In April, gardening and gardening work is in full swing. The garden is already coming to life: trees and bushes require pruning, feeding and treatment from pests. The earth is warming up under the still timid sun and is preparing to take in the seeds and seedlings of flowers and vegetables, and in the apartments of amateur gardeners there is not a single free window sill - everything is crammed with boxes with seedlings. In April, a lot of important work needs to be done, because it is not for nothing that the proverb says that a spring day feeds the year.
In April, the sowing of seeds of flowers and vegetables begins directly in the open ground, and already grown seedlings are to be planted on garden beds, but there are some types and varieties of vegetable crops that can still be sown for seedlings. Planting seeds in April of late-ripening tomatoes, for example, is carried out if you did not have time to do this at the end of March. In the first half of the month we sow seedlings of such green crops as savory, marjoram, basil, tarragon, lemon balm and hyssop.
From April 10 to April 20, you can start growing seedlings of vegetables, such as zucchini, squash and pumpkin, and from April 15 to 20 it is time to sow cucumbers for open field seedlings. At the end of the month, the turn for late varieties of white cabbage comes, and mid-season varieties are sown for seedlings from late March to April 25.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are used both for food and for harvesting for the winter, and late cabbage varieties can be salted, pickled or laid for long-term storage. The main secret of success in growing this crop is the purchase of good seeds and their correct pre-sowing preparation. Seeds purchased from the store will be enough to warm up for 20 minutes in hot water (the water temperature should be about 50 ºC), then immerse them in cold water for 5 minutes - this hardening increases the resistance of the seeds to fungal diseases.
However, before wetting the seed, read the information on the package, since not all seeds treated by the manufacturer can be immersed in water. If you yourself have collected the seeds for sowing, then wrap them in a triple layer of gauze and hold, as described, first in hot and then in cold water, then leave them on a saucer in the same wet gauze for a day at room temperature , and as soon as the seeds are swollen, remove them from the gauze, dry until free flowing and sow.
The soil for cabbage seedlings is prepared as follows: add one part of humus and wood ash to one part of the sod land at the rate of 10 tablespoons per 10 kg of soil, then mix the soil mixture thoroughly. You can prepare the substrate according to any other recipe, the main thing is that it is fertile and breathable. A week before sowing, the soil is calcined in an oven at a temperature of 200 ºC for fifteen minutes or five minutes, processed in a microwave oven, turned on at full power. Before sowing, the soil is well watered, because cabbage seeds require a lot of moisture, and next time it will be possible to moisten the substrate only after the seeds have germinated.
The soil is laid out in a box for seedlings washed with laundry soap, spilled with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, the seeds are laid out on its surface according to a 2x2 cm scheme and covered with a layer of soil 1 cm thick, after which the box is covered with film or glass, forming a greenhouse for seedlings, and a container is placed to a warm place.
As soon as shoots appear, the box is transferred to a glazed balcony or to another unheated room, where the temperature should not be higher than 10 ºC, and the seedlings are kept there for about a week. If you leave the box in a warm room, the seedlings will stretch out and may even die. After a week, the temperature in the daytime is increased to 15 ºC, and at night to 12 ºC. Caring for seedlings at this time consists in carefully watering with water at room temperature, and it is better not to water them at all before picking. The air humidity in the room is maintained at 70-75%, which means that the air must be dry.
After 10-12 days, when the seedlings develop 1-2 leaves, they dive into separate cups or directly into the greenhouse. The pots are filled with the same nutrient mixture as during the initial sowing, the seedlings in the box are watered with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, then taken out in turn, pinched too long roots and transplanted into a glass, burying the cotyledon leaves. The soil around the seedling is squeezed so that it adheres more tightly to the roots. Water the seedlings as the soil dries up with water at room temperature; after watering, it is advisable to ventilate the room.
Be prepared for the fact that after a dive, the seedlings will slow down their development, albeit not for long. Before planting in the ground, each seedling should have 4-5 leaves.
