In Europe, and in recent years in Russia, more and more often currants and gooseberries are grown not in bushes, but in standard form. And this, judging by the responses and some personal experience, gives significant advantages over traditional cultivation.
They consist in facilitating the care of plants and harvesting from them, in enlarging and improving the quality of berries due to better illumination; besides, the berries acquire a kind of decorative effect. At the same time, I can say from my own experience that it is quite simple to achieve such a reconstruction of a berry garden, and you do not even need to resort to laborious vaccinations. The transformation of an ordinary currant into a standard currant can be done in three ways. In the first case, for this, annual seedlings are used, grown from single-bud cuttings, when zero shoots are not formed. In the second case, before planting an ordinary seedling, the buds are removed in the root zone and on the shoot to a height of about 40 cm, leaving only a few apical buds for further crown formation.
In the third case, to obtain a stem, opaque tubes are used, put on the seedling to such a height that the stem should be. At the same time, such a seedling is planted in a permanent place so that the tube is buried in the soil. I want to emphasize that for all three methods of planting seedlings, in order to avoid breaking them or breaking off individual branches during strong growth or under the influence of wind or fruit loads, it is imperative to install a support for the stem (see figure).
As for gooseberries, it is best to create it in a standard form from large-fruited European varieties that are distinguished by good winter hardiness: Varshavsky, Finik, Shanon and others. It is most reliable to place standard gooseberries in protected places and must be well covered for the winter. When growing gooseberries on your own roots with a stem, you should choose varieties with strong, erect shoots, and it is best to leave only one strongest and erect shoot in the planted seedling. The next year, as in the case of the standard currant, it must be tied to a support (see figure) and all lateral branches are removed to the intended height of the stem, which is usually 60-100 cm.In subsequent years, 4-5 branches are left and formed the whole crown. I note that for better decorativeness, it is advisable to form both the standard currant and the standard gooseberry with a spherical or spherical crown.
In cases where the summer resident or gardener is well versed in the techniques of grafting berries, a reliable result can be achieved by lateral grafting of gooseberries under the bark. It is made using a cutting with an oblique cut, a stock with a T-shaped cut in the bark and combining the stock and scion with a grafting film strapping. In this case, the vaccination can be carried out both in the summer during the period of sap flow, and in the winter indoors, and in this case, it is possible to inoculate with a split, butt or a side cut. In those cases when it is possible to reliably graft several varieties of gooseberries with different colors of berries onto the stock at once, the berry garden becomes especially beautiful and attractive.
In conclusion, I note that after a successful reconstruction of the berry garden, it is quite noticeably updated, since the crown at the same time receives improved nutrition, light and moisture supply, the plant clearly grows and develops better, is less likely to be affected by pests and diseases, and the yields increase by almost one and a half times ...
Anatoly Veselov, gardener
In order for currants or gooseberries to grow in a standard form, like a small tree, a simple way has been invented. When planting a plant, one of the strongest vertically growing shoot is chosen from a seedling, the rest are cut out directly from the ground.
From the left shoot, all branches are removed to the intended height of the trunk, a tube made of polyethylene or other material that does not transmit light is put on it. The lower end of the tube is buried 10 cm into the soil, and the upper end is raised above the soil to the desired stem height. These plants can be planted much closer together than regular shrubs.
The trees must be tied to a support (pegs or trellis), this is necessary so that they do not break with strong growth or under the influence of wind and fruit loads. If you are not using a light-transmitting tube, then remove all lateral branches to the intended stem height, which is usually 60-100 cm.
In subsequent years, 4-5 branches are left and the entire crown is formed. They remove thickening shoots, as well as branches growing down, damaged and older than 7-8 years. Every year, shoots appear at the base of the bush, which must be removed immediately, preventing them from growing.
For better decorativeness, it is advisable to form both the standard currant and the standard gooseberry with a spherical or spherical crown.
A standard gooseberry can be obtained not only by growing it from a self-rooted seedling, but also by grafting on a golden currant.
