In Russia, only eight out of two hundred viburnum species are known that grow on Earth. The greatest value of them is viburnum ordinary, since only it has medicinal properties.
In our gardens, two types of viburnum are most often found: ordinary and decorative called Buldenezh. The latter blooms with white sterile (not producing berries) flowers, collected in globular inflorescences. It blooms for a long time, more than a month. Prefers a sunny place, then the flowering is more luxuriant.
Viburnum vulgaris is also extremely decorative, not only at the time of flowering in June, when the bush is literally covered with beautiful large snow-white inflorescences. Its dark green dressy leaves are beautiful all summer long. And at the beginning of autumn, when clusters of large translucent bright red berries ripen, you just can't take your eyes off the bushes. Until late autumn they hang among the crimson leaves. And let them hang until the first frost, then the bitterness will leave the berries. Viburnum is harvested in bunches and stored in the refrigerator at temperatures below zero all winter.
Viburnum vulgaris is a shade-tolerant plant. This makes it indispensable for landscaping those places on the site where the sun practically does not get (on the north side of buildings, places shaded by large trees).
It should be said that pests attack the viburnum less in the shade. She has few of them, but aphids and leaf rollers can severely damage plants both at the beginning of summer and at the time of flowering and ripening of berries, which, of course, greatly oppresses the plants, and deprives you and me of most of the harvest. Therefore, the viburnum should be treated several times over the summer with anti-pest preparations or infusions of plants with a strong odor in order to disorient the pests.
In early spring, you can use the Iskra - Total Protection drug or karbofos for this, but in the midst of flowering, chemical preparations cannot be used, therefore, it is enough to sprinkle with an infusion of garlic (chop 300 g of garlic or garlic greens, pour ten liters of water, strain), onion and garlic husks (pour 200 g of husk with the same amount of water and insist under a lid for 4 days, drain), you can use coniferous needles, pour 250 g of needles with ten liters of water per day. Potato tops or stepchildren of tomatoes, tansy, wormwood are also suitable (400 g of green mass of any of these plants must be crushed, poured with ten liters of water, insisted under a lid for 4 hours, drain). It should be said that the prepared solutions should be used immediately.
You can prepare a preparation for future use from citrus peels. The crusts collected in winter and dried on a battery should be poured in spring with water, then the softened crusts must be passed through a meat grinder, one kilogram of this mass must be filled with three liters of hot water, covered and allowed to brew for 5 days. Then the infusion should be filtered, bottled, capped and stored in a dark, cool place. If necessary, take 100 g of infusion per 10 liters of water and spray the plants. Infusion of citrus peels is effective not only against aphids on viburnum or other plants, but also against all sucking insects and ticks.
What does viburnum love? Good fertile soils, although it tolerates scarce soils, only it will grow and develop on them slowly, and you will not wait for abundant flowering on such soil. He loves viburnum moisture, so it is good to plant it along a ditch or along the banks of water bodies. It will strengthen the banks, and there will be enough moisture for it, since it has a rather deep root system. It grows well in the sun, but prefers partial shade, although it can, as mentioned above, grow in the shade.
What does viburnum not like? Acidic soils, preferring slightly acidic. It grows poorly on sandy, podzolic and peat bogs. Mineral dressing can be applied every three years - a tablespoon of AVA fertilizer, which is embedded in the topsoil along the perimeter of the crown. You can feed it annually with Azofoska at the beginning of the season - three tablespoons per bucket of water for irrigation. It is imperative to apply any organic fertilizer annually in the spring (a bucket of rotted compost or manure).
Viburnum has a good haircut, so it can be used to create green fences, as well as to create all kinds of decorative compositions.
There are also cultural forms of the common viburnum. Especially sweet and large-fruited varieties are created in the Urals and Siberia: Ural sweet, Sverdlovsk semi-sweet, Altai. Naturally, during seed propagation, seedlings do not inherit parental properties, therefore varietal viburnum should be propagated vegetatively.
The fastest and easiest way to propagate it is by dividing the bush, root suckers, layering. In this case, the bushes begin to bear fruit for 2-4 years.
