Black raspberries are a relatively rare guest among our summer residents and gardeners. No one is surprised by the yellow variety. But her black sister is often confused with the blackberry. Breeders have developed varieties of garden blackberries, black raspberries, so it is difficult for a person unfamiliar with their differences to say with confidence where are raspberries and where are blackberries.
In this article, we will look at the Cumberland black raspberry variety, its difference with the blackberry, and the methods of care.
Let's consider the main differences between black raspberries and blackberries.
A raspberry crossed with a blackberry is called Tayberry, bred in Scotland in the late seventies of the last century. It is obtained as a hybrid of blackberries and raspberries by pollination of blackberries of the Aurora variety with raspberry pollen. As a result, elongated red-violet berries were grown, reaching six centimeters. Yezhemalina Tayberry is famous for its productivity, pleasant taste and aroma of fruits.
Shoots with small thorns grow up to two and a half meters. The hybrid produces crops from July to late autumn. Differs in resistance to disease, frost and pests. The basic principles of care and reproduction are similar to the cultivation of regular raspberries.
The difference between Tayberry and black raspberry is the color of the berries. The Tysberry fruit does not exhibit the deep dark color of black raspberry, but rather takes on a deep red color with a purple tint.
The first varieties of black berries were developed in America in the nineteenth century. In our country, the following types have gained popularity:
The tested varieties of foreign selection are in good competition with new varieties developed by Russian scientists:
Using the example of the most popular and widespread variety of black chokeberry, we will consider its features. The black berries of this variety are large, weighing 5-6 grams. The yield from one bush is up to ten kilograms subject to proper care, which exceeds the collection of red or yellow raspberries from the bush.
Although we are talking about the winter hardiness of blackberry-like raspberries, it is still recommended to cover the bushes for the winter, sprinkle them with snow. Thanks to the shelter for the winter and early ripening, black raspberries take root in different climatic zones of Russia. For the middle zone and the Non-Black Earth Zone, it is required to provide protection from cold winds and drafts when landing.
Unlike red berry varieties, black raspberries have a powerful root system, extending one and a half meters deep.
This allows her to tolerate dry periods well. But the lack of watering negatively affects the amount of ovary and, accordingly, the yield.
Cumberland bushes, which are densely dotted with ripe and ripening berries during the ripening period, are a picturesque picture, therefore they will become an ornament in any garden. Their long shoots reach three meters, hanging down to the ground in the form of arches. The color of the stems acquires a bluish bloom as it ripens, and the stems themselves are covered with thorns.
Despite its not very wide popularity, black raspberries are in many ways superior to their congeners - red and yellow. Let's consider its main advantages:
The disadvantages of blackberry-like raspberries include:
Consider the beneficial properties of Cumberland black raspberries. In terms of the amount of vitamins and other nutrients, black raspberries are superior to red and yellow. Blackberry-like raspberries are famous for their high content of rutin (vitamin P), which is necessary for strengthening blood vessels.
Anthocyanins strengthen capillaries, cleanse blood vessels from sclerotic plaques. In addition, fruits and leaves contain substances that reduce the level of prothrombin, which normalizes blood clotting. Berries are rich in microelements - iron, manganese, copper.
Their taste is sweet and sour, reminiscent of a blackberry. Due to its dense structure, the fruits are stored for several days, they tolerate transportation well.
Now let's talk about the description of the black raspberry variety. The appearance of the bushes is somewhat different from the usual red relative. Long shoots can be up to three meters long, depending on the variety. These long stems hang to the side, forming arched arches. Therefore, many gardeners carry out the garter of the stems to the trellis.
Black raspberries can be classified as two years old, because lateral shoots bear fruit, growing up to one meter.
They are formed on annual stems. Therefore, for this species it is necessary to carry out correct pruning of lateral shoots and cutting of old stems in autumn. Annual stems are left, which will give fruiting shoots the next year.
