Plant medicinal hyssop (Latin Hyssopus officinalis), or common hyssop, or blue St. John's wort - a species of the genus Hyssop of the family Lamiaceae, a dwarf shrub that grows wild in North Africa, Western Asia, Central, Southern and Eastern Europe. In culture, hyssop is grown in North America and almost throughout Europe. The herb hyssop is the oldest medicinal plant, which was used to treat patients by Hippocrates and Dioscorides. Young shoots of hyssop with leaves, fresh and dried, are used as a spicy seasoning for appetizers, first and second courses. Hyssop is also included in diet meals.
At the very beginning of the 14th century, the famous physician Arnold from Villanova wrote the poem "Salermo Code of Health", dedicated to medicinal plants.
About the hyssop, it contains the following lines:
“The herb, which is called hyssop, cleanses the chest of phlegm.
Hyssop is useful for the lungs if it is boiled together with honey,
And they say that it gives the face an excellent color. "
Read more about growing hyssop below.
The root of the hyssop is ligneous, the stems are branched, tetrahedral, short pubescent or almost glabrous, twig-like, woody at the base, from 45 to 70 cm long.The leaves are almost sessile, opposite, short-petiolate, lanceolate, whole-edged, 2 to 4 cm long and from 4 cm wide up to 9 mm. Small two-lipped purple, blue, white or pink flowers, located 3-7 pieces in the axils of the leaves, form an apical spike-shaped inflorescence. Hyssop continues to bloom from June to October. The aroma of the plant attracts bees to the garden: any type of hyssop is a honey plant. Hyssop seeds ripening in the second half of August remain viable for three to four years. With a strong spicy aroma, the plant remains green even after the onset of winter.
Hyssop is a popular culinary spice and versatile medicine.
How to grow hyssop? Hyssop propagates by dividing the bush and seeds. Seeds can be sown in open ground in April-May, or you can first grow hyssop seedlings, for which seeds, without prior stratification, are sown in seedling boxes with fertile soil in the first half of March, in grooves located at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other. Contain crops, covered with transparent plastic wrap, in a warm place.
Seedlings appear in a couple of weeks. Hyssop care during the seedling period consists in regular moistening of the soil and top dressing. At the developmental stage of seedlings, 5-6 true leaves are planted in open ground, but two weeks before planting, the seedlings are hardened by exposing them to the open air every day. At first, the hardening session lasts no more than half an hour, but gradually the duration of such "walks" increases until the hyssop from seeds can stay in the new environment for a whole day.
In one place, hyssop can grow up to 10 years, so you need to choose a site for a plant responsibly. Hyssop loves the sun and moderately moist, well-drained calcareous soil, into which manure, potassium salt and a little superphosphate are introduced for deep digging in advance, even in the fall. Saline and waterlogged areas are unsuitable for a plant, as well as those where groundwater is too close to the surface.
Hyssop is planted in open ground at the age of 45-60 days in the second half of May, when the threat of recurrent frosts has passed. Planting hyssop is carried out in loose soil with a step of 8-10 cm with a row spacing of 25-30 cm. After planting, the area is watered.
Growing hyssop is easy and enjoyable. All you will need to do is water it occasionally, loosen the soil around the bushes, remove weeds at first and apply fertilizer to the soil. Hyssop is watered only in a prolonged drought, spending 15-20 liters of water per square meter of land, but usually the plant looks fresh even in strong dryness, and natural precipitation is quite enough for it.
If it seems to you that the hyssop is growing slowly, feed it with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 20-30 g per 10 liters of water, although it is better to use organic fertilizing. If the plant does not bloom well, this means that the soil is oversaturated with fertilizers, and the hyssop does not like this.
Formative pruning of hyssop is usually combined with the preparation of medicinal raw materials. The plant tolerates the haircut easily and grows back quickly after it. The plant hibernates without shelter. In autumn, hyssop shoots are cut at a height of 10-15 cm. This is done in order to stimulate abundant flowering and the formation of a dense bush in the next growing season.
If you grow hyssop as a medicinal raw material, try to avoid self-seeding, as this weakens the medicinal properties of the plant. To avoid self-seeding, you need to carry out regular weeding and cut the bush before the seeds ripen.