If the gardener owns the techniques of grafting berries, a good result can be achieved by lateral grafting under the bark, which can be carried out with a cuttings with an oblique cut, a stock with a T-shaped cut in the bark, and combining the stock and scion with the strapping of the grafting film.
When it is possible to plant several varieties of gooseberries with different colors of berries on the stock at once, the tree becomes especially beautiful.
How to increase the yield of currants and gooseberries, read useful tips in this article.
About currants and gooseberries
Spring (April) dousing currant and gooseberry bushes with very warm (about 70 ° C) water will not only help get rid of waking up pests, but also have a beneficial effect on their growing season as a whole.
Recently, the cultivation of currants, gooseberries and some other typical bush crops has been in the standard form. It is much more convenient to harvest from such "irregular" bushes, which are often higher due to the fact that the branches raised above the ground receive more light.
You can grow a bush of fruit bushes in at least two ways - by removing all the buds on the seedling to the desired height or by putting on an opaque tube (usually rubber) of the appropriate length on the seedling.
If a dug out seedling or currant bush has remained outside the soil for more than 2-3 hours, even before planting it must be soaked in water for several hours (preferably overnight), otherwise it will not take root well.
Unlike many other plants, when planting currant seedlings in a permanent place, it is not only possible, but even desirable to burrow into the ground so that the root collar is several centimeters (up to 10 cm) lower than before digging out the seedling - on the buried part of the stem in this case, additional roots will grow.
After planting, the currant seedlings must be cut so that 3-4 buds remain on top.
In the south, the autumn planting dates for currants can last until the beginning of winter, but in the spring there is less favorable time for this than in more northern regions.
Currant seedlings planted in autumn should be watered much less often than those planted in spring.
Ordinary abundant watering can drive moles out of plantings of currants, gooseberries or raspberries - if the water floods the mole, the mole moves to another place (however, after a while it may return).
With regular pruning of old branches, currants may not reduce yields, even in conditions of partial shading.
When pruning currant bushes, it is highly undesirable to use a pruner. Its branches are safer, even just to break out only the wounds that have formed after this, it will be necessary to treat it with wood ash, sorrel juice or other suitable means).
Old branches in currants are considered four years old and older, in which the number and size of berries are reduced compared to younger ones, however, in some individual varieties, three-year old branches can also be attributed to old branches.
The age of the branches in currants can be determined by the thickening along the circumference of the branch (annual rings).
Not all tools, including ordinary hoes, are suitable for loosening the soil and weeding around the currant, since its roots are too close to the surface of the earth.
Modern varieties of currants, belonging to the so-called "intensive type", deplete the supply of nutrients faster than traditional ones, so they need to be fed more often.
If the currants were affected by terry, new bushes in the place of the removed ones should not be placed earlier than 5 years later.
Currants, especially black currants, are more sensitive to soil salinity than other crops. If the bush is still young and healthy, the care for it is organized correctly, and the berries are still shrinking - the reason, most likely, lies precisely in the salinity. Check the water used for irrigation for mineralization.
Regular feeding of currants with trace elements such as manganese, copper, boron and zinc reduces the likelihood of its damage by anthracnose and septoria. It is especially desirable in years with a large amount of atmospheric precipitation.
If currants grow on salty or overly fertilized soil, the likelihood of diseases such as powdery mildew, anthracnose and terry is sharply increased.
When choosing a place for currants, it must be borne in mind that it does not like excess fertilizers and salts in the soil, excess chlorine and is very sensitive to detergents that enter the soil, therefore it cannot be planted next to compost heaps and street washstands, from which soapy splashes are often fly in all directions.
The compost, which will be used to fertilize currants, should not be added with feces and food residues, and it is advisable to apply all fertilizers under it in the fall.