Growing cucumbers in seedlings allows you to harvest two weeks earlier. Before sowing, the cucumber seeds are dipped in a 3% room temperature saline solution. Empty seeds will float up, and those suitable for germination will sink to the bottom. After that, the seeds suitable for sowing are dipped for 30 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, then they are washed under running water, wrapped in a damp cloth and kept for 2-3 days at a temperature of 25-30 ºC while waiting for them to develop tiny white sprouts.
Seedlings of cucumbers do not tolerate transplanting well, therefore, neither boxes nor containers are used for its cultivation. It is better to sow seeds in peat-baked cups or pots. A sterile mixture of humus, peat, turf soil and sawdust is placed in the cups in equal parts so that the soil does not reach the edge of the glass by 2-3 cm.One or two seeds are laid out on the surface of the substrate. Watering the soil in cups is carried out daily. Seedlings appear on the fourth or fifth day, and after 10-12 days the seedlings are ready for planting in the ground.
It is better not to sow fresh zucchini seeds, as plants with a large number of male flowers grow from them. Two-three-year-old seeds produce plants with significantly more female flowers, they are more resistant to diseases and bear fruit better. Warm the seeds for several days in the sun or keep them for a month, poured into a bag, in a central heating battery, then soak for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and then rinse in cold water.
In order for the seedling seeds to sprout together, before sowing, they are dipped for half an hour in such a solution: one teaspoon of Nitroammofoska, one tablespoon of ash and half a tablet of microelements are dissolved in 1 liter of warm water. For the same purposes, Fitosporin dissolved in the amount of one teaspoon in a liter of water is used. Next, the seeds must be wrapped for swelling in a damp cloth, then in polyethylene and put in a warm place, airing several times a day so that no mold forms on the seeds. The fabric should be damp, but not wet. Do not wait for the seeds to germinate, it is enough for them to swell.
The substrate for zucchini is made up of three parts of sod land, three parts of rotted peat, three parts of manure humus and a teaspoon of semi-rotted sawdust with the addition of sand. Since zucchini seedlings are often affected by a black leg, the soil must be frozen on the balcony for two winter months before sowing.
Pumpkin plants do not tolerate picking very well, therefore, marrow seedlings are grown in separate pots 10x10 cm in size, on the bottom of which a drainage is placed under the ground - crushed sphagnum. Don't forget to make holes in the bottoms of the cups to drain the water.
Seeds are sown in pots to a depth of 3-4 cm one or two at a time, after which containers are made on a pallet, covered with glass or foil and placed in a warm place.
Before the emergence of seedlings, the temperature in the room should be in the range of 18-24 ºC, within 3-4 days after germination of seeds it is lowered to 15-18 ºC during the day and 13-15 ºC at night, and then the temperature is again increased to 17-22 ºC in daytime and up to 13-17 ºC at night. As soon as the shoots appear, they will need maximum lighting. Water the seedlings every five days with settled water at a temperature of 25 ºC, spending a liter of water for 8 plants. Try to pour water so that it does not get on the stems and leaves of the seedlings.
A week after seed germination, the seedlings are fed with mullein solution (1:10). The second top dressing, if needed, is applied 3-4 days before planting seedlings in open ground, using complex mineral fertilizers Ideal, Effect, Kemiru-universal, Growth 2, Solution or Crystallin. Planting zucchini seedlings on the garden bed is carried out when the seedlings develop 2-3 true leaves.
Sowing squash seeds for seedlings and caring for seedlings is almost the same as growing marrow seedlings, so there is no point in describing the procedure a second time.
Before sowing, pumpkin seeds are disinfected for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, after which they are washed in running water and soaked for pecking in this way: put several layers of paper napkins on a saucer, moisten them, lay the seeds on top and cover them with a plastic bag. Keep the seeds like this for ten days, periodically airing them. When the seeds have a sprout half a millimeter long, they are ready for sowing.
Sow pumpkin seeds into the soil for cucumbers or into a substrate of this composition: one part of humus and rotted sawdust and two parts of peat. For disinfection, the substrate is frozen in the same way as the soil for zucchini. Before sowing, a teaspoon of Nitroammofoski or Kemira is added per kilogram of the mixture, thoroughly mixed with the substrate, then the soil is laid out in pots 12x12 cm in size with drainage holes, on the bottom of which sawdust of deciduous trees scalded with boiling water or chopped sphagnum moss are placed under the substrate. Seeds in two pieces are immersed in the substrate for 2-3 cm, placing them flat, the surface of the soil is slightly compacted, the containers are covered with glass and placed in heat.