How do you prune black raspberries? It is recommended that you prune twice during the season. At the end of June, the upper part of the shoots is cut off at the height of human growth. This procedure will accelerate the formation of lateral fruiting shoots. Weak shoots are removed, avoiding thickening of the bushes.
In the fall, before the onset of frost, two-year-old shoots are removed. Leave annuals, which are shortened to half a meter above the ground.
It is not that difficult to propagate a black berry. For reproduction, apical layers are used. To do this, at the beginning of autumn, after the end of fruiting, the long shoots are tilted and the tops are placed in the prepared grooves up to ten centimeters deep, falling asleep with earth.
Cover with straw and sawdust from above. In spring, the cuttings will take root and produce shoots that are used as seedlings.
Planting hybrid seedlings is not much different from other species. First you need to choose a landing site and prepare it. The place should be protected from cold winds and be sufficiently sunny.
By planting raspberries near the fence, you can provide them with protection from the cold and support for growth.... At the same time, it can serve as a hedge thanks to durable thorns, which few people dare to experience.
When choosing a place, it is necessary to avoid such predecessors as all nightshades: potatoes, tomatoes, zucchini and others. Also, you can not plant next to red raspberries. The distance between them must be at least ten meters.
The following garden crops will be good predecessors:
It is necessary to respect the distance between the bushes, taking into account the length of the shoots. In one row, the bushes are planted with an interval of about one meter, and between adjacent rows - two meters.
Although black raspberries are not very demanding on the soil, loams, black earth and sandy loam will be the best soils to achieve good yields. Saplings are planted in autumn (late September - early October) or early spring.
For planting seedlings, it is necessary to prepare a hole half a meter deep. A mixture of humus (6-8 kg), superphosphate (200 g), potassium sulfate (80 g) is added to the bottom of each pit. Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash (0.5 kg). The composition is mixed with earth, a mound is made. The seedling is placed on its top, the roots are straightened down, sprinkled gently with earth, gradually compacting it with your hands.
The neck of the plant should not be covered with earth.
After watering, the land around is mulched with sawdust, straw, humus. The mulch layer should be at least five centimeters.
To obtain powerful and at the same time compact plants, young annual shoots are pinched at a height of half a meter, which stimulates the development of lateral shoots.
It is recommended to fertilize the plants with compost every three years - about five kilograms under one bush.
After the end of flowering, the first feeding is carried out with an infusion of manure (six parts of water are taken for one part of manure) or chicken manure (ratio with water 1:16). Wood ash (1 liter) and superphosphate (50 g) are added to a bucket of infusion. Similar dressings are performed two more times - during ripening and the beginning of fruit collection.
Ezhemalina is more resistant to diseases, less susceptible to attacks by insect pests than red. It is less often affected by a disease characteristic of raspberries - verticillary wilting. It is a viral disease that cannot be cured. Affected bushes are cut, uprooted and burned.
To prevent infection, ezemalina is planted at a distance of at least ten meters from red raspberries. In rainy summers, it is recommended to organize soil drainage to prevent fungal diseases from developing. For prevention, the bushes are sprayed with copper-containing preparations. Insecticides are also used.
Ezhemalina can be affected by anthracnose, which manifests itself as a white bloom on the leaves.... For control, fungicides are used, for example, Topaz, Mikosan or others commercially available. Among organic control agents, infusions and decoctions are used. A decoction of horsetail has proven itself well.
One kilogram of grass is poured with a bucket of water, infused for a day. The next day, the composition is boiled for half an hour. For processing, the strained solution is diluted in a ratio of 1: 5. Horsetail can be replaced with nettle, but insist not one day, but two weeks. Diluted with the same proportion.
Of the pests, the raspberry beetle is the most dangerous. Before the buds awaken on the bushes, the first treatment is carried out with a nitrophene solution (2% solution). The second treatment is performed when flower buds appear with an infusion of wormwood and marigolds. Two hundred grams of herbs are poured with a bucket of water, insisted for at least a day.