Gooseberries and currants with a stem
Increasingly, currants and gooseberries are now grown not in bushes, but in standard form. And this, judging by the responses and some personal experience, gives significant advantages over traditional cultivation. They consist in facilitating the care of plants and harvesting from them, in enlarging and improving the quality of berries due to better illumination, besides, the berries acquire a kind of decorative effect. To achieve such a reconstruction of the berry garden is quite simple, and you don't even need to resort to laborious vaccinations.
In order for currants or gooseberries to grow in a standard form, like a small tree, a simple way has been invented. When planting a plant, one of the strongest vertically growing shoot is chosen from a seedling, the rest are all cut out directly from the ground.
From the left shoot, all branches are removed to the intended height of the trunk, a tube made of polyethylene or other material that does not transmit light is put on it. The lower end of the tube is buried 10 cm into the soil, and the upper end is raised above the soil to the desired stem height. These plants can be planted much closer together than regular shrubs.
The trees must be tied to a support (pegs or trellis), this is necessary so that they do not break with strong growth or under the influence of wind and fruit loads.
If you do not use a light-transmitting tube, then remove all lateral branches to the intended height of the trunk, which is usually 60-100 cm. In subsequent years, 4-5 branches are left and the entire crown is formed. They remove thickening shoots, as well as branches growing down, damaged and older than 7-8 years. Every year, shoots appear at the base of the bush, which must be removed immediately, preventing them from growing.
Pros of the standard form of currants and gooseberries:
Currants and gooseberries in standard form are suitable for small gardens, as the plant takes up less space. Easier care and harvesting. Better illumination improves the quality and size of the berries. More plants can be grown in the same area and a higher yield can be obtained. The method is often used for decorative purposes.
There are climate limitations of this method.
Research by the Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia has shown that they are most reliably protected from frost and freeze less, which means that squat bushes well-covered with snow, rather than tall bushes or trees of these crops, bear fruit better.
In experiments, the yield of red currants without snow cover decreased by 40-50%, black - by 40-80%, gooseberries - even more. These figures are given on average over 20 years. In cold climates, currant and gooseberry trees must be covered or bent down for the winter to cover with snow, choose frost-resistant varieties.
The growth of the underground part of currant bushes in good conditions can last up to 30-40 years, in gooseberries even longer. At the same time, the maximum age of aerial shoots is much less: in black currant, skeletal branches can live for 6-10 years (with a maximum fruiting for 4-5 years), in red and white currants - up to 7-12 years (with a maximum fruiting for 5-7 year), in golden currants - up to 12-18 years (with a maximum fruiting for 6-8 years). With the natural bush form of growth, dying skeletal branches are constantly renewed by new shoots growing from the base of the bush every year, and thus the plant greatly extends its life span. When growing in a standard form as a tree, due to the constant removal of new basal shoots, the life of the tree will be limited by the above terms. The standard form of gooseberry with grafting on golden currant is advisable. A gooseberry culture in this form is very convenient for picking berries. In addition, due to the relative durability of the golden currant stem and the grafted skeletal branches of the gooseberry, such gooseberry trees are also relatively more durable.
So think for yourself, decide for yourself whether to have or not to have. on their site standard gooseberries and currants :) Good luck!
Currants, blackberries, wolfberries are inedible.
... The bush is medium-sized, grows well, under the weight of the fruit, the branches bend slightly. The kidneys are of medium size. The scales covering them have an anthocyanin coloration. The leaves are medium, dark green and green, with a well-defined central vein. Inflorescences are single or double, short and medium (on average 4-10 flowers per inflorescence), flowers are slightly pinkish. Medium late ripening variety (mid-July). The bushes bear fruit abundantly and regularly. The fruits are excellent for all types of processing, therefore they are widely used in the production of juices and concentrates. Winter hardiness is high. Plants are resistant to American powdery mildew, relatively resistant to currant rust and Alternaria.
Berries (1.1 g) are round, black, without shine, sweet acidic, with a good aroma. The variety is very productive, bears fruit regularly, and exceeds Green Haze in yield.