To obtain root suckers (vertical layers), viburnum bushes are spud in the spring to a height of about 15 cm. During the summer, adventitious roots appear on the spilled part. At the beginning of autumn, the stems with roots are cut out and transplanted immediately into place, in planting pits 40x40x40 cm, filled with good organic matter. Additionally, you can add a tablespoon of the AVA mineral fertilizer.
To obtain layering in the spring, the lower branches are bent to the ground and instilled. It is necessary to ensure that the soil in the place of their digging is constantly moist. Layers are dug up in the fall and immediately planted in place.
When propagated by green or lignified cuttings, viburnum will bloom for 3-5 years. Last year's growths (lignified cuttings) are cut at the beginning of June, or the ends of branches (green cuttings) are cut into cuttings at the end of July. They should be as thick and long as a pencil. The upper cut is made straight, the lower one - oblique. An oblique cut is stuck into a layer of sand poured over a layer of fertile soil. They put up a film shelter. Cutting should be done in the shade and constantly make sure that the air and soil in it are moist. The next fall, young seedlings can be planted in place.
Viburnum seeds propagate for a long time, bloom only for 6-7 years, so this method of propagation is rarely used. Freshly harvested seeds must be freed from the pulp, washed, mixed with wet sand in a ratio of 1: 3 and placed in a room at a temperature of about 20 degrees for 2-3 months. Make sure that the sand does not dry out. Then the crops are placed in the refrigerator for another three months.
In April, they are sown in the ground and the place is marked, since seedlings will appear only after a year. The fact is that in the first summer after sowing, only roots grow, and the aboveground part will appear only in the second year. And only after the third year, the seedlings can be planted in the school. For the winter, all three years, the sowing site and seedlings are covered with a layer of peat 10-12 cm and covered with spruce branches.
Viburnum seeds have poor germination (only about 15%), so they must be sown thickened. You can sow viburnum seeds immediately after picking berries before frost in a prepared place in open ground, freed from weeds, by making a mixture of peat (1 bucket), sand (0.5 bucket) and ash (liter jar). The seeds should be embedded in the soil to a depth of 2-3 cm. For the winter, this place should be covered with spruce branches. And wait for the emergence of seedlings for two years.
Fresh viburnum berries are useful for various allergies (it is enough to knead 3-4 berries in a cup of tea every morning). The seeds are inedible and should not be swallowed.
Berries or juice with honey are an excellent remedy for colds. Viburnum is used for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular spasms, and heart failure. With external and internal hemorrhages, they drink a decoction from the bark.
Viburnum has diaphoretic, astringent, antiseptic, soothing, diuretic, tonic properties. In addition, it contains a large amount of vitamins, and in terms of vitamin C content it can compete with lemons.
Viburnum can be made jelly: after freezing or from the freezer, blanch the berries in boiling water for 7 minutes, drain the water, rub 1 kg of berries through a sieve, add 400 ml of water, mix with 1 kg of granulated sugar and boil, stirring continuously, for 20 minutes.
Kalina in sugar... Sprinkle the viburnum berries (1 kg) with granulated sugar (200 g) and a small amount of starch (half a tablespoon). Close the container with viburnum and shake well. Then sprinkle on a sheet of paper and dry at room temperature for 10-12 hours.
You can cook viburnum marmalade with apples... Cook the viburnum berries and apples separately in a 1: 1 ratio. Rub through a sieve, mix together and add granulated sugar of the same weight as the mixture. Then boil the mass over low heat, stirring constantly, until such a state that it lags behind the spoon and from the basin. Arrange in a shallow dish. Cool, dry in the oven at 50-60 degrees. Cut into pieces, roll in sugar and put in boxes.
Depending on the variety, viburnum can be a shrub or tree. Its bark is dark, often with a reddish tint, wrinkled in structure. The shape of the leaves resembles maple, the color is green, but by autumn it changes to orange or even purple.
The flowers of the viburnum are small, white, collected in dense inflorescences, outwardly resembling an umbrella, like those of rowan or elderberry. Flowering period: from mid-May to mid-June, depending on the weather may be shorter. The smell of flowers is weak, light, peculiar - not everyone likes it.
