Noble chestnut - Castanea sativa


Chestnut is the third bread

I would like to tell the readers of the magazine about one wonderful plant. Edible or noble chestnut is a glorious tree with a rich and mysterious history, a tree that was lucky, along with grapes, wheat, olive, to become one of the very first significant acquisitions of human culture.

It should be clarified that the usual horse chestnut and chestnut edible - these are absolutely two different plants, not similar to each other either in appearance, or flowers, or fruits. And if the fruits of the edible chestnut are widely used in cooking, then the horse chestnut is good only for decorative and medicinal purposes.

Chestnut noble Is a deciduous tree or shrub with brown bark. The plant is pollinated by the wind, its flowers are inconspicuous. The inflorescence is in the form of an ear. In the second half of summer, among the long dark green leaves of the noble chestnut appear globular, apple-sized, light green seedlings, densely covered with thorns and resembling a hedgehog. In October, first the fruits, and then their bristly wrappers, fall to the ground.

Since ancient times, during the ripening season of chestnuts, all the population able to move gathered in chestnut groves. Men and boys climbed trees and dropped the fruits down, while the women collected them and placed them in various containers. In mountainous areas not adapted for arable farming, the fruits of edible chestnut provided people with food for a whole year.

Nowadays, for a significant part of the population of Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Greece, chestnuts remain an important food product. On the French island of Corsica, famous for its chestnut thickets, until recently one could meet old people who had never tasted grain bread: it was perfectly replaced by chestnut bread. The chestnut field does not require any worries - come every fall and pour the harvest into the bins. The Marseilles joke: the banana makes the inhabitant of the tropics lazy, and the chestnut makes the Corsican ...

Yes, chestnuts are bread, and not only nutritious, but also delicious. Yellowish, with a sweet aftertaste, chestnut flour is surprisingly similar in composition to wheat flour, but much surpasses it in sugar content, fat content and, most importantly, protein. It is not surprising that the addition of chestnut flour to wheat flour, even for our modern taste, does not worsen, but improves the quality of the bread. The dough from chestnut flour rises better than from cereal flour, a beautiful appetizing crust appears during baking (a consequence of the abundance of sugars), the products are fluffy, airy.

In Russia, the sowing chestnut, or noble, can be found in the forests on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. It reaches 40 meters in height and 2 meters in diameter. Its crown is spreading, and its root system is strong. Chestnuts live for 500 years or more. Fruits begin to appear at 5-10 years of age.

Already many thousands of years ago, man invented various methods of preparing chestnuts. The dish of steaming aromatic chestnuts, boiled with salt, is perhaps no younger than the Old Russian oatmeal. And the method of withering chestnuts, which exists today in the Krasnodar Territory, Georgia, and Armenia, has certainly come unchanged since the times when the fabulous country of the Golden Fleece sent them to Hellas.

From time immemorial, a bonfire and coals have been at hand with the traveler. And the most unpretentious dish - baked or fried chestnuts - was destined to survive almost all epochs in the history of civilization and remain loved even today. And today on the streets of many cities in Europe, Asia, America they sell hot chestnuts fried on portable braziers.

Chestnuts are also stuffed with ducks and chickens, used instead of potatoes when stewing game, rabbit, poultry, boiled confitures, creams, mashed potatoes, soups, make desserts, ground into flour, which is used in baking bread, muffins, pancakes, glazed in sugar syrup ... It is not surprising that chestnuts and dishes with the addition of these fruits are a must on the festive table of Europeans. You can endlessly talk and write about chestnuts and dishes made from them, they are so versatile and tasty in all their guises.

IV Michurin was deeply right: this valuable tree deserves special attention. A hectare of chestnut plantings can yield up to three tons of valuable flour. It is unpretentious - it is known from European experience that rocky mountain inconveniences, unsuitable for other fruit trees, became profitable areas after cultivating an edible chestnut on them. Late blooming edible chestnut stands against the well-known scourge of fruit growing - spring frosts. It is no coincidence that the world production of chestnut fruits has now reached 1.5 million tons. In our agricultural nursery, the edible chestnut has been successfully adapted to the conditions of the Central strip. We hope that gardeners who are passionate about what they love will be able to acclimatize this useful plant in more northern regions. Anyone looking for interesting vegetable, fruit, flower and medicinal plants can contact the online store: www.super-ogorod.7910.org or write to the address: 607060, Vyksa, Nizhny Novgorod region, dep. 2, P.O. Box 52 - to Andrey Viktorovich Kozlov.