Very self-fertile, fruitful, contains vitamin C, resistant to kidney mites and anthracnose, but can be affected by powdery mildew.
In addition to those zoned in recent years, a number of new varieties of domestic and foreign selection have emerged and are being distributed.
For crossing, mainly currant varieties with large berries are selected - in this case, the harvest is more abundant, and it is easier to collect it.
Bird cherry fruits are both black (the pulp is green, or greenish-yellow), and red (with yellow pulp)
/ If “with one bone” - it’s not berries. A berry is a currant-type fruit with many small seeds inside. With a bone - drupe.
Chokeberry-chokeberry - then to the first answer ...
Blueberries. well, maybe also a blackberry. wolfberry (what is not a berry).
Berries are a favorite food at any time on the table. The sweet pleasant aroma of berries beckons to itself. Here are the names of berries that will make drooling, but some of the names of berries you will hear only for the first time.
You will come across some amazing berry names on the list that are actually berries. You may be confused, but some of the fruit names are not berries. The fine line that separates these fruits is the classification defined in botany.
In this article, "edible wild berries", we propose to get acquainted with berries in more detail. And in this article you can familiarize yourself with the List of fruit names with photos. In this article, you can already familiarize yourself with What fruits and types of fruits are.
How is the term berries understood in botany? Berries are fruits that have inner flesh, edible rind, pericarp, produced from a single ovary. In other words, it is one pulp ovary that grows in a juicy fruit, and there is no barrier between the seeds and the pulp that these seeds feed on.
Non-professional understanding of berries: All small juicy, colored fruits with pulp are berries.
Barberry: Barberry fruits are small berries that are red or dark blue in color. Barberries are long and narrow fruits. They are used to make jams and liqueurs. They are rich in vitamin C.
Elder: They have antioxidant properties that reduce cholesterol levels, improve vision, strengthen the immune system, and eliminate heart problems, coughs, colds, flu, bacterial and viral infections, tonsillitis. Also added to ice cream and many other products: cocktails, jams, convenience foods, muffins and syrups.
Grapes: Grapes contain vitamins A, C, and B6. They also contain potassium, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid.
Honeysuckle: They are rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin C and quercetin (an acid that fights free radicals). Honeysuckle has been used in Chinese folk medicine for centuries. There are some poisonous varieties of honeysuckle. Therefore, it is better to buy honeysuckle in the store than to pluck it in nature. You can read about honeysuckle juice here.
Viburnum reddish: These berries can be eaten raw or processed. After being plucked from the tree, they quickly deteriorate, and can only be stored for 3 days in the refrigerator, or they need to be frozen, canned or dried. All parts of the plant are used in medicine.
Red currants: These are small round red or white berries that are used to make jams, pies and salads. They contain a lot of vitamins C, iron, potassium and dietary fiber.
Gooseberry: These are small, round, striped berries. Unripe fruits are green in color, while ripe fruits are pink to yellow in color.
Mahonia holly (oregon grapes): They look like grapes and are blue or purple in color. They look like they are covered in powder. They are known as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents in nature.
Sea buckthorn: These orange berries are about the size of grapes. They are rich in antioxidants and vitamins that can help you lose weight and ward off dementia.
Podofil: Podophilus grows wild, mainly in the forest. Most podophiles do not bear fruit and only have one leaf. Those that bear fruit have 2 leaves and only one flower, which then turns into a fruit. In the budding phase, the fruits are green, tough and poisonous. However, it gradually turns yellow and softens, and tastes good when ripe.
A tomato: It is a common vegetable-fruit in the human diet and is botanically classified as a berry. Tomatoes are the most common fruit in garden plots.
Currant: These are red, green, yellow or black berries. They were dried and used as raisins.
Black currant: These are popular aromatic berries similar in appearance to red currants. From them I make jams, pies, ice cream, cakes, etc. Black currants contain vitamin C. Berries also contain potassium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B5.
Rose hip: These are red oval berries, also known as wild rose. They are the pome fruit of the rose. Berries are rich in vitamin C.
