Lupine: growing from seeds in the open field, planting and care, photo


Garden plants

Did you know that lupine is not only a beautiful but also a very useful plant? Lupine oil is not inferior in quality to olive oil, but it does not contain substances that slow down digestion.
Lupine is both decorative, green manure and medicinal culture at the same time. The root system of this plant is capable of storing and converting nitrogen into a form that is easier for plants to assimilate.
Lupine began to be cultivated about four millennia ago.

If you are interested in this culture, then from our article you will learn:

  • When and how to sow lupine;
  • How to care for decorative lupines;
  • What types and varieties of lupine are most often grown in culture.

Planting and caring for lupines

  • Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early March, planting seedlings in the ground - at the stage of development of 2-3 leaves. Sowing seeds directly into the ground - before winter or in April.
  • Bloom: for three weeks from the end of May or from the beginning of June.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: any, but better loamy with a reaction from slightly alkaline to slightly acidic.
  • Watering: plentiful in spring, moderate during the rest of the time.
  • Top dressing: from the spring of the second year, once a season with mineral complexes that do not contain nitrogen.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: aphids, sprout fly larvae, nodule weevils.
  • Diseases: root and gray rot, fusarium wilting, phomopsis, rust, mottling, viral mosaic.

Read more about growing lupine below.

Lupine (lat.Lupinus) - a genus of the Legume family, which is represented by both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Translated from Latin "Lupus" means "wolf", and the plant itself is sometimes called wolf beans. Lupine flowers are widespread in nature in two regions: in the Mediterranean-African region, 11 annual and 1 perennial species of lupine grow, and in the Western Hemisphere, in the territory from Patagonia to Alaska and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, about 200 species of lupine grow. Of the American species, only the variable lupine, which the Incas were still engaged in, and the many-leaved lupine, are cultivated.

The lupine plant is drought tolerant, so some of its species grow in the deserts of Arizona, California, Texas, Peru and Chile, and even in the Sahara. In 1911, the English breeder George Russell created highly decorative species of lupines, which were called "Russell hybrids" and since then have been the most popular decoration of gardens and flower beds.

Botanical description

The root system of lupins is pivotal, sometimes extending 2 meters deep. The roots are covered with small swellings that absorb nitrogen from the air and enrich the soil under the plant. Stems are woody or herbaceous, branches are creeping, protruding or erect. Lupine leaves are alternate, on long petioles, palmate-compound, connected to the stem by a leaf cushion with a long stipule. Inflorescence is an apical raceme, on which a large number of flowers are whorled, semi-whorled, or alternately. The brush sizes in some species reach one meter, the color of the flowers is varied - yellow, white, red, pink, cream and purple lupins, as well as all shades of purple.

Lupine seeds of different species differ in shape, size, and color. The lupine beans of the Mediterranean species are larger than the American ones. Drying, the beans crack and scatter seeds around them - very small grains of lupine. Lupine not only decorates flower beds, it is also grown as a green manure: stems and leaves of lupine rotted in the ground become an excellent fertilizer. In addition, fodder lupine is grown.

Growing lupine from seeds

Sowing seeds

Sow lupine seeds for seedlings in a loose soil mixture for germinating seeds, consisting of peat (one part), sod land (one part) and sand (half part). Before sowing, the seeds are mixed with powdered root nodules of old lupins to accelerate the growth of nitrogen-absorbing bacteria. Seedlings will appear in a week or two, and if you want all the seeds to sprout at the same time, you need to cover the crops with wet gauze and keep them warm.

Growing seedlings

It should be recalled that seed reproduction does not guarantee the inheritance of coloration and other traits of mother plants by young lupines. Lupine from seeds is usually grown for the purpose of a breeding experiment. Purple and pink colors dominate, therefore they can persist in the next generation, and the white color is most likely lost during seed reproduction. After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place - do not delay the transplant, since the tap root system will become a significant obstacle to you.

Planting lupine

When to plant

If you are using a seedling method of seed propagation, then sow the seeds in early spring, at the beginning of March. If you decide to sow directly into the ground in spring, then sowing lupine is carried out in April, after the snow melts, but the site should be ready in autumn. Many flower growers prefer to sow lupine before winter, at the end of October. There are many advantages in autumn sowing and there are almost no contraindications: the seeds will not have time to germinate before winter, since they will ripen in the ground in very comfortable conditions. Seeds are buried in the ground to a depth of 2 cm, then the site is mulched with peat, in the spring the lupine will rise together and bloom by August.

If you grow lupine in a seedling way, then, as already mentioned, lupine is planted when 2-3 leaves appear on the seedlings, and do not tighten so that there are no problems with transplanting.

How to plant

Most lupins are suitable for slightly acidic or slightly alkaline loamy or sandy loam soil in a sunny area. To prepare the site for the spring planting of lupine seedlings, in the fall, the acidic soil is limestone or dolomite flour at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m², and this is enough for 3-4 years. Too alkaline soil is dug up with peat with the same calculation - 5 kg per 1 m². In the spring, germinated and strengthened seedlings are planted in the soil prepared in the fall at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other.