Andrey Kozlov, gardener, Vyksa, Nizhny Novgorod region

Photo: Wikipedia


Buy seedlings Edible chestnut

Edible species of chestnuts belong to the Fagaceae family, that is, they are related to oaks and beeches. The genus Chestnut (Castanea) is small, includes only a dozen species, of which we are most interested in these.

Toothed chestnut, or American (Castanea dentata) - the most cold-resistant of the edible chestnuts (4 frost-resistant zone up to -34 ° C). His fruits are in 1st place in taste and nutritional value.

Previously, American Chestnut was one of the most common tree species in the east of the North American continent. But at the end of the 19th century, a fungal disease was introduced from East Asia along with Asian species of chestnuts - endothian chestnut bark cancer or cryfonecrosis, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica).

The disease turned out to be fatal for the "American", it destroyed most of the planting of the American chestnut - in the first 40 years, 4 billion trees died, almost the entire population of this species in its homeland, now it is on the verge of extinction.

Chinkapin (Castanea pumila) - grows as a shrub or small tree, the fruits are very tasty, but small (up to 2 cm in diameter), and therefore it is rarely cultivated as a fruit breed. It is in the 4th zone of frost resistance, but it is susceptible to endothian cancer.

Crenate chestnut, or Japanese (Castanea crenata) - originally from Japan and East China. Of its advantages - undersized (grows as a tree or even a shrub), the largest-fruited and early bearing on, relatively frost-resistant (zone 5), resistant to endotia. Pay attention to him and his hybrids.

The softest chestnut, or Chinese (Castanea mollissima) is another Asian species widely cultivated in Europe, North America, and Asia itself. Of the advantages - relatively frost-hardy (in all reference books he is given a 4-5 zone), early (begins to bear fruit from 5-8 years), resistant to endotia. The fruits are large and one of the most delicious.

Sowing chestnut, or European (other names - real, noble, edible lat. Castanea sativa) - the largest and most durable, but more thermophilic (zones 5-6), grows and is cultivated in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea region, in the Caucasus. It is susceptible to endotias to a lesser extent than the "Americans".


2-3 times per season, the ground around the chestnut must be loosened. Watering as needed. In the fall, the near-stem circle is mulched by 10-12 cm with fallen leaves, peat or sawdust. To create a spreading crown in early spring, trim the upper branches of the plant ¼ of the length.

In this section I placed edible oaks (chestnut)


Edible chestnuts go to the Middle Lane

Chestnuts are widely cultivated in the world - inedible Horse chestnuts as ornamental plants, and edible Beech chestnuts (10 species in total) as food. Edible nut-bearing chestnuts are valuable food sources and are a staple food in some regions. The shell of nuts in all types is thin, the nut is round-heart-shaped, the taste of the kernel is sweet, starchy. Some species as fruit crops can be grown in the gardens of the south of the Middle Strip.

Description... The most widespread in Europe and the Caucasus European Chestnut, or sowing, real, noble, edible (Castanea sativa). This deciduous tree (like all beech chestnuts) has up to 35 m in height and up to 2.5 m in trunk diameter. A chestnut named Etna, consisting of 5 fused trunks, had a diameter of more than 20 m. That is why edible chestnuts, like plane trees, can be successfully used in bioconstruction. The chestnut crown is powerful, spreading, so it should be planted in the perimeter of the site, where in the first few years the tree will be protected from through winds. The noble chestnut lives for over 1000 years. The leaves are lanceolate, leathery, up to 30 cm long, up to 10 cm wide, the serration along the edge of the leaf is uneven and large, which distinguishes it from other species. Like all chestnuts, the plant is monoecious, but with heterosexual flowers. Male flowers are small, white-yellow, collected in long spikelets or earrings. Female flowers are hidden on the same shoots as male ones, outwardly inconspicuous, green pistils without petals. Chestnuts are pollinated not only by the wind, but also by insects. They emit a lot of nectar - in the Caucasus, bees collect up to 600 kg of honey from 1 hectare of plantings and pollen.

It blooms in late May - June, in the Middle Lane in July, when the air temperature stably exceeds + 15 ° C. The aroma of flowers is pleasant, bitter-sugary. The tree begins to bear fruit on average at 15-20 years. For fruit ripening, the average temperature in September should be + 15 ° С, and in October + 9 ° С. Walnut 2-5 cm (up to 20 g), like all chestnuts, is enclosed in a prickly green (very decorative) bun of 1-5 pieces, which turns brown when ripe. The fruits ripen in October - mid-November. In southern Europe, the yield of one large tree reaches 200 kg, where in some regions chestnuts are the main food product. In eastern Europe, the northernmost fruit-bearing trees are found in the southern Baltic and southern Belarus, and the cultivation of edible chestnuts extends as far as northern Norway. There are about 500 varieties of edible chestnut in Europe. Frost resistance of noble chestnut from Krasnodar Territory is -29 ° C, European seedlings are less winter-hardy.