Aronia: There are two types of chokeberry, chokeberry and red mountain ash. Purple chokeberry is a hybrid of the above berries. Berries are used to make juices, jams, etc. They are also used as a flavoring and coloring agent. Berries are high in vitamin C and antioxidants.
Asai: These small round black berries are Brazil's largest commercial crop. They make juices, cocktails and various other drinks. These berries are known for their antioxidant properties.
Barbados cherry (acerola, cherry acerola, Malpighia nude): This berry is native to the West Indies and Central America. The juice of these berries is also popular in the West Indies, as well as orange juice in America. The content of vitamin C in this berry is almost 65 times more than in an orange!
Dereza ordinary (Goji berries): Outwardly, the berries are similar to dried and shriveled berries. They are also called wolf berries. They are usually prepared before consumption. They are used to make herbal tea, wine, rice water, goji juice, etc. They contain 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals, 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber, etc.
Irga canadian: Berries have large seeds with a hardened rind. Ripe berries are red or purple in color. They are mainly eaten by birds. The berries are sweet.
Canadian arrogance: These are seasonal berries with a stone, blue-black color. They are food for birds and animals.
Fruit tree frame: Winter fruit turns red or orange when ripe. Although the fruit is edible, it is rarely used in food. However, they are eaten with pleasure by wild birds and animals that eat them throughout the winter.
Persimmon: They are not considered berries, but they are in fact according to the botanical classification. Persimmon is red or orange in color. Contains glucose and protein. Persimmon is used medicinally.
Virginia bird cherry: Unripe red berries have a sour, astringent taste. Ripe berries are dark in color and taste not very tart. The berries are used to make jelly, preserves, and syrup. They require a lot of sugar or sweetener to preserve.
Emleria: Berries are oval green and tough at the time of ripening and subsequently turn reddish, while ripe berries are black and purple in color.
Lingonberry: Lingonberries make jam, juice, syrup, compote, sauce, etc. Lingonberries are rich in vitamin C, provitamin A, vitamin B (B1, B2, B3), potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.
Crowberry: These dry black berries are very similar to blueberries in appearance and taste. They are used as a natural food coloring. Native Americans use them to heal sore eyes. They are low in vitamins and high in water.
Cranberry: Berries are white when unripe and red when ripe. They make juice, sauce, wines, etc. Eating large quantities of cranberries is very beneficial for health. Berries contain high levels of vitamin C, fiber, mineral salts, and manganese.
Bearberry: Berries are brownish red. Berries have many medicinal properties. Bearberry herbal tea is used in the treatment of nephritis.
Blueberry: Berries are dark blue or purple in color. They are used in jams, purees, juices, pies, and muffins. They contain high levels of antioxidants and can help prevent the development of many diseases. For example, diseases of the stomach, heart, dystrophy.
Juniper Berries: They are green when the berries are not yet ripe and are purple-black.
Boysen Berry: These berries are burgundy in color, shiny large juicy berries are a hybrid between raspberries, blackberries and logan berries. They are added to pies and pies.
Voskovnik: The birthplace of berries is China. The berries are dark red in color. These berries can be eaten or used to make jams, pickles, wine, and juice.
Blackberry: This berry is the most common in the UK. These are small, dark, purple berries that are the main ingredient in jams and pies. Berries contain a lot of vitamin C.
Blackberry gray: They belong to the blackberry family and are sweeter than blackberries. Unripe berries are dark red, while ripe berries are dark purple. However, the striking feature is that the male and female plants grow separately.
Irga: These are red berries, ripe black and blue. They are similar in size to blueberries. They make jams, muffins, etc.
Irga spiky: These are sweet berries that are used to make cakes and jams.
Irga alder-leaved: This berry is native to Canada and is very similar in appearance to blueberries. Berries are rich in vitamin C, manganese, magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, copper and carotene.
