Root and wild grafting. Propagation by root cuttings


Read the previous part. Breeding methods for clonal rootstocks

Root grafting

Fig. 1. Winter root grafting according to the method of improved copulation
(with tongues)
1 - prepared roots;
2 - cuttings;
3 - grafted root;
4 - vaccination site after strapping

As I already noted, the roots are best harvested in the fall, after leaf fall, but it is also possible in early spring, immediately after the soil thaws. It is desirable that the roots have branches and lobes of suction roots. The length of the roots is 15-20 cm, the thickness is not less than the thickness of the grafted cuttings. The roots harvested in the fall are tied into bunches, observing the polarity, it is usually recommended to make the upper cut straight, and morphologically the lower cut oblique, and store in the same conditions as ordinary rootstocks. If possible, store the grafted plants in a room with a low positive temperature or in a snow pile, you can start grafting in January.


If the thickness of the root corresponds to the thickness of the grafted cutting, I usually do the grafting into the split, but if the stock is much thicker than the scion, then I graft with the butt with the tongue (see Fig. 1). In early spring, as soon as the soil thaws, I plant the grafts in open ground in the grooves, which I cover with earth as the scion grows, and then I spud. With good care, regular watering and feeding, by the fall, magnificent one-year-olds are obtained, from which the stock can be removed, since the scion has already formed its root system.

It should be noted that when grafted on a "non-native" stock, for example, a clone stock of an apple tree on a pear, hawthorn, mountain ash or quince, the scion's own root system will develop better. The plants obtained in this way can be used for laying a mother liquor, the desired varieties can be grafted onto them (using the top removed during grafting for further propagation). You can do a little differently - do not remove the stock, but over the strapping make a constriction with wire. In this case, the root system of the wild will die off by itself in a year or two, and we will get a tree on a clonal rootstock, from which in another 1-2 years it will be possible to gradually separate part of the roots for grafting or for grafting.

It should be noted that if a grafting of a variety is done on the root of a clonal rootstock, then care should be taken that the grafting site is above the soil level, since many varieties can form their roots over time, and in this case the dwarf effect will be lost.

Vaccination for wild (for seedling)

Sapling with dwarf insert

A stalk of a clonal stock is grafted onto the wild about 10-15 centimeters above the root collar. This is done so that in the future, when mulching young plants, the grafting site does not turn out to be underground, and the clonal stock does not pass on to its own roots.

By the fall, we get a beautiful one-year-old clone stock. In the spring, 20-25 centimeters above the grafting site, we cut it off and graft the variety we need.

Thus, we got a three-story seedling, or a seedling with a dwarf insert (roots are a seedling, then a dwarf rootstock, which will reduce the growth of the tree and accelerate its entry into fruiting, and on top - a variety dear to our heart). And the remaining "tail" is used for further reproduction.


Propagation by root cuttings

If there are trees on dwarf rootstocks or uterine bushes in the garden, then propagation by root cuttings is a very promising way. The roots are harvested at the same time as for grafting and stored in the same conditions until planting.

The polarity of the roots is also respected, the only difference is that the roots should not be too long for grafting - 15-17 centimeters is quite enough, and can be quite thin. Before planting, the cuttings should be divided in thickness into several fractions: the thinnest are thinner than 3.5 mm, the thinnest ones, in which the diameter of the upper sections is from 3.5 to 5.5 mm, and the standard ones are thicker than 5.5 mm. If there are a lot of cuttings, then it also makes sense to divide standard cuttings into fractions with an interval of 2-3 mm. Indeed, the evenness of seedlings depends on the evenness of the planting material.

The optimal planting time is bud swelling in plants of the corresponding crops in the open field. Naturally, cuttings can be planted earlier under cover.

Cuttings should be planted in areas with well-aerated soil, since air is one of the most important conditions for the development of young shoots. For the same reason, care should be taken with watering. Cuttings are planted almost vertically, I do this under a peg, so that the upper end of the cutting is at the level of the soil or 1-2 cm deeper.

Planting should be necessarily mulched with a layer of dry loose peat (2-3 cm). Rows with cuttings should be marked with pegs or labels so as not to injure seedlings that have not yet appeared from under the mulch during weeding and loosening. Prior to the emergence of the bulk of the seedlings, these two operations are of paramount importance. In early spring, the soil is quite moist, and it is quite possible to do without watering, since the mulch retains soil moisture, but to allow a violation of the mulch layer when weeding overgrown weeds means condemning the cuttings either to waterlogging (in rainy weather), or to dry out during hot spring.