Toothed chestnut, or American (Castanea dentata) - a tree up to 35 m high with a trunk thickness of up to 1.5 m, in an open place the crown is low, squat, mushroom-shaped. Annual growth is up to 1 m. Leaves are narrow-lanceolate, up to 25 cm long and 6 cm wide, which is less than that of the European species, and the leaf edge is often serrate. In autumn, the leaves are pale yellow in color. Male inflorescences up to 20 cm long. Flowering occurs in late June - July. Spiny plyusky bear 2-3 nutlets 1-2.5 cm long with a long spout. Sometimes among chestnuts there are dioecious plants that bear flowers of only one sex. But even in monoecious toothed chestnut trees, the flowering of male and female flowers is observed at different times, which is why cross-pollination does not occur. Therefore, when growing toothed chestnut as a fruit crop, it is necessary to plant at least 2-3 seedlings. The toothed chestnut fruit ripens in late August - early September, which is a month earlier than the European species. The first harvest usually gives at the age of 15-20 years. Withstands a short-term drop down to -35 ° С. The tree is very resistant to air pollution.

Another American species - Dwarf chestnut, or undersized (Castanea pumila) - a bush or tree up to 15 m with coarsely toothed leaves along the edge, pubescent from below. Curiously, this is the only species that can form fruits without pollination - parthenogenetically. Blooms from late May to late June. Fruits ripen in October, nuts are 1-2.5 cm. Each cupule opens with two valves and contains only one nut. The dwarf chestnut gives its first harvest at a young 3-4 years of age. Frost resistance about -25 ° C.

Crenate chestnut, or Japanese (Castanea crenata) - a squat tree up to 15 m, with a trunk thickness of up to 1.5 m, which makes it look very powerful, attractive for Japanese-style landscape design and bio-construction. The root system is deep and wind-resistant. The leaves are much smaller, up to 16 cm long, 4 cm wide, finely serrate along the edge, felt underneath, all this well distinguishes the Japanese chestnut from other species. Male inflorescences up to 12 cm long. Flowering occurs in June - July. There are 3-7 nuts in the plyus, 2-3 cm each, but in cultivated varieties the nuts are up to 6 cm (up to 80 g), which makes them the largest and most attractive among edible chestnuts. There are more than 100 varieties of this species, some frost resistance reaches -26 ° C.

The softest chestnut, or Chinese (Castanea mollissima) - a small tree up to 20 m in height, very similar to Japanese chestnut. Leaves are lanceolate, dense, sometimes tomentose below, coarsely toothed or smooth along the edge with bristles. Walnut 2-5 cm, can often be found in hypermarkets, because Chinese chestnut is grown all over the world. A fairly winter-hardy and promising chestnut, it can withstand frosts at -30 ° С, it has moved further north in the Middle Belt than others. A couple more Chinese species with edible, albeit small fruits (1-1.5 cm) in size like a hazelnut - Henry's chestnut (Castanea henryi) up to 30 m with frost resistance up to -28 ° С and Segyu chestnut (Castanea seguinii) up to 10 m with frost resistance up to -25 ° C.

Therefore, if you want to grow a nut garden with an abundance of tasty nutritious crops, collect a collection of nut-bearing plants and at the same time make the garden highly decorative, plant edible chestnuts. Than not only please the children and grandchildren, but also all the local bees.


Planting chestnuts

When planting, keep in mind that a place of at least 3 m (or even more) in diameter should be allocated for each seedling. Only in this case, an adult tree will delight you with a spreading crown, abundant flowering and good fruiting. Chestnut prefers loamy leached chernozem. It is immune to winds, air pollution and is quite frost-resistant.

Planting chestnut seedlings

It is most convenient to plant chestnuts with 1-2-year-old seedlings. To do this, prepare square pits 50x50x50 cm in size.Mix the soil removed from the pits with humus and sand in the ratio: 2: 1: 1 and add 0.5 kg of dolomite flour and slaked lime, pour 200 g of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium into each hole fertilizers. At the bottom of the holes, lay a drainage layer (pebbles or crushed stone, mixed with sand) of 10-15 cm.Then sprinkle it a little with soil substrate, spill the hole well with water, place a seedling in it and carefully fill the hole with soil, tamping it slightly with your hands.

When planting large chestnuts, place the root collar of the seedling 8-10 cm above the level of the planting mound. Seedlings of low and medium-sized varieties of chestnut do not need to be overestimated. Attach the seedlings to a support to avoid damage during strong winds. After planting, water the plant abundantly with warm water.