Strawberry: It is the most popular fruit in the world. Various culinary dishes, jams, ice cream, sauces, pies, cakes, milkshakes, etc. are made from strawberries. Strawberries contain a high content of vitamin C, manganese and folic acid.
Loganberry: These are ruby red, sweet, juicy berries. They are used in juicing. Berries contain vitamin C, calcium, iron, potassium, fiber, and carbohydrates.
Raspberries: These are small red berries that ripen in summer or autumn. They are used to make jams, jellies, pies and ice cream. They contain a lot of vitamin C, manganese, vitamin K and magnesium.
Fragrant raspberry: The berries are red. These fruits are so fragile that they can break when you pick them up.
Raspberry purple: These are red or orange berries. Contrary to their name, they are not suitable for the production of wines due to their astringency.
Cloudberry: Ripe berries have a pleasant taste and color from yellow to orange-red. They make jams, sweets, marmalade and wines. Native Americans eat these berries with dried red caviar, hence the English name Salmonberries.
Mulberry: These berries are red, purple and black. The berries are used to make pies, cakes, liqueurs and jams.
Marionberry (marion berries): It's a hybrid. They are darker than blackberries and are used to make pies, cakes, ice cream and jellies.
Olallieberries: These berries are found mainly in California. They are rich in vitamin C and fiber, which are helpful in reducing the risk of cancer.
Youngberry Large: Sweet reddish black berry, blackberry / blackcurrant hybrid. They ripen 2 weeks earlier than blackberries. Berries are rich in vitamins A, C and B1, calcium, cellulose.
Wolfberry (Wolf bast): The berries of this plant have a fragrant odor and are poisonous. Come from Eurasia, North Africa and Australia.
Voronet: The berries grow on flowering herbaceous plants belonging to the family buttercup... Poisonous berries contain a cardiogenic toxin. These toxins affect heart muscle tissue, leading to cardiac arrest and death.
Common crow: These large berries are white in color and have a black mark that resembles an eye. The berries are very poisonous. In English, the berries are called Doll's Eyes Berries.
Lakonos(phytolacca): These dark purple berries are poisonous to humans, but birds eat them. Two species of this plant grow in Russia.
Lily of the valley: This plant is completely poisonous due to its convallatoxin content. In Russia, it is distributed in the European part, the Mountainous Crimea, Transbaikalia, Priamurye, Primorye, Sakhalin and the Kuriles.
Ligustrum (privet): The berries of this plant are poisonous and have a black color. One species grows in the South of Russia. The flowers of this plant are purple in color.
False nightshade (Jerusalem cherry): Yati berries are poisonous, they are often confused with tomatoes. Like many relocated plants and fruits to Australia, False Nightshade has become an aggressive weed there.
Holly berries: This red berry is used as an ornamental one. If ingested, they can cause vomiting and diarrhea.
Yew berries: These red or blue berries contain poisonous seeds. If you need to survive, consume these berries without seeds.
Such a huge selection of berries allows you to enjoy them to a sufficient extent. However, be careful when you are in nature and want to pick a berry that is not known to you hanging on bushes and plants, it can be a very poisonous berry. So the list of berries is over, please add the names of berries not mentioned in the comments!
CURRANT golden, it is also golden currant, came to us from North America, where, without human intervention, it grows in a vast area from the northwestern United States to Mexico. There is also a species very similar to it - fragrant currant.
Golden currants were brought to Russia at the beginning of the 18th century. Gradually, it gained popularity as an unpretentious ornamental shrub and rootstock for growing gooseberries in standard form. Over time, the edible berries of the golden currant were also appreciated.
This species has absolutely fantastic adaptability: now it is grown as an ornamental and berry shrub in a variety of soil and climatic conditions: in England, the Czech Republic, the Baltic states, in the North Caucasus, in Central Asia, Russia and Belarus.