As soon as shoots begin to appear, the cups are transferred as close to the light as possible. The temperature regime for pumpkin seedlings is the same as for seedlings of squash or squash. Watering is carried out as the soil dries. Seedlings are planted in the garden when the seedlings stretch up to 10-15 cm and they develop two true leaves.
The composition of the potting soil for basil includes two parts of humus, one part of washed sand and four parts of rotted compost. The substrate is sieved and steamed for one hour in a water bath. If you sow seeds into a ready-made soil mixture, it will be enough to spill it with a solution of potassium permanganate or Fitosporin. Cassettes for seedlings with a depth of 5-7 cm are filled with a substrate so that 1 cm remains from the ground surface to the upper edge of the compartment.
The soil is moistened, the basil seeds are deepened by 0.5-1 cm, the crops are covered with glass or foil and placed in a warm, bright place where the temperature does not drop below 20 ºC and does not rise above 25. Not even two weeks will pass, as the shoots seem, after then the coating is removed, and the temperature is lowered to 16-20 ºC. Seedlings are watered with warm water, and the water that has flowed into the pan must be drained.
Seedlings dive at the stage of development of a pair of true leaves: the seedlings are transplanted into larger cassettes with soil of the same composition, but with the addition of two tablespoons of ash and one spoonful of mineral fertilizer per 5 liters of the mixture. When transplanting, do not deepen the seedlings too deep: the planting depth should remain the same. After two weeks, it will be possible to feed the basil seedlings with a solution of mineral fertilizer and pinch the shoots over a 6-8 leaf.
For growing savory, a substrate of vermicompost (1 part) and coconut fiber (2 parts) is suitable. It is best to grow thyme in disposable cups. Before sowing, the seeds are treated in a solution of potassium permanganate, sown to a depth of 3-5 mm, covered with glass or polyethylene and kept at a temperature of 25 ºC. Under these conditions, the seeds germinate in ten days, after which the cover is removed and the temperature is lowered to 20 ºC. At the stage of development of two pairs of true leaves, savory is dived into large containers or, if the weather permits, is planted in open ground.
Seedlings are grown at home or in a greenhouse. To evenly distribute very small marjoram seeds, they are mixed with dry sand before sowing, and after sowing, they are sealed to a depth of 2-3 mm, filling the soil through a sieve. Crops are moistened, covered with foil and kept at a temperature of 20-25 ºC.
After two or three weeks, shoots appear, and then the cover is removed, and the air temperature is lowered. At the stage of development of the first pair of leaves, seedlings dive in a 6x6 cm pattern or are planted in open ground.
Hyssop seeds are sown in seedling boxes with soil in which grooves are made no more than 5 cm deep. The best place to grow hyssop is a seedling greenhouse, but if you do not have one, cover the seed container with glass or film. After seed germination, the temperature of the content must be lowered for several days, and the lighting must be maximized. Water the substrate as needed, and when three pairs of leaves develop on the seedlings, they are transplanted into open ground.
Lemon balm seeds are pre-soaked for 3-4 days to swell, as already described. Moisten the soil before sowing. In order for the seedlings of lemon balm to be friendly, the seeds are sown shallowly - by half a centimeter, after which the crops are covered with glass. The seedlings that appear after three to four weeks are thinned out at the stage of development of the first pair of leaves so that they do not interfere with each other - there should be a distance of at least 5 cm between the seedlings. The seedlings develop in good lighting. Three weeks after germination of seeds, lemon balm is fed.
Before sowing, small tarragon seeds are mixed with sand and not buried deep into the ground, but only slightly sprinkled with soil. The crops are transferred to the greenhouse. Tough tarragon seeds germinate only after two to three weeks. The seedlings are thinned out, leaving a distance of 10-15 cm between them, and when they grow up, they are dived according to the 55x55 cm scheme or planted in open ground.