Planting chestnut seeds (in autumn)

Chestnut seeds (nuts) germinate well in the open field even without our intervention. Collect the fallen nuts in the fall and carry out the stratification procedure (cold aging). To do this, put the nuts in an open box, sprinkle with sand and refrigerate or in the basement for 10-12 days. Optimum temperature for stratification: + 5. + 6 ° С. Then you can place the seeds in open ground.

Loosen and spill the soil well with water, bury the nuts 5-6 cm at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, then fill them with fallen leaves (no need to bury). That's all - the chestnut seeds are ready for wintering, and in the spring you will see green shoots, and all you have to do is thin out the seedlings, leaving the most powerful plants.

Planting chestnut seeds (in spring)

Fruits fallen in autumn should be covered with sand and stored all winter at a temperature of +5. + 6 ° C, and before planting in open ground for 5 days, place them in warm water.Then plant chestnut seeds in your favorite spot in the country. With such cultivation, one-year-old chestnuts will grow by 20-25 cm in a year, and at the age of five they grow up to 3 m in height.


Fruits ripen on edible chestnut


How is chestnut used?

The plant has firmly established itself in people's lives. It is used as:

  • a source of wood raw materials for the production of furniture, sleepers
  • low-calorie ingredient for the preparation of bakery and confectionery products
  • a good quality heat source, an important component for the production of coal, ash
  • constituent for non-traditional methods of treatment.

The benefits and harms of fruits

Chestnut fruits are useful for hypovitaminosis, physical exhaustion, disorders of psycho-emotional balance, surges in blood pressure, reduced immunity, and a tendency to inflammatory diseases. It is a source of vegetable protein, fatty acids, complex carbohydrates and biologically active substances. In terms of vitamin and mineral composition, chestnuts are comparable to other types of nuts.

The disadvantage of fruits is their weak taste.... In their raw form, the kernels lose to hazelnuts or walnuts, resembling raw potatoes. Heat treatment significantly improves the taste.

You should stop eating chestnuts when:

  • being overweight or obese
  • diabetes mellitus
  • peptic ulcer of the stomach or intestines.

A large amount of starch in the nuclei can aggravate the existing disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, and coarse fiber can exacerbate the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

Why horse chestnut is useful and the use of raw materials for medicinal purposes

Used plant parts: flowers, leaves, seeds, bark of trunks and branches.

The high medicinal properties of horse chestnut are explained by the presence of active substances in the plant. Various parts of the plant contain: isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-glucoside) quercitrin leukodelfinidin nicotine rutin esculetin esculin - escin bark - fruit.

Collection time: flowers - May-June, leaf - May-September, fruits - October-November, bark - in spring.

Collection of raw materials: leaves up to 20 cm long are harvested from May until the color change begins, dried in the shade, sprinkled with a thin layer and turned twice a day. Dry is a leaf in which the petiole breaks with a crunch, and the color remains green. The seeds are harvested in October-November. Freed from the pericarp and dried for 3-4 weeks in a well-ventilated room or in a dryer at 40-50 ° C for 2-3 days. Seeds when properly dried are round, deep brown and shiny. Flowers without pedicels are harvested in May-June, dried in the shade. The bark is collected from the branches of 3-5 years old, dried in a well-ventilated area. The beneficial properties of the leaves and flowers of the horse chestnut last 1 year, the seeds and bark - 2 years.

Due to its high healing properties, the use of horse chestnut preparations is recommended for hypertension, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, atherosclerosis, for the treatment and prevention of thrombosis and embolism.

Esculin reduces capillary permeability, stimulates the antithrombotic activity of blood serum, increases the production of antithrombin in the reticuloendothelial vascular system, increases blood circulation in the veins, especially if they have pathological changes.

Escin lowers blood viscosity, is a capillary protector. Chestnut extract increases the tone of the venous vessels. It treats diseases caused by impaired peripheral circulation, varicose veins, venous insufficiency, accompanied by pain and a feeling of heaviness in the lower extremities, phlebitis, hemorrhoids, post-traumatic and postoperative edema, post-traumatic hematomas, and prevents postoperative hematomas.

When studying preparations from horse chestnut, their beneficial effect on patients with varicose veins was noted, recovery of patients with central retinal vein thrombosis was noted, a positive effect was observed in various disorders of arterial peripheral circulation - sclerotic changes in the vessels of the legs, etc.

For the treatment and prevention of edema-pain syndrome in official medicine, a wide range of drugs is used: glucocorticoids, diuretics, preparations based on horse chestnut extracts, flavonoids and their derivatives, glivenol and ergot alkaloids.