Berries of golden currant have a long dried cup and can be, depending on the variety, red, orange, yellow, brown, black. Size - from medium currant to medium gooseberry. The taste of the fruit may seem unusual for a person who grew up on black currants, but it is not devoid of pleasantness. The berries have a dense skin, are transportable, without a characteristic odor, not too sour. You can make compotes, preserves and jams from them. Vitamin C in golden currants is 3-4 times less than in black currants. But the fruits contain a lot of vitamin A (carotene), ahead of this indicator even apricots and bell peppers. With all their advantages, golden currant berries are unlikely to be able to displace black currants from our everyday life, but they are good as an addition to it.
Large, bright, golden-yellow flowers have a strong pleasant aroma, perceptible from afar, and attract bees. Due to the late (late May) flowering, frosts rarely damage this plant.
Golden currant is a powerful (about 2.5 m in height) shrub.As already mentioned, it is resistant to all imaginable and inconceivable misfortunes: heat, dust, smoke, drought, frost, pests and diseases. In harsh winters, plants can freeze slightly, but they recover easily. Small, odorless, three-lobed leaves resemble gooseberries, and the berries are more like slightly unripe gooseberries than currants. This similarity has given rise to misconceptions about its hybrid nature. Buds with young leaves of golden currant contain a compound of hydrocyanic acid and are very poisonous! In autumn, the leaf blades become variegated - red and yellow spots appear on a green background.
Yoshta is a hybrid of black currant and gooseberry. The plant looks a lot like a currant.
The name is an abbreviation from the German words "black currant" (yohannisbeere) and "gooseberry" (stachelbeere) - the breeders took 2 letters from the first word, 3 letters from the second and got the name of the new garden culture yo-sta.
The berries are collected in small clusters, dark, with a weak aroma, and to the taste like gooseberries. Size as small as gooseberries or very large currants. Propagated by cuttings and layering, disease during this time was not damaged and did not hurt at all.
To its taste, yoshta does not look like gooseberries or black currants, the taste qualities of this berry are completely different. Yoshta berries are black and large in size. The bush itself reaches a length of up to 2 meters and has abundant shoots, there are no thorns on the bush. Yoshta yield is good with proper care and abundant watering, and it can also be increased if you plant at least one gooseberry bush and a large black currant next to the yoshta bush, then the yield will increase. Yoshta practically does not need pruning (only after winter, dry and frozen branches should be cut off), loves moisture and abundant watering, especially during fruiting, propagates by cuttings, in addition, yoshta has a fairly high resistance to diseases, pests and takes root relatively easily in a new place.
Yoshta begins fruiting early, in the 2nd year after planting. Already in mid-April, the yoshta dissolves the leaves and begins to bloom, when the buds are just waking up on other crops, for example, on an apple tree. The flowers are large, bright, much larger than currant flowers. The bush blooms magnificently and is very dressed up during flowering. Yoshta is a wonderful early honey plant, pollinated by bees, bumblebees. Yoshta differs from gooseberry by the complete absence of thorns and higher frost resistance. Black currant is 1.5-2 times larger than fruit. Fruiting annually, up to 10 kg of berries from a bush.
Fruiting clusters are abundant, but short, 3-5 berries each. The fruits are attached to the stalk very firmly and often come off with pulp. Berries up to 20 mm in diameter and weighing up to 3.5 grams, juicy, sweet and sour, with a pleasant aroma, first green, then red, dark red, purple and almost black. Their skin is smooth, dense, very durable, with a purple waxy bloom. By the content of vitamin C, yoshta berries are 4 times higher than black currants, contain trace elements, biologically active substances, vitamins P, B, have healing properties - they normalize blood pressure, improve digestion. Suitable for canning. If the yoshta berries, after reaching full ripeness for 7-10 days, are left on the branches for ripening, they become tastier.
Fruit formations are much more durable than currants - they live up to 7 years, are located on the periphery of the entire bush, on 2-8-year-old shoots, sometimes even near the roots, almost on the ground. In the 7-8th year after planting, the shoots grow old: the leaves and fruits on them become smaller, the shoots themselves begin to give weak growths and gradually die off. Since the plant is constantly renewing, powerful (up to 1.6 m tall) young shoots grow quickly to replace them, which bear fruit generously.