Lupine care

Care rules

Lupine care is not difficult. If you grow perennial lupine, for the first year you will have to periodically loosen the soil on the site and remove the emerging weeds. Over time, adult plants will need to be huddled, since the root collar is gradually exposed, and the side rosettes are isolated. After five to six years of growth, old bushes will have to be removed, since the middle part of the bush dies off and the quality of flowering deteriorates markedly. Provide support for tall lupines so that their stems do not break in the wind.

If you want lupins to bloom until the very cold, prune withered inflorescences without letting them dry out. After such manipulation, perennial species are able to bloom twice a season. Watering lupins should be moderate, but in spring watering should be abundant.

Fertilizer

Top dressing of lupins is carried out in the spring, in the second year of growth, with mineral fertilizers that do not contain nitrogen: about 20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of calcium chloride are applied per 1 m² of area. Top dressing is carried out every spring until it is time to plant new lupins.

Pests and diseases

During the budding period, lupine can be affected by aphids, at a later time - by the larvae of the sprout fly and nodule weevils. You will have to fight them by spraying the plants with insecticides.

Of the diseases, rot (gray and root), fusarium wilting, spots and mosaics, phomopsis and rust are dangerous for lupine. You won't have to fight diseases and pests if you follow the agrotechnical requirements for lupine, and first of all, the rules of crop rotation: the placement of lupine again on the site can take place only after three years. The best precursor for lupine is cereals.

How to collect lupine seeds

As soon as the lupine fruit ripens, it cracks, and the seeds scatter in all directions. To prevent this, you need to collect seeds when the beans turn yellow and just start to dry. This will have to be done selectively in several steps.

Lupine after flowering

When the lupins bloom, around the beginning of October, you need to cut off the flower stalks and leaves, collect the seeds, if necessary. Bushes of perennial lupins should be earthed up to cover the exposed root collar with soil, and then covered with sawdust for the winter - lupins are very cold in winter.

Types and varieties

Let us present you some of the most famous species of lupins in nature.

Lupine narrow-leaved, or blue

Herbaceous plant with a height of 80 cm to 150 cm with a sparsely pubescent erect stem. The leaves are palmate, also pubescent below. Flowers are odorless, white, pink or purple in color, which for some reason was considered blue, and therefore called the species "blue lupine";

Lupine multifoliate

Comes from the Northwest of North America. It is winter-hardy, therefore it grows well in our latitudes. Height from 80 cm to 120 cm, stems straight and almost glabrous, the leaf of lupine multifoliate is palmate, on a long petiole, pubescent below. Inflorescences 30-35 cm long consist of many blue flowers. It blooms for about three weeks in June, subject to the condition of timely removal of wilted inflorescences, it blooms again at the end of summer.

Lupine yellow

Annual with sparsely leafy pubescent stem, the same pubescent leaves on long petioles, consisting of 5-9 lobes. Yellow flowers with a scent reminiscent of mignonette, collected in a whorled raceme;

Lupine white

Grows up to 150 cm in height. Its stem is erect, branched at the top. The leaves are palmate, densely pubescent from below in such a way that the villi form a silvery rim around the leaves. The upper side of the leaves is smooth. The flowers are odorless, white, pale pink or light blue, arranged in a spiral in the inflorescence.

In addition to these species, attention is also drawn to the following: changeable lupine, perennial lupine, small-leaved lupine, dwarf lupine, nutkan lupine, tree lupine and others.

In culture, hybrid varieties of multifoliate lupine are most often grown, such as:

  • Princess Juliana - up to 110 cm tall, white-pink flowers are collected in a brush up to 40 cm long, blooms up to 40 days from June;
  • Apricot - up to 90 cm high, orange flowers, inflorescences up to 40 cm long, blooms from mid-June 30-35 days.

But the most beautiful and favorite varieties of flower growers were brought out by the breeder Russell: "Burg Fraulin" - with a pure white color, Mein Schloss - with a red-brick tint, a series of undersized bright hybrids Minaret or Splendid - a variety group of monophonic hybrids and varieties with a sail of white or contrasting color.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Legumes family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about Herbaceous plants
  8. Information about Annual Plants
  9. Shrub Information
  10. Information about the Shrub

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Annuals Weeds Shrubs Semi-shrubs Siderata Plants on L Legumes (Moths)


Types and varieties of lupine with a photo

Today, there are hundreds of species of lupine. Nevertheless, only a dozen of them can be called garden and decorative. Most often these are perennials that grow up to 50-150 cm.

The most famous species of this plant in nature are the following:

  • Narrow-leaved or blue. This plant is herbaceous, it grows up to 80-150 cm. Its stem is erect, sparsely pubescent. The flowers of this type of lupine are odorless. But they are of different colors - pink, white, purple.
  • Multileaf... This species is native to North America. But in our latitudes it feels great, because it tolerates winter well. Plant height reaches 80-120 cm, of which the inflorescence is 30-35 cm long. Almost bare straight stems have leaves on long petioles. Flowers on lupine of this species are colored and they appear in June.