As you can see from the above, black raspberry refers to hybrids that combine all the best aspects of blackberry and red raspberry. Berries are famous not only for their good taste, but also for their medicinal properties. The bushes are distinguished by high productivity, unpretentiousness. Therefore, it will not be difficult for beginners to take care of the black berry.
Now you know what the black raspberry is called, you know its characteristics and methods of caring for a hybrid.
Recently I was lucky enough to buy some Cumberland black raspberry seedlings. By that time, I knew quite a lot about the wonderful properties of the berries of this culture, but I was completely unaware of how to grow it correctly. It turned out that black raspberries require the same care as blackberries, but with some nuances.
The content of the article:
In terms of winter hardiness, it is somewhat inferior to red raspberries, but there are quite winter-hardy varieties of black raspberries - Cumberland, Er Lee Cumberland, Pugh Logan and some others, which can be grown in the regions of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia.
Due to the presence of a powerful root system in black raspberries, extending 1.5 m or more in depth, it tolerates drought better. Although black raspberries do not tolerate stagnant waters, they love watering, especially during the formation and ripening of berries. With regular watering, the berries are large, juicy and do not crumble.
Good results are obtained by growing black raspberries on fertilized loamy and sandy loam soils. It grows well on various soils, but the most suitable for it are light loamy chernozems and gray forest soils.
To avoid freezing, they are covered for the winter with peat, humus, sawdust, or they are covered with earth.
In early spring, rooted plants are separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a prepared permanent place or for growing in a school.
The fruits of this American curiosity are a rounded polystyrene of a rich black color with various burgundy or blue shades (depending on the degree of ripeness) weighing up to 5 g, with delicate pulp and large bones. With the correct formation of the bush, the yields are very impressive - 5-6 kg from one bush.
The berry has a very sweet taste and pleasant aroma. They are an excellent delicacy, and are eaten fresh or processed into various dessert dishes. In addition, according to American scientists, the unique compounds of vitamins, minerals and the saturation of fruits with antioxidants help to suppress the development of cancer cells, activating human immunity. All of these arguments emphasize the benefits of breeding a crop such as Cumberland black raspberries. Description, planting, care and watering - this information and the stages of cultivation are presented in the article.
Any plant, and black raspberry is no exception, is susceptible to disease and attack by pests.
Gray rot. Cumberland often suffers from gray mold. Spots appear on berries and leaves, then a gray bloom. The disease arises from stagnant water at the roots of the plant.To cope with the disease, you need to adjust the watering, do not allow the planting of bushes too close. All infected parts of the plant must be removed and burned. Bordeaux liquid will help cure raspberries. It is diluted with water (100 / 10l) and the bushes are watered, given that 1 sq. meter will require about 1.5 liters of the mixture.
Raspberry beetle. He, with his larvae, damages the berries, which dry and shrink. To prevent the appearance, you need to weed out in a timely manner. The drug Phosbecid will help get rid of beetles.
Anthracnose - another of the diseases of black raspberry. It manifests itself as red-brown spots on the leaves, cracks in the bark, dried berries. Improper care of the plant becomes the cause of the disease. It is necessary to spray the fruit bushes with Fitosporin solution (instructions on the label).
Leaf aphid. If the leaves begin to curl, and the fruit becomes less and less, the point is aphids. Most likely, the bushes do not have enough sun, watering is carried out too often. Spraying with Nitrafen or Karbofos will help get rid of the pest. It is worth replanting the plant, changing the watering schedule.
Unlike red-fruited varieties, Cumberland does not form side shoots, making it much easier to care for it. But if you want to harvest a good harvest of dark purple large berries every year, you should still pay attention to this unpretentious shrub during the season.
Features of caring for Cumberland raspberries:
The photo shows a raspberry bush of the "Cumberland" variety
Caring for black raspberries does not take too much time, but by providing the bushes with suitable conditions for good fruiting, you can pick sweet berries within a month. From one bush it is sometimes possible to get up to 10 kg of large raspberries.