When growing clonal rootstocks from root cuttings, one more technique is of great importance - as the growth of shoots increases, it is necessary to gradually increase the mulching layer. The fact is that at first the shoots grow rather slowly, and even by the end of the season it is possible to grow very few specimens suitable for grafting.


Building up the mulching layer with organic material (humus, peat, compost, grass cuttings or dried weeds with roots outward) not only improves the water, air and temperature regime of the soil, but provides additional nutrition for the growth of shoots and an additional layer of soil in which stem roots are formed in the lower parts of the escape. And since clonal rootstocks usually give a bunch of several shoots, it is very important when growing after separating them from the root cutting that they have as many roots as possible.

Separated shoots are stored until spring in the same conditions as seed stocks and root cuttings. In the spring, they are planted for growing according to the 15x20 cm scheme and by autumn they get magnificent clonal rootstocks. If part of the shoots is separated just above the upper end of the planted root cuttings, then next year it will be possible to get some more rootstocks from this area, now by the method of vertical layering, spudding the emerging shoots, as described above.

There are many other methods of accelerated propagation of clonal rootstocks, developed by highly respected experts, but, unfortunately, they are mainly intended for production conditions.

I will also not touch upon the issues of propagation of clonal rootstocks with green and lignified cuttings, since I believe that they are more suitable for those who have a large amount of material (cuttings) and equipment for cuttings - greenhouses, greenhouses, fogging installations, etc.

The methods described above seem to me the simplest and most reliable precisely in the backyard garden, when the gardener can give his pets a minimum of time and care.

Vasily Khrabrov, gardener,
Old Peterhof

Read also:
• Grafting of one type of plant to another
• Grafting of fruit and ornamental plants
• Budding is an effective type of grafting of trees and shrubs
• How to properly plant fruit trees

Pruning apple trees

Pruning is a mandatory procedure that is performed every year. If you start the timely removal of branches at least for a season, you will have to remove thicker branches. The plant is difficult to tolerate such pruning.

Apple tree pruning - video

What is pruning for?

    improving the quality of apples, their sizes

strengthening, healing the plant

prolong the period of fruit formation

ensuring air access and sufficient sunlight to the branches

prevention of diseases, damage by pests

ensure the timeliness and regularity of fruit formation

  • creation of additional growth at the end of each year up to 40 - 60 cm.
  • Timing of pruning apple trees in spring and autumn

    Apple pruning is carried out in spring or autumn. Both options have their merits.

    To carry out pruning in the spring, they wait until the temperature is set at a level not higher than - 5 degrees. Another important condition: the buds should not yet bloom. Spring pruning benefits: favorable conditions, removal of shoots that have frozen over the winter.

    For pruning an apple tree in the fall, a suitable period is after harvesting until the very end. It is convenient to prune in the canopy, because you can see the growth over the year and it is exactly clear how much you need to prune. Another advantage of the autumn procedure: combining it with top dressing and watering. This will even better prepare the plant for wintering.

    There are several types of trimming: forming, rejuvenating, normalizing, sanitary, restoring. More details about each will be discussed below.

    Formative pruning is carried out the next year after the planting year. Choose about 4 strong branches that do not intersect with each other, growing evenly, straight. Weak, thin twigs are removed.

    From March to April, while the buds have not yet had time to swell, the remaining strong branches are slightly pruned at the ends. If in doubt about the small twigs on the main stems, it is best to take your time and consult more experienced gardeners.

    Formative pruning spent the next year after the planting year. Choose about 4 strong branches that do not intersect with each other, growing evenly, straight. Weak, thin twigs are removed.

    From March to April, while the buds have not yet had time to swell, the remaining strong branches are slightly pruned at the ends. If in doubt about the small twigs on the main stems, it is best to take your time and consult more experienced gardeners.

    Rejuvenating apple pruning also held every season. All branches that have old buds are subject to removal. They can be easily spotted by their multi-year increments. If the branch does not develop, does not grow, what can be said about an increase of less than 15 cm, this is a clear sign that it should be removed.

    Normalizing carried out when a lot of kidneys are forming. This can reduce the quality of the crop, and therefore pruning is carried out. To carry out this type of pruning requires experience and knowledge. It will be difficult for a beginner to immediately assess how many or little kidneys have formed.

    Sanitary pruning of apple trees carried out in order to prevent the plant from getting sick and not being attacked by pests. Remove dried and frozen branches.