Although hyssop can live in one place for a decade, after 4 years it begins to bloom worse, so you should rejuvenate the plant by cuttings or dig up, divide and transplant the hyssop bushes to a new place.
Hyssop is extremely resistant to disease and pests, but sometimes it can be attacked by rust, rhizoctonia, fusarium wilting, or white spot. You can destroy pathogens by treating hyssop with fungicides, but if you follow the rotation of crops and the rules of plant care, the hyssop is unlikely to get sick. Do not forget to remove plant residues from the site after the autumn pruning.
As for pests, the smell of hyssop scares them away not only from the area with the plant, but also from the crops growing in the vicinity of the hyssop.
After hyssop, you can plant beans, peas, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, and garlic.
The chalky hyssop does not differ in appearance from the medicinal hyssop: it is also a subshrub, reaching a height of 20 to 50 cm. The blue flowers of chalk hyssop emit a strong balsamic smell. This rare plant settles on Cretaceous deposits and is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Anise hyssop is also a semi-shrub with a height of 50 to 110 cm. The green leaves of this species with purple-brown markings have a pleasant aniseed aroma, which becomes brighter when the leaves are rubbed. The flowers of the hyssop are aniseed lavender, edible and used as an ingredient in salads.
As for the medicinal hyssop, the description of which we gave at the beginning of the article, the most famous are the following varieties of this plant:
In addition to those described, varieties of hyssop medicinal Pink Flamingo, Dawn, Doctor, Nikitsky white and others are popular.
The beneficial properties of hyssop have been used by mankind for a long time. The plant contains a large number of vitamins: A, B, C, E, K, D and PP. The leaves and roots of hyssop are rich in iron, copper, manganese, potassium, selenium, chlorine, silicon, fluorine, tungsten and boron. It also contains hyssop tannins, bitterness, aldehydes, oleanolic and ursolic acids, flavonoids, alcohols and essential oils. White-flowered varieties contain the maximum amount of essential oil, while pink-flowered varieties contain the minimum.
Hyssop has an expectorant, antipyretic, antiseptic, diuretic, bactericidal, laxative, analgesic, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, wound healing and stimulating effect. Hyssop is used for infectious and colds, diseases of the oral cavity and respiratory tract, inflammation of the urinary tract, rheumatism, neurosis, angina pectoris, colitis, intestinal distention, conjunctivitis and diseases of the skin.
For recreational purposes, not only leaves and roots are used, but also hyssop flowers, which are dried and added to tea for various diseases, but most often hyssop preparations such as decoction, tincture or infusion are used. The tincture is used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for the treatment of hematomas, wounds, burns and other skin lesions. For rinsing the throat with stomatitis and washing the eyes with conjunctivitis, hyssop infusions are used. Broths are used to treat the upper respiratory tract, for colds and inflammation of the urinary tract. Hyssop tea is good for coughs, colds and sore throats, it increases blood pressure, lowers fever and soothes the nerves.
Since hyssop is a weakly poisonous plant, it should be used for medicinal purposes and in food with caution. This contraindication of hyssop makes it necessary to consult a doctor before taking it, since in high doses and with prolonged use, hyssop can cause spasms. It is not recommended to use hyssop for pregnant women, children under 12 years old, people suffering from kidney disease, hypertension or high acidity of the stomach. Hyssop is contraindicated for nursing mothers, since hyssop contains components that can reduce or even completely stop lactation.
Sections: Garden plants Lamb (Lipocyae) Honey plants Spicy plants Plants on and Leafy
Hyssopus (Hyssopus) is a herbaceous perennial from the family Lamiaceae, which belong to the Mint subgroup. In nature, the plant is often found in Europe, the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The bright saturated blue color stands out against the background of the rest of the flora. The area of growth of hyssop is concentrated on flat land areas, in the steppe area or on the slopes of hills.
In addition to its pronounced decorativeness, hyssop has a number of other useful properties. Hyssop is a wonderful medicinal branchy plant with a pleasant aroma. It is considered an excellent seasoning. Growing a perennial in your own garden is a snap. Let's take a closer look at what the plant looks like, and what are the features of growing hyssop.