From the moment the seeds are sown in moist soil until the moment the seedlings emerge, the containers with the crops are usually not watered, but when the seeds germinate and the seedlings begin to develop, they will need moisture. The soil in boxes or glasses should never dry out, but stagnation of water should also not be allowed. Water the seedlings with settled warm water - the temperature should not be lower than room temperature, but it is better that it be a couple of degrees warmer. Thin seedlings can be sprinkled with water from a spoon or used to moisten the soil with a spray bottle. The grown seedlings are watered into a tray.
A general rule of thumb for wetting seedlings is frequent but moderate watering. And never water the seeds immediately after sowing so that the water does not suck them deeper than necessary. Sow seeds in moist soil, and then you do not have to water the crops.
Seedlings of vegetables of cold-resistant crops germinate at a temperature of 18-25 ºC, and of heat-loving crops - at 25-30 ºC. With the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to lower the temperature for a while so that the seedlings do not stretch too much. After 5-7 days, the temperature is raised again to 19-21 ºC.
Seedlings of vegetables sown in April can not be dived, but immediately planted in open ground, since the seedlings are grown in April with cold-resistant crops, and it is already warm enough outside at the end of the month.But if for some reason planting seedlings of vegetables is not yet possible, picking will slightly slow down the development of seedlings without deteriorating the quality of the seedlings. After the procedure, the seedlings need to be shaded for several days from the bright sun. For cucumbers and pumpkin plants, picking is contraindicated in any case.
Vegetable seedlings need feeding, and they need to be applied a few days before transplanting seedlings to the garden. Before fertilizing, the soil in the containers is watered to avoid scalding the root system of the seedlings. As organic fertilizers, ash, a weak solution of mullein or bird droppings are used. Of the mineral fertilizers, the complexes of Kemir, Solution, Ideal, Kristallin have proven themselves well.
In no case should you overexpose seedlings at home, since overgrown seedlings will take root very badly. Seedlings are planted in open ground when the ground warms up sufficiently. Cold-resistant crops are not afraid of short-term frosts, and nevertheless, before planting, the seedlings of plants need to be hardened. Containers with seedlings, two weeks before planting in the ground, are taken out to a glazed balcony or veranda, where windows are opened for several hours a day, arranging the seedlings in such a way that they do not suffer from a draft.
Then the seedlings begin to be taken out daily to fresh air and sunlight. The duration of hardening sessions is increased every day, and by the day of transplantation into open ground, the seedlings should be in the fresh air around the clock. Hardening will help seedlings already in the open field withstand sudden frosts and not die under the bright sun.
Sections: Fruit Garden plants Growing seedlings
Cucumbers are thermophilic vegetables and do not tolerate spring frosts and temperature drops during the day and night. In an area without film shelters, seeds are planted when stable warm weather is established. But if by this time the seedlings are grown, it will be possible to get the fruits a couple of weeks earlier.
Sowing seeds is carried out a month before planting in a permanent place, given that a drop in temperature to minus will destroy delicate plants. In Central Russia, sowing begins on April 15. This guarantees that seedlings will be received by May 15, when frost is no longer possible to be afraid. Some gardeners adhere to the lunar calendar and sow seeds in a young month.
Growing a lavater from seeds is not difficult at all. For a plant, choose a well-lit area with fertile and loose soil of a neutral reaction. The plant responds positively to the introduction:
For tall plants, supports are prepared in advance: strong stakes, a metal bar. They are installed at the time of planting seedlings, so as not to damage the roots later.
Garden rose seedlings are placed in nests of 5 pieces at a distance of 20-25 cm (by analogy with seed sowing directly into the ground) or the bushes are placed one by one, including the lavender in a mixed flower garden.
Planting the lavater in the ground is carried out in the evening or in cloudy weather, so the plants will more easily transfer the transplant. The soil around the bushes is abundantly watered and mulched with straw cutting, shavings, and tree bark.
Lavatera belongs to drought-resistant plants, it is enough to water it once every 1-2 weeks. But the soil must be shed well, spending 2 buckets of water per flowering plant.
