considered a sacred tree by many peoples. He was worshiped by the ancient Slavs and Celts as a deity. This tree has a powerful energy and is a symbol of fortitude and courage to this day.
Red oak can be attributed to the main element of park and urban landscaping and is the best material for landscape design. This plant requires a large area for its use in landscape compositions. In this regard, it is used to decorate large squares and parks. Unfortunately, it is not possible to plant such a tree, due to its impressive size, in a personal plot or cottage.
Western Europe uses it in landscape design because of its noise-blocking properties and also because of its phytoncidal properties. It is used in row plantings for wind protection of residential areas and central highways.
English oak. One of the most durable types. Although the average life expectancy ranges from 500-900 years, according to the sources, they are able to live up to 1500 years. It grows naturally in Central and Western Europe, as well as in the European part of Russia. It has a slender trunk, up to 50 meters high - in dense plantations, and a short trunk with a wide, spreading crown in open spaces. Wind resistant thanks to a strong root system. It grows slowly. Long-term waterlogging of the soil is difficult, but it can withstand 20-day flooding.
Fluffy oak. A long-lasting tree up to 10 meters high, which can be found in southern Europe and Asia Minor, in the Crimea and in the northern part of the Caucasus. It can often be found in the form of a bush.
White oak. Found in the East of North America. A powerful beautiful tree up to 30 meters high, with strong spreading branches forming a tent-like crown.
Swamp oak. A tall tree (up to 25 meters) with a narrow-pyramidal crown at a young age, and a wide-pyramidal crown at a mature age. The greenish-brown bark of the tree trunk remains smooth for a long time.
Willow oak. Differs in the original shape of the leaves, resembling willow leaves.
Stone oak. The native land of this evergreen tree is Asia Minor, Southern Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean. Nice and valuable view for park design. This tree has been cultivated since 1819. Drought-resistant and frost-resistant.
Chestnut oak. This type of oak is listed in the Red Book. In the wild, it can be found in the Caucasus, Armenia and northern Iraq. Its height reaches 30 meters and has a tent-like crown. The leaves resemble in appearance, chestnut leaves and have triangular pointed teeth at the edges. Grows rapidly, has medium resistance to low temperatures.
Large oak. A fairly tall tree (up to 30 meters) with a wide hipped crown and a thick trunk. Immediately, long leaves, obovate, up to 25 cm long, catch the eye. They become very beautiful by autumn. It grows very quickly, loves moisture, moderately hardy.
Since ancient times, man has been using the wonderful properties of this unique tree. Paradoxically, but the oak, or rather its fruits, our ancestors used for food. During excavations in the Dnieper region, archaeologists found evidence that in the 4th-3rd millennium BC bread was baked from acorns, after having ground them into flour. In the Middle Ages, in many European countries, acorn flour was used to bake bread. For example, old Poland practically did not know about bread baked without mixing such flour. In Russia, they generally baked bread from acorn flour and partially added rye to the dough. Such bread, in the years of famine, was the staple food.
In the 12th century, pigs were grazed in oak forests. They were driven into the forests when the forest cover was strewn with wild apples, pears and acorns. The love of pigs for acorns can be judged by the saying: "Although the boar is full, it will not pass by the acorn."
We cannot ignore the attitude of our ancestors to the oak as a building material. In the 17th-18th centuries, entire cities were erected from oak, and flotillas were also built. Up to 4,000 trees were used to manufacture one military vessel. During that period, oak groves were carved clean.
In the old days, great preference was given to furniture made of oak. She stood out for its special reliability, splendor and massiveness. Popular chests of Russian work, made of oak and bound with carved iron, were sold in the Transcaucasus, Khiva and Bukhara. In such chests, clothes were stored, dowry was collected. At the same time, there was a saying: "A steamed oak does not break." The craftsmen of those times steamed oak blanks and gave them the necessary shapes. Oak wood was used for the manufacture of agricultural tools: pitchfork, rake, harrows. Young oaks, with equal trunks, were used to make spear holders. They were dried and sanded thoroughly. Such blanks were called "spearwood".
English oak - a sacred tree of many European peoples.
English oak a durable, very powerful tree up to 50 m tall, in close stands with a slender trunk, highly cleared of twigs, with single plantings in open places - with a short trunk and a wide, spreading, low-planted crown. The bark on the trunks up to 40 years old is smooth, olive-brown, later grayish-brown, almost black.