It is best to plant black raspberries in early spring, given that the vegetation process for this plant begins very early. That is why some summer residents prefer autumn planting. But this is more suitable for an area where winters are not so severe, since black raspberries do not tolerate the cold period well.
The depth of the planting pit should be at least half a meter wide - 40-50 cm. Mix wood ash with humus 1: 1 and fill the hole by 20-25 centimeters with this composition. After that, it is worth pouring water over the pit. And there, carefully, straightening the roots, place a raspberry seedling. Wait until the water is absorbed and start filling the hole with earth mixed with sand and complex fertilizer. Then water again.
Even novice summer residents can easily master several rules for caring for black raspberries. This culture does not require special attention, it is enough:
Mulching... Immediately after planting the plants, the soil under the bushes is mulched. For this, chopped dry grass or straw, sawdust, peat or manure are suitable.
Watering... Black raspberries do not require abundant watering even in the summer heat, they tolerate them perfectly. But, when the time for fruit ripening comes, the raspberry bushes must be filled with water in sufficient quantities. Then the berries will be larger, and there will be more of them on the bushes. Of all types of irrigation, raspberries prefer drip irrigation.
Tying raspberries... The stems of the plant are thin and long, and grow rapidly. Over time, they need a garter. For this, both fences are used, and trellises are installed.
Support such as trellises is very easy to design. To do this, you need to dig in the posts at the beginning and end of the row of black raspberries. Pull the wire between them in several rows. The stems of the plant are attached to this wire.
Pruning... Pruning is necessary so that the plant does not grow violently, remains healthy, and so that the raspberries give a good harvest. 2 pruning should be done per year. One in the summer, at the end of June, the second in the fall, before the cold weather.
Protection against diseases and pests... One of the worst diseases of black raspberries is verticillary wilting. It cannot be cured, therefore prevention is important - the acquisition of healthy plants, the correct planting conditions and refusal to dig the earth near the bush, good drainage of the soil.
A rainy summer or insufficient drainage can lead to fungal infections. To prevent this, you can spray the bushes with preparations containing copper. For prevention, broad-spectrum insecticides are used.
In the fight against the raspberry beetle, which is one of the main pests of black raspberries, spraying with a 2% nitrafen solution is used. This should be done before the kidneys wake up.
When flower buds appear in raspberries, it is necessary to re-sprinkle with infusions of bitter wormwood and marigolds (take 200g of each herb, each of them insist on 10 liters of water). Before use, the herbal infusions should be mixed, with this solution and sprinkled with raspberries.
Top dressing... Black raspberry always thanks a bountiful harvest for feeding. It can be organic fertilizers, for example, mullein, diluted with water 1 to 6, and bird droppings 1 to 17. Plus 1 liter of ash and 50 grams of superphosphate per bucket of this "drug". Under the bush, top dressing is poured from 5 to 7 liters. Then it is worth pouring water over the entire planting of raspberries.
You can also fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers. They contain the elements necessary for the growth and fruiting of the plant.
Black raspberries are propagated by layering. To do this, at the end of summer, when the branches of black raspberries begin to stretch, they are bent in an arched manner and bent to the ground. It is advisable to pre-dig shallow trenches, 10 cm deep. It is in these trenches that the shoots are lowered, fixed, and covered with earth so that the growth point is above the ground. Preparing for winter, the layers are insulated with sawdust, peat. Rooted layers are separated from the bush in the spring and planted separately.
There are several ways to prepare black raspberries for winter. The choice will depend on the climate. Provided that winters are not so severe, you can leave the bushes on the trellis, securely securing each shoot. So neither the wind nor the snow will damage the bushes.
If the winter is long and frosty, you can gently bent the bushes to the ground, but not too low. In this position, fix the raspberry branches. The snow, covering the plants, will save them from the cold.
Black raspberries will become the main crop in the country, and will delight with their bountiful harvests, if you devote a little time and learn about it. Then caring for this plant will not be a hassle.