Lupine multifoliate Lupinus Polyphyllus

  • Yellow... This is already an annual species. Its stem is pubescent, but has few leaves. They grow on long petioles, also pubescent and consist of about 5-9 lobes. The brush of the plant consists of yellow flowers with a scent that resembles mignonette.
  • White... This species grows up to 150 cm. The stem is branched in the upper part, erect. The leaves are densely pubescent. The villi are so dense that a silvery rim is created along the edges of the leaves. Flowers of white lupine can be of different shades: white, light pink, pale blue, they do not have a smell.
  • It is also worth remembering the following types of lupine: silver, changeable, tree-like, dwarf, etc.

    As for the varieties, most often only a few of them are grown in culture. For example, the "Princess Juliana" variety grows up to 110 cm, has long clusters of white-pink flowers. The flowering period reaches 40 days.

    Another variety is Aprikot. This plant has orange flowers. The inflorescences reach 40 cm in length, and the plant itself grows up to 90 cm.


    Types and varieties of verbascum

    At the moment, verbascum has about 250 species, in addition to this, scientists have bred a huge number of varieties. The most popular among gardeners are:

    • Verbascum purple (Verbascum phoeniceum) -This variety reaches 50 centimeters in height, and it was named so because of the color of its flowers.
    • Verbascum charm (Southern Charm) -This variety, at the time of flowering, is covered with delicate pink flowers
    • Verbascum nettle leaf - the variety reaches 90 centimeters in height. The flowers are yellow in color and look gorgeous together with purple stamens with a red tint.
    • Verbascum longifolia (Verbascum longiflorum) -variety grows up to one and a half meters in length. Its flowers are colored yellow like gold.
    • Olympic verbaskum (Verbascum olympicum) -the variety is capable of reaching two meters in height. The flowers are colored yellow like the sun, and the leaf plates are covered in silver.
    • Verbascum black (Verbascum nigrum) -variety grows up to 1 meter in height. The flowers are bright yellow, and brownish spots decorate the throat of the corolla.
    • Verbascum dark (Verbascum blattaria) -the height of this variety is one and a half meters. Flowers can be yellow and white.
    • Verbascum orbit (Verbascum hapsus) - the cultivar grows 2 meters or more. The inflorescences are spike-shaped and are collected from many small yellow flowers.
    • Silk-bearing verbaskum (Verbascum bombyciferum) -the height of the plant is about 2 meters. The flowers are painted in delicate yellow colors. Leaves covered with a silvery color have a slight tomentose pubescence. Among this species, the variety is especially popular: Polar Summer, Arctic Summer, K.L. Adams.
    • Scepter verbascum (Verbascum densiflorum) -the plant of this variety reaches two meters in height. Large yellow flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences and gradually open in 4 pieces.
    • Verbascum hybrid (Verbascum hybridum) -Here are combined varieties with beautiful flowering of various colors. The flowers of the hybrid verbascum are snow-white, yellow, pink and apricot shades. They can combine shades of pink and yellow. The eyelet located in the center is colored purple.

    Hybrid varieties of verbascum include:

    • Verbascum Jackie (Verbascum hybridum 'Jackie') - its flowers are beautiful pink.
    • Mont Blanc, Miss Willmott, Bredol Beech - have flowers as white as snow.
    • Gainsborough - its flowers are painted in pale yellow shades.
    • Kostvold queen - has an apricot corolla color
    • Pink Domino - The flowers are pink, wine-like and have a slight copper tint.
    • Harry helen - the diameter of its large pink flowers is about 10 centimeters.
    • Helen Johnson– flowers have a smoky pink hue and a brown-purple core in the center.
    • Jackie - house plant 40 centimeters in height. Flowers same as Helen Johnmon

    The height of such varieties as: Flower of Scotland, Buttercup, Sugar Plum, Summer sorbet, Summer sorbet, White candles, Jackie variety - does not exceed 50 centimeters.

    The height of such varieties as: Blue Lagoon, Cherry Helen, Copper Rose, Clementine, Helen Johnson, Mont Blanc, Pink Domino does not exceed one and a half meters.

    Densiflorum, Miss Willmott, Wega, C.L. Adams - these varieties reach two meters in height.

    Purple verbascum: photo of a plant


    Use in landscape design

    The structural features of lupins make them in demand when decorating flower beds and other compositions in the garden. Multi-colored candles-inflorescences of culture can decorate any site, front garden or flower bed in the park. As a rule, vigorous lupins are rooted as a central tier in flower beds, and they can also become the backdrop for evergreen crops that form a dense living carpet.

    With the help of multi-colored lupines, rockeries are made out, they are planted in alpine hills, when creating landscape compositions using decorative stone sculptures. Also, plants become an ornament of border flower arrangements, they can be planted along buildings.

    As suitable neighbors in the flowerbed for lupins, colorful hosts, phloxes, irises and lilies act.

    For information on how to properly grow lupines, see the next video.


    Watch the video: Lupine - Lupinus species - How to grow Lupines


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