The fruits of the viburnum are small, round, when ripe, they turn bright red. It tastes with bitterness, but after frost the berries become sweet, and ripen in September. To improve the taste of viburnum at home, just put it in the freezer.
Viburnum grows in deciduous or mixed forests, more often at the edge of the forest. It can often be found in bushes, on river banks, in ravines or foothills. Geographically, viburnum is distributed in the forest-steppe zone of Europe, Siberia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, in the Crimea. In other regions, it will not grow in nature.
Children's project "Kalina red" (grade 2)
My daughter's design work, student 2 "B" Mbousosh class No. 4 g... Shatura
Project activities "Red viburnum"
Prepared: Prilutskaya Anna Valerievna
Pupil 2 "b" class
"Oh it blooms viburnum ....» - we have heard this lyrical song since childhood... And how many other wonderful songs the people have composed about Kalina, "Oh viburnum», «Kalinushka»... How many legends, legends have the people composed about Kalina and carefully passed them on from generation to generation. And although they are a little sad, sad, but still lovely.
About 150 species are known viburnum... It is distributed throughout Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus, Asia, North Africa, and even on the Solovetsky Islands.
Some species viburnum are poisonousso black viburnum in the Caucasus.
Is growing viburnum in the forest and forest-steppe zone of almost all of Europe.
Shrub or tree 4 m high. The trunk of the bush is covered with fissured bark. Leaves viburnum common large, 5-lobed, light green in spring, just green in summer, in autumn reddish.
Infertile white flowers bloom a few days before fertile viburnumdecorating the shrub for 15 days. Fruit - red drupes are round in shape, with yellow flesh, edible, look cute against a background of greenery.
It has viburnum decorative forms:
Viburnum ordinary 'Nanum' ('Nanum') - dwarf form (1m) with small leaves. It grows from April to early October. Growth is slow. It freezes a little in winter.
Viburnum ordinary 'Roseum' ('Roseum') - the most common, it is also called "Buldenezh". The height of the bush is 2 m, the trees are 4 m. viburnum common Buldenezh broadly spreading. Globular inflorescences consist of sterile flowers, first olive, then white, resembling snowballs.
When blooming flowers viburnum Buldenezh turn pink... During flowering, which lasts 35 days, the shrub is decorative both in group and in single planting. Looks especially impressive by the water and in the standard form.
Bark, flowers and fruits viburnum help veterinarians treat foot and mouth disease (FMD is an acute viral disease) in large horned animals. To dye the wool red take ripe viburnum, and the bark of the bush stains the wool in a dark green color.
In culinary fields viburnum used in the form of juice from berries. And also from viburnum are good liqueurs, jelly, various tinctures. Of viburnum even make wine (the technology is no different from making wine from grapes)... If there is wine, then vinegar is somewhere nearby - from viburnum wonderful vinegar turns out. In the villages, you can still be treated to outlandish pies with viburnum.
Making compote from Viburnum Red at home
Sample of homemade compote
Berry juice viburnum is very fond of birds.
Flowers viburnum very melliferous - due to the large number of flowers, a good honey harvest does not require a lot of shrubs.
But not only this is famous viburnum, it contains a lot of vitamins and is very useful.
The bitter taste of the berries passes after the first frost, and then it is harvested.
Berries and bark contain a lot of vitamins C and E, carotene, calcium, magnesium, iron, organic acids and tannins.
The flowers contain minerals.
The content of valerian acids makes this berry especially curative, which determines its sedative effect.
It is used for colds, disorders of the digestive tract, with increased pressure, to boost immunity. A decoction of the bark is used as a hemostatic agent.
The people say that viburnum heals not only the body, but also the soul, drives away dark thoughts, and instills hope.
With white petals in spring when it blooms, and red berries in summerwhen it absorbs the sunlight, and the coolness of the first frost of autumn, and all this - beautiful viburnum.
Viburnum red praises
Together with my mother, we visited all the pharmacies in our city and found out the cost of a pack Viburnum Red (for brew)- 49 rubles 30 kopecks, the demand for the purchase and the effectiveness of this product in treatment.