Growing basil from seeds will not be difficult even for a novice housewife. In order to always have fresh and fragrant greens in the house, it can be grown right in the house. The windowsill is a great place for seeds to germinate. Following simple recommendations, you can quickly and easily cope with the task.
So, let's start growing basil from seeds:
Advice! Growing basil from seeds in large quantities involves their uniform dispersion over the soil surface, after which it is necessary to cover it with a 5-10 mm thick substrate from above. In this case, it is better to water from the bottom, and not from above (this is necessary so that the flow of water does not displace the tiny seeds).
In order to maintain moisture and the correct temperature, the tray is covered with a plastic lid, glass or polyethylene. As soon as the seeds sprout, the lid should be removed and the room temperature should be reduced to 16 degrees (this so that the sprouts do not grow strongly).
If you decide to grow this fragrant plant at home, then growing basil on the windowsill can be done at any time of the year. The main thing for him is lighting, a temperature of 23-25 degrees and watering as the soil dries.
In garden design, hyssop helps out in the most difficult arid zones. Perhaps you will not find other such unpretentious ones. And this handsome man perfectly keeps its shape even during long periods of drought, does not wither at all, does not linger. Therefore, it is easy to form the edges of any natural compositions, borders from it.
In arid mixborders, it is combined with bearded iris, yarrow, oregano, sage and saintbrines (New Belgian asters). We just have a 10-meter never-watered flower garden along the blind area of the house on the south side, where at first there were only irises and spring crocuses, but then more spicy herbs and medium-sized septenbins were added there. The buzzing of beneficial insects does not stop here all season. By the way, another name for the hyssop is "bee grass", and beekeepers actively use its flowers not only to obtain honey, but also to attract bees to the hives.
In addition to all the listed advantages, hyssop grass is decorative for a long time and tolerates drought well. Therefore, when laying rockeries and creating cereal compositions, hyssop is in great demand. Even in autumn, its faded spikelets beautifully emphasize the brushes of cereals, which are only gaining strength.
Hyssop grass is also appropriate near the household blocks - it perfectly refreshes smells of any origin. And also near aviaries and chicken coops - scares off fleas and lice. Only we do not let hyssop into the garden zone, placing the bushes pointwise around the perimeter, so as not to "crush" the main crops, and not to show excessive allelopathy.
Well, perhaps, for today this is all that I wanted to tell about the main aspects of agricultural technology for growing hyssop. In short, we can say this: decorative, useful, unpretentious.And although this decorative and at the same time medicinal herb is still a rare guest in our gardens, it is pleasant to grow it from seeds, and then observe the accumulation of beneficial insects around it. Planting and caring for hyssop is extremely simple even for novice summer residents.
Growing and caring for odorous hyssop includes loosening and weeding. Water the plant as needed, about 3-4 times per summer. In autumn, the shoots must be cut off, leaving stems up to 15 cm high, giving the bush the shape of a hemisphere. Thanks to this, in the future, the shoots will branch well, bloom violently.
Shoots can be trimmed in the spring, which will lead to the formation of aerial shoots from the node located at the base of the main shoot of the plant. Self-seeding is not expected, the inflorescences are cut off when the seeds become brown and scattered on the surface, waiting for ripening. The plant is frost-hardy, withstands drought. Favorable for fragrant grass is a sunny, humid corner of the garden. The grass is unpretentious to the soil, but grows best on loose, drained soil with a slightly alkaline and neutral environment. Seeds do not lose their germination for 3-4 years.
Hyssop is a perennial semi-shrub herb with spike-shaped flowers that form at the ends of the shoots. The flowers are dark blue, white or pink. The plant is unpretentious to growing conditions, in the same place it can grow for 4 - 5 years.
Hyssop is propagated by both seeds and vegetative division of the bush. It grows well in open ground on fertile, well-drained, light soils.
Seeds are usually sown in March for seedlings or in April, immediately in open ground, as soon as the snow melts.
For a square meter of any soil you need to add 1 - 2 kilograms of manure humus and 1 tablespoon of organic fertilizer "Rossa" or "Effecton".
The beds must be dug to a depth of 20 - 25 centimeters, leveled and tamped slightly.