Top dressing is applied starting from the budding phase and then every 20 days:
Top dressing is alternated. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the root, 2 liters of solution per plant. The mineral complex can be applied by spraying the foliage, preparing a solution that is less concentrated than for watering under the root. It is better not to get on the flowers with liquid and spray in the evening.
Withered buds must be removed from the bush so that they do not spoil the view and do not weaken the plant by ripening the seeds.
In our climate, you can get lavater seeds from your plants. They have time to mature during the warm period. For this, seed pods are kept on the bush, which are formed in place of faded buds. When they dry up and turn brown (around September), the boxes are removed from the plant, the seeds are shaken out on paper and dried well.
If a perennial lavater is grown on the site, for its successful wintering, the bush is bent to the surface of the earth, pinned to the soil with staples, and covered with spruce paws.
It is not too late to plant tomatoes in March. This culture rises quite quickly and amicably, especially if germination is carried out in a warm place, and therefore any day at the beginning or end of March is suitable for planting a tomato, but only if the moon is growing.
The new moon will occur on March 6 and nothing can be planted on this day.
The most favorable days for planting tomatoes for seedlings in March 2021:
The unfavorable days in March 2021 are as follows:
Favorable terms for buying cucumber seeds: 1-9, 12-13, 26-27 March, 1-4, 10-11, 20-23, 28-29 April, 5-6 May
Favorable terms for sowing cucumber seeds for seedlings and in the ground: 1, 9, 14–20, 22–23, 26–27 March, 3–4, 13–17, 20–25 April, t: 6, 8–9, 12, 15–25 May,
Planting and planting in the ground DO NOT: 3-6, 10-11, 21, 28, 30-31 March, 1-2, 5-9, 26-27 April, 3-4, 26, 30-31 May
Unfavorable days for watering tomato seedlings: 1-2, 19-20, 28-29 March, 7-9, 15-17 April, 1-2, 8-9, 12, 17-19, 27-29 May, 1-3, 9-10, 28 -30 June
Favorable days for feeding cucumber seedlings with liquid fertilizers: March 5-9, 5-6, 10-11, 13-14, 24-25, April 26, 1-2, 8-9, 12, 17-19, May 27-29, 7-8, 18-19 , 20-21, 26-27 June
Favorable days for planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse and open ground: April 20-25, 6, 8-9, 12, 15-25 May, 7-8, 11-12, 16-19 June
Favorable days for processing cucumber seedlings from diseases and pests: 3-5, 10-12, 30-31 January, 1, 2-3, 6-9, 16-18 February, 3-4, 7-11, 16-18, 24-25 March, 1-4, 20 –21, 28–30 April, 1–2, 8–12, 17–19, 27–31 May.
The agricultural technology of the culture is simple, if the seedling is placed in a sunny, dry area, then the care for it is minimal. The cultivation of annual and perennial varieties differs in terms of feeding and preparatory measures for the winter.
A drought-resistant crop tolerates a lack of moisture better than its stagnation. Basically, helihrizum has enough seasonal precipitation. If the summer is abnormally dry, water the plant no more than twice a week at the root.
Top dressing for annual varieties is not carried out. The immortelle has enough food laid during planting. If the plant looks weak, you can fertilize with superphosphate. Perennial varieties are fed with urea in spring, during budding with phosphate, potassium is given for the flowering period. Phosphorus and compost are introduced in the fall.
The culture retains its decorative effect for a long time. The color of the flowers fades, but they do not lose their shape until frost. When the green mass dries up, the annual plant is completely removed from the site along with the root system. Perennial varieties do not belong to evergreens; the aboveground part of them dies off at the end of the season. Gelichrizum is completely cut off when it loses its decorative appearance.
Only perennial immortelles hibernate. The culture is characterized by low frost resistance, therefore, it requires insulation in regions with a cold climate. The root system is the weakest point in Helichrizum. If it is damaged, the culture is not restored.
Ampel varieties are brought into the room, perennials are left in an open area. After pruning and feeding, the plants are spud, mulched and covered with spruce branches. You can install arcs, cover the immortelle with a film and only then use coniferous branches.