If the lateral branches of 2-3-year-old shoots are cut at a height of 0.5-1 m above the ground, then the yoshta will acquire a standard shape and will look like a small tree with a spreading crown. With such a formation, it is easier to care for the plant, it is easier to mulch, remove weeds.
It should be borne in mind that the cultivation of Yoshta in standard form causes a decrease in yield. In addition, this shape must be maintained by annual pruning, otherwise strong young shoots will begin to sprout quickly from the base of the trunk and the tree will eventually turn into a large bush with a genetically characteristic spreading crown shape.
Joshta can be successfully used as a standard stock for all currants and gooseberries. Previously, golden currants were used for such boles, but yoshta significantly surpasses it: it multiplies more easily, gives a more powerful bole, differs in frost resistance, endurance and vitality.
Very decorative small standard trees in the form of a ball with multi-colored berries - white, red, black currants, green, red, yellow, pink, black gooseberries. And all this is interspersed on one powerful trunk. Such trees are easy to care for and will decorate any corner of the garden. Particularly elegant is a chain of such plants, planted 2-3 meters along the path, in combination with climbing roses or clematis.
The root system of the yoshta is fibrous, highly branched, located in the surface layer of the soil, does not give root growth. The plant is undemanding to soils, drought-resistant, in the presence of a snow cover with a layer of up to 0.5 m, it can withstand frosts down to -32 ° C without freezing. The culture is resistant to kidney mites, aphids, is not affected by viral and fungal diseases, although in spring it is slightly damaged by kidney eaters.
Caring for yoshta does not differ from caring for currants, but when planting, a larger hole is dug and space for each bush must be allocated at least three meters in a circle. If yoshta is planted correctly, caring for it is very simple - it is enough to remove 7-8-year-old shoots that give crushed berries, mulch the soil with a layer up to 20 cm thick along the projection of the bush (mulching materials - grass, straw) - to prevent weed germination and preserve moisture. Mulching bushes is a very important part of agricultural technology, because if the roots are close to the surface of the soil, the soil in the trunks should not be dug or weeded. Mulching significantly increases the yield and quality of berries, mulch rotting over time, nourishing the root system and protecting it from freezing in severe winters with little snow.
Yoshta is best propagated by cuttings. With this method, the survival rate is up to 95%. Planting is carried out in the fall, at the end of October - early November, you can plant it in the spring, but then the shoots will grow more slowly. Cuttings 15-17 cm long are cut from well-lignified shoots. They are planted so that the upper bud is 1.5 cm above the ground level; for safety reasons, you can leave a part of the cutting with two buds, the lower one 1.5 cm above the ground surface. When planting, it is advisable to place the bushes according to the 3x3m scheme. To maximize yield and quality berries, plants must have room to grow. Although Yoshta is a very unpretentious plant, when choosing a site for planting, you should take into account that she loves wet, well-lit areas. Before planting in the ground, you need to add 10-12 kg of humus at the rate of each 1 m2 of the area allotted for planting. Yoshta and seedlings reproduce well. To do this, you need to dig holes 0.7 x 0.7 m, add 1 bucket of humus mixed with soil to each during planting, water the seedling (1 bucket of water per bush) after planting. All work with cuttings and seedlings should be done very carefully, because yoshta (especially in the upper part of cuttings or seedlings) has long fragile buds, they must be protected from breaking off.
Gooseberry and currant diseases (viral terry, spheroteka, anthracnose, rust, spotting) are not affected by yoshta.
The disadvantages of yoshta include wet separation of berries, especially if they are harvested in large volumes, followed by transportation. But it is easy to get around it - it is enough, when harvesting, to pick the berries immediately in bunches, and separate them from the petioles just before processing or consumption.
In general, our gardens have been enriched with one more valuable berry plant, now it is up to the breeding of good forms and varieties.