The leaves are alternate, at the apex of the shoots close in bundles, leathery, oblong, obovate, up to 15 cm long, with an elongated apex and 3-7 pairs of obtuse, lateral lobes of unequal length.
The lobes are entire, or with 1-3 teeth, at the base of the leaf blade, often with ears. The leaves are shiny above, glabrous, dark green, lighter below, sometimes with sparse hairs. Acorns up to 3.5 cm, 1/5 covered with plyusa, ripen in early autumn.
English oak - the most popular representative of the beech family with shiny dark green foliage, growing up to 50m in height and actively cultivated widespread in Western Europe and the European part of Russia.
It is characterized by longevity and average light-requiring. It can grow on various soils, including dry and saline soils, as long as they are rich in fertile components.
Periodically, it is useful to loosen the soil deeply. Growth proceeds very slowly, the greatest energy falls on 5-20 years of life.
The tree is wind-resistant due to its strong root system. Excessive waterlogging of the land will not tolerate, but it can withstand a small, temporary flooding for 3 weeks. Possesses high heat and drought resistance.
Reproduction is carried out by sowing seeds, decorative forms - green cuttings and grafting. Renewal by pneumatic shoots is practiced.
Life form: Deciduous tree
Crown: Sprawling, dense.
Growth rate: English oak grows slowly. The active phase of growth is observed in the first 20 years when the annual growth is 30 cm in height and 20 cm in width.
Height 40 m, crown diameter 25 m.
Durability: 1500 years
Flowers: Flat, rounded, yellow-green, 0.4 cm.
Leaves: Obovate, 5-7 lobed, dark green in spring and summer, yellow-brown in autumn, 10 to 15 cm.
Ddecoration: Has a beautiful crown shape, leaves, trunk.
Using: Alleys, single plantings, decorative groups.
to moisture: medium-demanding
to temperature: frost-resistant
Homeland: Europe, Crimea, Caucasus.
Sowing in autumn or after storage in damp cool conditions in April - May in open beds in furrows 5 - 6 cm deep.
Propagation of varieties by winter grafting or in August by grafting biennial branches onto the rootstocks of pedunculate oak (ordinary), devoid of tops.
English oak easy to grow from seeds (acorns). Since the acorn contains a large supply of nutrients, already in the first weeks of life, oak seedlings reach a height of 10-12 cm.
This makes it easier to grow oak: it is not clogged with weeds as quickly as small shoots of other tree species. Oak seedlings suitable for permanent planting can be grown in one to two years.
Grows best on deep, fertile fresh loam and sandy loam. Due to its deep, powerful and highly branched root system, it grows satisfactorily on rather dry and poor soils, stony and even alkaline. Excessive moisture, as well as acidic soils, does not tolerate.
English oak relatively thermophilic. Suffers from late spring frosts. It is quite photophilous, but tolerates slight shading for the first 2 - 3 years. Drought-resistant.
There are many decorative forms, of which the most interesting is the pyramidal - a relatively low decorative tree with a dense columnar crown.
It grows more slowly than the main species and is more thermophilic. Of great interest are also the forms of oak, differing in the time of leaf blooming. The forms also differ in the time of leaf fall.
in open places on fresh deep soils, in the northern part of the range - on dry passages
sprawling, tent-shaped, with a very powerful thick trunk
seeds need stratification at 0 + 5 ° С for 1-3 months
sometimes grafting on downy oak is used (Quercus pubescens)
winter hardiness is close to red oak, in Moscow it can freeze slightly
desirable for young plants
the bark of the trunk is light brown, cracking
shoots are first densely tomentose, then naked, orange, later turning brown, sometimes with cork pterygoid outgrowths
broadly oval, up to 6 mm long, with reddish-brown scales drooping along the edges, surrounded by stipules remaining until autumn
alternate, on petioles 2 cm long, 1-30 cm long, oblong-ovate, wedge-shaped at the base, less often rounded, deeply lobed, with notches reaching the midrib, on each side with 2-5 lobes, of which the lower one is small, and the upper ones are longer and, in turn, are often shallow 3-lobed
leaves when blooming are silvery pubescent, later brilliant dark green above, whitish green below, finely pubescent
acorns are usually solitary, sessile or on short fruiting, oval, large, up to 5 cm long, 1/3 covered by a deeply chalky plyus, from the outside tiled with large scales, the edge of the plyus is shaggy
f. olivaeformis - with shallower, deep-lobed leaves with narrow blades and smaller acorns, more than half-covered with plyus
The crown of the plant is always lush, usually of a semicircular shape. The foliage is leathery, spatulate or whole. Small flowers are formed on the same tree, both female and male, but have a different appearance. The first are bunched or similar to earrings, and the second are straight or hanging. The fruits of all species of this plant are exclusively acorns. These are dry single-seeded fruits with a rigid pericarp enclosed in a cup-cup.