Currently, L-lysine escinate 0.1% for injection is sometimes used to treat edema and swelling of the brain in acute severe traumatic brain injury, as well as postoperative edema of the spinal cord.

When treating with a solution of L-lysine escinat 0.1%, it is possible to simultaneously prescribe anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial drugs.

The study of the pharmacological activity of galenic preparations of chestnut (alcoholic extract, alcoholic tinctures, decoctions and infusions from leaves, flowers and fruits) showed that the alcoholic extract of chestnut fruits is the most effective.

Traditional medicine recommends the use of horse chestnut for articular rheumatism, liver diseases, and most importantly - for the treatment of varicose veins and leg ulcers, hemorrhoids, thrombophlebitis, and some gynecological diseases associated with blood congestion in the small pelvis.

Infusion of dried chestnut flowers for the use of horse chestnut for medicinal purposes is rubbed into the joints for rheumatism and arthritis.

Household purpose: common horse chestnut, retaining its decorative effect throughout the growing season, is used for planting on streets, boulevards, alleys and parks. It is especially beautiful during flowering, when its crown is decorated from bottom to top with large "candles" of erect inflorescences. It blooms profusely only with a free, single planting.

The fruits in the villages were formerly used for women's adornments (beads).

Honey plant. Gives a lot of nectar and pollen. Bees also collect glue from their buds in the spring. Honey is colorless, transparent, liquid, quickly crystallizes, so it is not left to bees for wintering.

For economic purposes, the sowing chestnut, edible chestnut, real chestnut, noble chestnut, sweet chestnut, cheshlyk, kesten, ko stan, tsabliskhe, tzabli, tchuburi, shakanakeni, shakanok, shambalut, shakhbalut, euboean walnut (Castillane. ), Beech family (Fagaceae).

The fruits are eaten raw, baked, boiled, they are also dried and smoked for longer storage. Used for making flour, sweets, ice cream, cakes and as a coffee substitute.

Excellent honey plant. During flowering for 10-14 days, bees take nectar from female flowers and pollen from male flowers. Honey is liquid, dark, most often bitter, and therefore has a low value.

The chestnut has a very valuable wood. It is beautiful, light, strong, durable, does not rot (high tannin content). Previously, it was used not only for construction purposes, but also made from it barrels for the most expensive wines. It was also used as a support for the vine. Currently, the harvesting of edible chestnut wood is prohibited everywhere.

When describing the edible chestnut, Theophrastus indicates that the tree grows in the mountains, does not lose its taste in the wild, blooms in spring, the fruits ripen after the Pleiades sets in. Describing the economic purpose of wood, Theophrastus notes that chestnut wood does not rot: “Euboean walnut is a large tree that is taken for roofs, before bursting, begins to crack, so that a catastrophe can be foreseen, and so it happened in Antandra in the baths, from where everything jumped out. " Another use of edible chestnut wood is also described: “Coals are used differently for different purposes. Sometimes soft coal is required: in iron mines, for example, when the iron has already melted, they take coal from Euboean walnut, and in silver mines, coal from Aleppo pine.

These photos show what a horse chestnut looks like, the medicinal properties of which are described above:



Chestnut flower and fruit tinctures: recipes for treatment

Recipes for treating various diseases with horse chestnut:

  • Tincture: 1 part chestnut blossom juice to 2 parts 50% alcohol. Take chestnut tincture according to this recipe of traditional medicine, 1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day in 50 ml of water.
  • Tincture for prostate adenoma: peel dry chestnut fruits, grind into powder. 25 g of powder per 250 ml of vodka, leave for 1 month. Take 20 drops 2 times a day (lunch and dinner). The course of treatment with chestnut tincture based on this recipe is 20 days. Then a 10-day break. And so, for 6 months.
  • Tincture for varicose veins: 50 g of flowers per 0.5 l of vodka, leave for 14 days, filter. To make an ointment: mix 10 g of chamomile flower powder, 10 g of sage leaf and flower powder, 50 g of crushed chestnut fruits and 5 g of potato starch. A mixture based on chestnut flowers according to this folk recipe needs to be poured with 200 g of hot chicken fat, simmer in a water bath for 2.5 hours, insist overnight, reheat to a boil in the morning, remove from heat and filter hot, let cool. Treatment: take in water 30 drops of horse chestnut tincture according to this recipe 3 times a day 20 minutes before meals for 3-4 weeks. Simultaneously lubricate the veins with ointment. Store the jar of ointment in the refrigerator.
  • Tincture for articular rheumatism: 40 g of dried chestnut flowers per 1 liter of alcohol, leave for 2 weeks, filter. It is recommended to use a tincture of chestnut flowers according to this recipe of traditional medicine for rubbing.
  • Infusion for leukemia, brain tumors: 1 tablespoon of dried chestnut flowers in 200 ml of water, bring to a boil and pour into a thermos, leave for 5-8 hours, filter. Take the infusion of horse chestnut flowers, prepared according to this recipe, by a sip at a time. You can drink 1 liter of infusion per day, the dosage can be selected individually (overdose can cause convulsions). Treatment 15-20 days. After a ten-day break, you can repeat it.