    Dogwood propagation by seeds

    This method is no less time-consuming, laborious and painstaking. For the reproduction of dogwood from the seed, the fruits are harvested in the fall, removing the pulp from the seed. Then, for a whole year, the seeds are placed in a humid environment with moss or sawdust. Of course, it is necessary to regularly water the substrate, protecting it from drying out. This is how stratification occurs, which is needed for the speedy growth and hardening of seeds.

    Another method of this growing method involves planting freshly harvested seeds directly in the open ground in the fall. By the same principle, chrysanthemum seeds are propagated. Dogwood germination will also occur in a year. But in this case, germination can be much worse due to the unpredictability of natural conditions.

    The seeds, which are collected from unripe fruits, have the best germination capacity.

    Dogwood seeds go 3-5 cm deep into the ground. When the first shoots appear, they should be fed and watered as needed. It is also necessary to arrange protection for sprouts from exposure to direct sunlight in order to avoid burns of foliage and rapid drying of the soil.

    In the fall, a year later, the seedlings will be up to 15 cm high. They can already be transplanted to a new place of growth.

    The first fruits will appear only after 7-10 years.


    How to grow and propagate cherries at home?

    Cherries are a tasty and healthy berry. Having one bush in the garden, the gardener eventually has a desire to increase the amount. In order not to buy new seedlings, it can be multiplied and grown.

    Cherry reproduces in several ways, not only by planting in the ground, but also at home:

    1. Cuttings
    2. Vaccination
    3. Underwire
    4. Undergrowth
    5. Layers


    Gardeners reviews

    A neighbor has three large trees in his dacha. He says that the unabi is called the Chinese date. I, too, was on fire to plant, but having tasted it I refused. My relatives did not like the taste either. It does stabilize blood pressure though. A neighbor always has a zizyphus in his pocket. He says that it was with him that he was cured. With a date, perhaps only an external resemblance. And so it tastes more like a dried apple, and there is not enough sweetness in it. Although, maybe the variety is ...

    savich

    http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=5877

    Unabi fails north of Krasnodar. Useless venture.

    Volume

    http://www.websad.ru/archdis.php?code=300146

    I have several different varieties in Crimea that bear fruit without problems) As for the middle lane, there is practically no hope here. Of the examples, only a woman from the Moscow region is remembered, who wrapped up her bush for several years, but in the end it nevertheless froze out, and did not bear fruit. Relatively positive results were obtained only near Samara, where one amateur in a covering culture periodically has small harvests.

    Andy

    http://forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=6642

    In our Krasnodar Territory, the unabi, if memory serves, begins to bloom in late April - early May. For this reason, people who planted it for the first time very often prematurely think that it did not start, especially since the transplanted tree blooms a little later.

    Sergey

    http://forum.homecitrus.ru/topic/20006-unabi-zizifus-v-otkrytom-grunte/

    The entry of ziziphus into fruiting for 4 years, at least in the conditions of the Crimea, two varieties are enough for me to get a harvest.

    Russimfer

    http://club.wcb.ru/index.php?showtopic=770

    The easiest way to grow unabi is in the southern regions of Russia and Ukraine, where this unpretentious drought-resistant plant feels great, grows and bears fruit without much care. The only problem of growing ziziphus in the southern zone is the difficulty of reproduction of this fruit crop. In more northern regions, however, attempts to cultivate unabi in the open field most often end in failure - after several years of growth, the plants usually freeze out in the very first truly frosty winter.


    If the vaccination is carried out on 1-2 year old wilderness or small branch, the procedure will not be difficult. And here is the vaccination in stumps and large skeletal branches - the process is more complex, requiring certain skills.

    You can choose garden knives for grafting in our catalog, which combines the offers of large garden online stores. View a selection of garden knives.

    The split grafting technology includes the same steps as other grafting methods: preparation of the stock and scion, their combination and protection of the operation site.

    • Step 1: preparing the stock
    The wild, trunk or branch selected for the stock should be cleaned of dirt, excess old bark. Cut the wild boar at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground, and cut down the trunk or branch according to the situation. The cut is necessary clean out with a knife.

    When cutting a branch, pay attention that there are no defects (bulges, thickenings, branches) below the end, as they can affect the splitting.

    Advice: if grafting with one cut is to be done, it is recommended to cut the stump so that one side is higher than the other. And place the stalk on the higher part of the beveled hemp.

    • Step 2: splitting the rootstock
    If the stock has small thickness, then a cut is made with a knife along the diameter line to a depth of 3-4 diameters of the rootstock itself.