The advantage of this tree is not only its beautiful and impressive appearance, but also its lifespan. There are oak trees 3-4 hundreds of years old, and some have a life span of millennia. Moreover, they grow in height for the first hundred years, and then only in breadth. Its durability is complemented by its high resistance to adverse conditions and decorativeness of various species of this plant.
Description of the plant is largely determined by its species. All varieties of oak have common characteristics due to the similarity of climatic conditions of growth. But each individual species also has specific features that distinguish it from the general mass. The most common oaks are:
In landscaping vast territories, together with other types of plants, oaks are widespread. They are grown both for wood and purely aesthetic purposes.
Planting and caring for this plant, despite its rather overall shape, is not very difficult. Oak loves direct sunlight, although trees can grow in partial shade, they tolerate frost and drought well. Even waterlogging of the soil, the culture can withstand for a long time.
Plants reproduce in three ways:
Growing oak requires soil drainage. It is especially important to take this condition into account when disembarking. You should also pay attention to good watering in the first days after planting.
Oak is susceptible to many diseases and insect attacks. They fight them by spraying with a low-percentage solution of copper sulfate. Removing dried and diseased branches is a prerequisite for the formation of a beautiful crown of culture.
The oak tree in the garden can become a central resting place, as it provides good shade and low grass grows under it. Ornamental species are also involved in group plantings to create alleys, large green areas. They perfectly complement compositions with other deciduous plants.
With the help of oak trees, you can create a real high hedge that will protect the site from wind and dust. Due to their durability, oaks are often planted as a symbol of the genus near houses. They can be used to arrange a tree house for children or hang a swing.
Some types are used in topiary art to create large decorative figures.
How to plant an oak and get a shady garden on the site? Some gardeners prefer to grow an acorn tree, however, this method is quite lengthy and laborious. It is best for beginners to purchase a seedling in a specialized nursery. In this case, there is no doubt that the purchased plant will be of exactly the type indicated in the catalog. In addition, the seedlings in local nurseries are already adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region and take root well in the new place.
So that money is not wasted, seedlings must be bought at the age of 1-2 years, they are the most viable and take root well. If the young oak is in a container, then there will be no problems with its delivery to the site. Instances with an open root system should be given special attention. To prevent the roots from breaking and weathering during transportation, they are wrapped in a canvas fabric. If the path is long, or the plant will not be planted on the same day, the root system is wrapped in a damp cloth. It is not recommended to put an oak seedling in a container with water, this threatens with rotting of the root system.
How to plant an oak (seedling) correctly? Before planting, the plant is carefully examined and broken, dry or decayed roots are pruned. The decayed area should be trimmed to live wood. If the root system looks weak, then the branches should be shortened by about a third of the length.
Oak prefers sunny and spacious areas. Depending on the variety chosen, the seedling should be planted at a distance of 3–6 m from other trees. Given that the root system is very powerful, capable of breaking through the foundation, the nearest building should be at a distance of at least 3.5 m.
For the successful growth of a tree, the soil on the site must be nutritious. The planting pit should be prepared in advance (20-25 days before the planting date). It is best to root the seedling in the spring when the soil is warm enough. How to plant an oak tree and prepare a planting pit for it? First you need to dig up the area, the hole should be 100x100x80 cm in size, where 80 cm is the depth. The earth is extracted in two stages: the upper layer of the earth is laid in one direction, and the lower one - in the other, it is not used in the future. Drainage is poured at the bottom of the pit (layer 20 cm); small stones, chipped bricks can be used as material. Next, the soil is mixed with fertilizers:
One part of the prepared substrate is placed in the pit, and the second is left to powder the seedling. A young tree is planted in such a way that the root collar rises slightly above the ground, but not more than 2.5 cm. During planting, the soil around the root system is carefully compacted so that no air pockets remain. At the end of the work, the seedling is watered using 10-15 liters of water, the soil surface is mulched with cut grass, peat or humus.
So that the young tree does not suffer from the wind, you can drive 3 pegs around it and tie the trunk with twine.
Below are 10 interesting facts about this amazing tree:
The petiolate oak is not just a tree that we all know from childhood, but an amazing creation of nature with outstanding characteristics and properties.