Other chestnut-based remedies

Recipes for folk remedies based on horse chestnut raw materials:

  • Infusion for colitis, enterocolitis, bronchitis: 1 teaspoon of chopped horse chestnut bark in 1.5 cups of cooled boiled water, leave for 8 hours, filter. Take horse chestnut according to this traditional medicine recipe for 1/4 cup 4 times a day 20 minutes before meals.
  • Juice for varicose veins of the lower extremities, hemorrhoids: squeezed chestnut blossom juice take 2-3 times a day, 20-30 drops in 1 tablespoon of water. In case of hemorrhoids, additionally make sessile baths from the infusion of flowers (50 g per 1 liter of water).
  • Decoction for various bleeding: 1 teaspoon of chopped horse chestnut bark in 2 cups of water, boil for 10 minutes in a water bath, filter, bring to the original volume with boiled water. Take a decoction of horse chestnut according to this recipe of traditional medicine, 1-2 tablespoons 3 times a day.
  • Fetuses with uterine fibroids: roast chestnuts (like coffee), the main thing is not to overcook! Powder. 1 teaspoon of powder in 1 cup of boiling water, bring to a boil, leave for 15 minutes, filter. Take 1/3 cup 3 times daily until recovery.
  • Extract for fibrocystic mastopathy: 6-8 tablespoons of dried chestnut flowers per 1 liter of water, bring to a boil, but do not boil, insist, wrapped, overnight (daily dose). The use of horse chestnut according to this recipe of traditional medicine by the sip during the day.
  • Oil extract for phlebitis: 30 g of chestnut fruit powder, 20 g of dry brown chestnut bark, 20 g of dry crushed St. John's wort flowers in 500 ml of vegetable oil and 200 ml of dry grape wine. Mix, leave for 3 days in a cool dark place, shaking occasionally. After insisting, put the container open in a boiling water bath until all the wine evaporates, filter. Apply externally as compresses.
  • Broth for hemorrhoids: Boil 50 g of chestnut bark per 1 liter of water for 15 minutes, leave for 1 hour, filter. Use for sitz baths.
  • Foot cream for varicose veins from chestnut inflorescences: composition in percent by weight: oil base - 40%, water base - 40%, beeswax - 10%, glycerin - 10%, essential oils of juniper, rosemary and ginger. Instead of 10% glycerin, you can add 5% glycerin and 5% vitamin E to the cream.
  • Oil base: mix chestnut inflorescences with any unrefined vegetable oil in a ratio of 1:10, leave for 12 days, filter, keep in a water bath at 80 ° C for 30 minutes. Water base: 2 tablespoons of crushed inflorescences in 200 ml of water, bring to a boil and pour into a thermos, leave for 8 hours.
  • Cream: mix beeswax, oil infusion of inflorescences, glycerin and heat in a water bath until the solids are completely dissolved. Heat the inflorescence water infusion and pour in a thin stream into the fat phase, stirring the cream with a mini-mixer. Add essential oils to the finished cream: 1 drop of juniper and ginger and 2 drops of rosemary for every 100 g of cream. Mix thoroughly again. Transfer the cream to a sterile jar, store in the refrigerator for no more than 14 days. To obtain a better cream consistency, wheat emulsifying wax can be used instead of beeswax.
  • Cough tea: 1 teaspoon (top) of leaves in 1 cup of boiling water, leave for 12 minutes. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day with honey.
  • Edible chestnut tonic drink: Fold 25-30 chestnuts in a gauze bag, put a glass load in the same place and put them in a three-liter jar. Add 1 glass of sugar and pour birch sap or cold boiled water over the shoulders. For fermentation, add 1 teaspoon of rustic sour cream (do not stir, should float on top) or brewer's, wine or bread yeast, at the rate, according to the instructions. Cover the jar with gauze in four layers, put in a dark place at room temperature. Make sure that mold does not form. After 7-10 days, you will get a sparkling, tasty drink. The drink must be tasted, perhaps after 2-3 days, sugar must be added.