Hyssop seeds are very small and cannot be sown deeper than 0.5 centimeters. Sowing deeper will delay germination, or the seeds will not germinate at all.
When the plants reach a height of 5 - 6 centimeters, they need to be planted at a distance of 15 - 20 centimeters from each other. Leave a distance of 20-30 centimeters between the rows.
Depending on the variety, the leaves are harvested on the 25-60th day of plant development. Then peduncles are created. The seeds ripen in 3-3.5 months. Sowing in the south is sometimes carried out in August, covering the emerging plants for the winter. Early varieties of spinach are sown in the spring in the garden and in the greenhouse.
Garden spinach is often scattered pointwise throughout the garden, compacting the planting of lettuce, celery, kohlrabi. When growing greens, one must remember that leaves are useful only before the formation of peduncles. In a greenhouse, the plant can quickly shoot at high temperatures.
Since wild garlic is a forest plant, shady places are suitable for growing.
Ramson not yet very common in modern garden plots. Some try to propagate it by bringing the bulb from the forest, but the bulk is trying to get this vitamin perennial from seeds.
Novice gardeners trying grow wild garlic from seedsfail. There are no difficulties in growing... For its successful growth, you need to know about features of agricultural technology... The most important thing is to take into account that the seed has a long dormant period.
Before sowing them in the spring, they must be stratified by low temperature and high humidity for 100 days. The easiest way to do this is to use a refrigerator. A container with well-washed and disinfected wet sand mixed with seeds is placed in it. You can also use a damp cloth, which is placed in a hermetically sealed jar. During the entire period of stratification, moisture is checked weekly, and the seeds are crushed to provide them with air access. After the expiration of the specified period, the sunken seeds are sown on the garden bed.
Autumn sowing is carried out after the seeds are collected.... During the fall and winter, the state of deep dormancy is disturbed, and in the spring the seeds germinate.
Sowing seeds in the fall is carried out no later than October, in the spring - in April. It is better to prepare the rows in advance. Moreover, their depth is 5 cm, and the row spacing is at least 15 cm. Sprouted seeds are laid out evenly, taking into account the fact that with further growth, the formation of bulbs will occur, and sprinkle with a minimum layer of earth. When sowing in autumn, the rows are covered with foil and sprinkled on top with peat or compost.... The shelter is removed immediately after the snow melts. When sowing in spring, cover the bed with spunbond until sprouts appear.
Since wild garlic is a forest plant, shady places are suitable for cultivation.... These can be sparse tree crowns, shrubs, the north side of buildings or fences. It can grow in the sun, but it will be heavily overgrown with weeds, and the leaves will coarsen or dry out.
The plant needs neutral soils without stagnant water in the spring. She also does not tolerate waterlogging. Grooves with shoots should not be overgrown with weeds, since young plants release 1 oval leaf each and can be mistaken for weeds. Usually this perennial has enough natural moisture, but watering is necessary during hot and dry summers. Seedlings are grown without transplanting. Then, they dig out group plantings, separate them and plant 1 onion each with a large indentation and immersion in the ground by no more than 5 cm.This procedure should be very careful, since young plants are very fragile and you can accidentally break off the leaves.
At the very beginning of spring, as soon as the snow melts, top dressing is carried out by introducing up to 40 g of complex fertilizer per 1 sq. m. In order not to hurt the bulbs, the soil is loosened superficially. You can also sprinkle it with a thin layer of fine humus, compost or peat soil, up to 3 cm thick.
Only after 5 years are large and highly overgrown groups of plants separated and transplanted to another place. It is better to transplant in the fall, while choosing the largest baby bulbs. The transplanted bulbs should be sprinkled with loose earth up to 10 cm. It is important to remember that by the middle of summer the green part of the wild garlic dies off, therefore, stakes are placed near the bushes scheduled for division and transplantation.
The first crop can be harvested only after the wild garlic has grown well. At this time, the bulbs are already large enough, and the aboveground part is strong. When collecting the first crop, cut off one top sheet at a time. It is not recommended to touch the rest of the leaves, as the plant will not be able to accumulate nutrients for the formation of new bulbs.