    Cleft inoculation. Photo from the site kostka.by

    If we are talking about large rootstock - for example, about a 15-centimeter stump - then the splitting is carried out in a different way. First, an incision must be made on the bark along the proposed split (cleavage). This is necessary so that during a split, the bark disperses in even edges. Then, with a knife or chisel, hitting them with a hammer, or using a hatchet, they split the stump to a depth of 5-7 cm. To prevent the split from closing, a wedge (screwdriver, chisel and similar tool) is inserted into it. Then the gap needs to be widened with a wedge or chisel. If you want to cruciform cleft, then the procedure is repeated, performing a perpendicular split (at a right angle).

    • Step 3: preparing the scion
    The cuttings are selected so that 3-5 eyes remain above the place where they are combined with the stock. The lower part of the cutting must be cut into a wedge so that the cut length is 3-4 diameters of the shoot itself. You cannot touch the bare wood with your hands, this threatens the infection of the scion.

    • Step 4: connecting rootstock and scion
    If vaccinated young plant or in small branch, the prepared stalk is introduced into the split so that the cambial layers are combined. A small strip of the cut part of the cutting is left on top of the split. This is done for better fusion of the scion and rootstock.


    Cleavage grafting

    If vaccination is carried out in a stump or wide saw cut, as a rule, 2 cuttings are inserted into the split, placing on two opposite sides. Important take into account that the bark of the hemp is thicker than the bark of the cutting. Therefore, when inserting the stalk into the split, do not combine the bark of the scion and rootstock, but the tissues of the cambium.

    If you need to vaccinate 4 cuttingsthen:
    a) first insert the first pair into one split
    b) take out a wooden wedge (screwdriver), which expanded it
    c) pushing the second split apart, insert the second pair of cuttings.



    Cleft inoculation. Photo from planetviolets.com

    • Step 5: protect the vaccination site
    Vaccination site needed twine tightly dressing material - cling film, electrical tape, raw rubber or special elastic tape. All open grafting sites (the upper cut of the scion and the side slits and the end of the stock) must be thoroughly smeared with garden varnish.

    Until the first leaves bloom, it is recommended close the vaccination site plastic transparent bag. This will help keep the humidity in the air. If the vaccination site is on the sunny side - at the time of accretion it needs it shade.

    The following video shows a practical example of using the split method when grafting an apricot onto a wild plum tree and an apple tree onto a top of another apple tree variety:


    Seed reproduction

    This is a method in which a new plant is obtained by sowing seeds. It is rarely used for reproduction of varietal highly productive plants, since the offspring in this case does not repeat the characteristics of the parents. Seed propagation is used in the following cases:

    • in breeding, when parental pairs are selected artificially, and pollination also occurs artificially. Of course, you can try to sow seeds from any delicious berry. Sometimes they get very interesting shapes that way. The harvest from such trees can be harvested only in the 7-10th year.
    • when breeding wild forms, when the quality of the berries is of secondary importance. Plants obtained from seeds adapt better to the conditions of their site. This is especially true for the northern regions.
    • to obtain rootstocks with subsequent grafting of a cultivar on them. The rootstock from a seedling gives less root growth, has a clearly defined central root, better keeps the tree in the ground and actively extracts water from deep soil layers.

    In order to get a new plant, the seeds are first separated from the pulp. Then they are washed, disinfected and stratified.

    Stratification

    Stratification lasts about 2 months in a humid environment at low above zero temperatures. The easiest way to do it is in natural conditions in winter. To do this, take a 3-liter glass jar, steam it. Then the substrate is selected. It should be loose, keep moisture well and not cake. Slightly rotted sawdust, dry grass cut, you can add a little sand. The substrate is pickled to avoid rotting and moldy seedlings. As a disinfectant, drugs Benazol, Maxim, a hot solution of manganese are used. Excess moisture is allowed to drain, and the disinfected mass is mixed with the prepared seeds 1: 1 or 2: 1. The jar is filled 2/3 full, covered with a plastic lid, and then buried in the garden.

    In the spring, the jar is dug up, the contents are gently shaken out. Most of the seeds should have sprouted already. They are planted in pre-prepared beds or cups with nutritious soil. Then young plants need to be regularly watered, weeded and fed.

    If there are a lot of seeds, you can sow them in the fall immediately into the ground to a depth of 2-3 cm. The percentage of germination in this case will be less, but such plants are stronger and more frost-resistant. In winter, the garden bed is additionally covered with snow. In the spring of next year, the strongest seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.


    Watch the video: Banana Natural Rooting Hormone.


    Previous Article

    Blue is one of the best potatoes

    Next Article

    Tree Stonecrop