Landscape design

Lush curly crowns, beautiful flowering and shallow root system make the chestnut a suitable plant for landscaping gardens, squares and local areas, in the presence of infrastructure elements hidden under the soil layer. Trees can even be planted over cellars.

Chestnut bonsai

Fascinated by miniature plants, gardeners can grow a dwarf tree at home. For bonsai, horse chestnut is more suitable, as a more hardy and decorative species.

Horse chestnut bonsai

You can grow a miniature chestnut like an ordinary one - from a nut. The preparation of chestnuts for bonsai is traditional - they are soaked. Nuts with softened peel are planted in separate pots and for the first two years they are grown as an ordinary houseplant. Then bonsai begin to form. The seedling is taken out of the pot and the roots are cut inward. The root system should be wide.

A special soil for bonsai is poured into a prepared shallow container and a plant is planted. Water in moderation, increase watering in summer. For the correct formation of the trunk and branches, wire is used, fixing parts of the plant in the desired direction. To form a spectacular crown, pruning is carried out. In spring, the branches of the miniature chestnut are shortened, and powerful central shoots are also cut out to stimulate dormant buds.

Bonsai is transplanted every two years. In this case, the roots are shortened, and the soil is completely replaced. It is advisable to carry out the procedure in spring or autumn. Growing bonsai is a long process. If the plant is well cared for, it can bloom after 10 years.

The demand for chestnut in landscape design is growing from year to year. All species are expressive in a single fit and harmonious in compositions. They are used to decorate parks and gardens. The partners in the compositions can be trees and shrubs, the shape and color of the foliage contrasting with the chestnut. For example, willow or conifers.

Wood

Chestnut wood is of industrial interest due to its high hardness. In terms of technical properties, this material is comparable to oak. The sapwood is light, the core is bright brown.The medullary rays are narrow, the annual layers are pronounced. The material is used in construction, for the production of laminated veneer lumber, plywood, flooring, finishing panels, furniture.

Since the wood contains many natural tannins, it is used to produce barrels for the maturation of wines, cognac, brandy and other types of alcoholic beverages.

Fruit

Edible chestnut is an ornamental and fruit plant. Its nuts are a valuable food product that can be consumed alone or as part of meals. In addition to the main nutrients, the nuclei contain:

  • B vitamins
  • tocopherol
  • carotene
  • ascorbic acid
  • organic acids
  • iron
  • phosphorus
  • potassium
  • magnesium.

Chestnut fruits are fried, stewed, added to baked goods, meat, potatoes, pasta dishes, vegetable snacks, sauces and marinades.

Sowing chestnut honey has a bright, bitter taste, it is dark red, flowing, does not become sugar for a long time. The composition contains more minerals and antiseptics than other species. This product is useful for use at any age: as a preventive and therapeutic additive, a natural sweetener.


Red chestnut

Red chestnut is a decorative hybrid up to 25 m in height, with evergreen leaves. Grows in well-lit areas. Allows temporary shading. The tree is quite demanding on growing conditions. Prefers moderately moist, nutritious soil. Requires regular feeding in the form of mineral and organic fertilizers. In the heat, abundant watering and spraying of the crown is required.

With the onset of winter, the seedlings are sheltered from frost and wind with a dense cloth. An adult plant does not need special care. During flowering, the tree looks very impressive. When blooming begins, its crown is adorned with many bright red, large flowers.

The flowers of red chestnut are hairy, collected in racemose inflorescences up to 20 cm in length. Bloom lasts from April to June. The tree is used in group and single plantings to decorate garden plots and landscaping the city.


The oldest trees on the planet

This post is dedicated to the most ancient living organisms of the planet, which "saw" the "maturation" and formation of mankind with their own eyes, and some of them, perhaps, "will see" its death.

Skhtorashen

Skhtorashen belongs to the species Platanus orientalis (plane tree). The age of the tree is 2000 years... Skhtorashen grows in Nagorno-Karabakh. At the base of this plane tree there is a hollow with an area of ​​44 m2, the circumference of the tree trunk is 27 m, and the height is more than 54 meters. The crown of this giant forms a shadow on the surface of the earth with an area of ​​1400 m2, so it is not surprising that the tree is clearly visible from space.

Olive tree Vouves

This representative of the species European olive (Olea europaea) grows in the Greek village of Ano Vouves. The age of the tree is about 2300 years, but the Greek scientists "throw" him another 700 years, or even more. The barrel circumference is 12.5 meters, the diameter is 4.6 meters.

Great Suga Kayano

Great Suga Kayano belongs to the Japanese Cryptomeria species - Cryptomeria japonica (representatives of this species can be found even in Sochi). Great Suga Kayano grows near the walls of the Japanese Sugawara Shrine in Ishikawa Prefecture. The age of this tree is 2300 years... This sacred representative of the Japanese Cryptomeria species has a height of 54.8 meters, a circumference of 11.5 m and a diameter of 3.41 m (at chest height, the circumference is 9.6 m, and a diameter of 3.0 m).

Sri Maha Bodhiya

Sri Maha Bodiya (Bo tree - "tree of wisdom") belongs to the species Ficus sacred (Ficus religiosa Linnaeus). Buddhists believe that it was under these trees that Buddha attained enlightenment. As a rule, the height of this species does not exceed 30 meters. Sri Maha Bodiya's age is estimated at 2300 years.

Hundred Horse Chestnut

Hundred Horse Chestnut (Chestnut of hundreds of horses) belongs to the species Sowing chestnut - Castanea sativa (representatives of this species also grow in Russia in the south of the Krasnodar Territory). “Chestnut of a Hundred Horses”, received such an unusual name for a reason, according to legend, once under the canopy of its crown, 100 knights took refuge from the weather. This tree grows in Sicily (Italy), 8 km from the Etna crater. This representative of the Sowing Chestnut species is truly huge. Several trunks with common roots rise above the ground. The circumference of the tree is almost 60 meters (Guinness book record), so it is not surprising that the tree is also clearly visible from space. Estimates for the age of this tree vary from 2000 to 4000 years.

Suga Jamon is another representative of the Cryptomeria japonica species, growing on the Japanese island of Yakushima, at an altitude of 1300 meters above sea level. The age of this largest tree in Japan is estimated 2170 - 7200 years... Suga Jamon was opened in 1968. The height of this cryptomeria is 25.3 meters, the circumference is 16.2 meters, and the stock of wood is 300 m3.

General Sherman

General Sherman belongs to the species Sequoiadendron giganteum (Mammoth tree) - Sequoiadendron giganteum and is the largest tree on Earth. The volume of the "general's" trunk is 1487 m3 (the total weight of the tree is more than 1900 tons). This giant reaches a height of 84 meters, and the trunk circumference at the base is 31.3 meters. General Sherman's age is about 2500 years... This long-lived giant grows in the California National Park "Sequoia" (USA).

Fitzroy cypress

Fitzroya cupressoides is the only species of the genus Fitzroy. Representatives of this species grow in natural conditions only in the north of Patagonia and are the tallest trees in South America (the height of some representatives reaches 70 meters). Fitzroy cypress is in the Endangered category of the IUCN Red List. Plants of this species were successfully introduced in the British Isles, where their height is about 20 meters (the climatic conditions of Sochi also meet the biological requirements of this species).
In the above photo, one of the representatives of the species Fitzroy cypress, native to the Argentine National Park "Los Alerces". The age of this centenarian is 2600 years, height - 57.5 m, and diameter 2.3 m.

Alishan sacred tree

The age of the Alishan Sacred Tree is 3000 years... This is a red cypress (Taxodium distichum) - a long-liver that grew / grows on the island of Taiwan, near the Shenmu station, at an altitude of 2000 meters. The height of the tree was 53 meters, the diameter was 4.66 meters, and the circumference of the trunk was 23 meters. Unfortunately, this tree was badly damaged in 1956 and the authorities were forced to cut the tree down in 1998. Currently, a fence has been built around the trunk of this sacred tree.

Patriarca da floresta

Patriarca da Floresta, native to Vassununga State Park in São Paulo, Brazil, belongs to the species Cariniana legalis. The age of the centenarian is 3000 years (the oldest tree in South America), height 49 meters, trunk circumference 11 meters, the tree still bears fruit. The most amazing thing is that this "Patriarch of the Forest" survived on fertile lands, which were actively used for the cultivation of sugar cane. The colonialists simply did not have the appropriate tools to cut down / cut down this giant.

S'Ozzastru - belongs to the species European olive (Olea europaea), it is also an olive. Many representatives of this species are long-lived trees. S'Ozzastru is about 3000 years old, 8 meters high, and 12 meters in circumference. This long-liver, growing in the north of Sardinia, witnessed how the Romans began to erect the first stone buildings with the help of primitive tools. The time of formation, prosperity and death of the great Roman Empire took place in the long life of this tree.
In Russia, Abkhazia and Georgia, the olive tree first appeared thanks to the Greek colonists.

Jardine Juniper

Juniper Jardine belongs to the species Rocky Juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). The long-liver of this species grows in Utah (USA). The age of the tree is 3200 years, height - 12.2 m, circumference - 7.2 meters.

Chicago Stump


Watch the video: SWEET CHESTNUT Castanea Sativa Szelídgesztenyefa 3.


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