The pharmacist Svetlana told us that, unfortunately, the demand for Kalina is not so bigsince most people prefer to be treated with antibiotics rather than folk remedies.
Here,what the therapist of the adult polyclinic Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Vassman told us: "For medical purposes, the bark viburnum is usedas a hemostatic, astringent, antiseptic, analgesic and sedative. From the bark viburnum used in folk medicine, the usual decoction for nasal and internal bleeding. It is recommended for adults to drink a decoction of bark for fever and colds.
Berries viburnumcollected immediately after freezing (having a sweetish - bitter taste) used as a diaphoretic, emetic and laxative and for stomach ulcers boiled with honey - for hoarseness, colds, suffocation, coughs, diarrhea, liver diseases, hypertension, jaundice. For heart disease, you need to eat berries viburnum with seeds (raw with sugar).
Berry juice viburnum removes acne from the face and juice acts as a laxative.
Fermented berries viburnum with sugar is recommended by traditional healers to consume people with hypertension (high blood pressure)... But in any case, the patient must first consult with the attending physician. "
As I said and showed on the slides, Viburnum has excellent medicinal properties.
At home we widely use viburnum from temperature: dry berries viburnum, brew two tablespoons of dry berries with a liter of boiling water, leave the broth for an hour, strain and add 2 tablespoons of honey to it. The remedy is drunk all day in small doses.
Cough is treated and flowers viburnum... It is necessary to pour two tablespoons of flowers with a glass of boiling water, leave for two hours, strain and drink half a glass warm three times a day.
Leaves viburnum and the bark has soothing properties.
For insomnia, you can brew 10 g of ground bark with a glass of boiling water and insist the broth in a thermos for a couple of hours. Take a tablespoon at night.
Flowers, berries and shrubs viburnum are beautiful... They are decorate your garden and vegetable garden and will cheer you up. A bathtub will help relieve stress. viburnum. Kalinovye leaves should be soaked in a bucket of water and left in the sun all day. The infusion is added to the evening bath. Bathing "in Kalina» relieves fatigue, relieves stress symptoms, gives a good mood.
In terms of biology, viburnum is a very entertaining culture, just take the family: initially, botanists took the Honeysuckle family for the viburnum, for a number of morphological signs, although it is worth looking at honeysuckle and viburnum so that everyone is surprised: they have absolutely nothing in common. At the beginning of the 21st century, the viburnum was transferred to another family - Adoksovye, but from there, after long disputes and proceedings, it was decided to exclude the viburnum. Now the viburnum has been allocated to an independent family - the Kalinovs, and now its status will, apparently, be unchanged.
Viburnum is widespread almost everywhere, especially loves to occupy moist soils, near rivers, swamps, grows in open areas and often overgrows with overgrown shoots so that the yield from each bush does not exceed a kilogram and it is sometimes located very high. Wild viburnum berries hang on the shoots for a long time and burn like rubies, which attracts birds, especially waxwings, which spread this shrub by "sowing" the seeds.
Of the whole variety of viburnum species, the exact number of which has not yet been named, only common viburnum or Red viburnum (Viburnum opulus). Some consider this species a shrub, others - a low tree, but nevertheless, biologically, the common viburnum is closer precisely to the shrub.
The leaf blades of this species are opposite, less often whorled, the plant is deciduous. Viburnum inflorescences are umbellate-corymbose, consist of a number of asexual, large flowers that bloom a day or two before the others open in the inflorescence and serve exclusively to attract insects. Viburnum is almost completely self-fertile, pollen of other varieties is needed for pollination, but the pollen itself is so small and light that it is sometimes carried by the wind for kilometers, so often even a lonely viburnum bush in the middle of the steppe is strewn with fruits.
By the way, about the fruits of viburnum, these are drupes, bright red in color, becoming soft as they ripen, with an abundance of juice and almost imperceptible pulp. The taste, even in modern varieties of viburnum, is quite bitter, so the berries are usually frozen before use, which somewhat reduces the bitterness. Inside each berry there is a very large, flat seed, sometimes occupying up to a third of the weight of the berry.
Kalina is a real long-liver, on good nutritious soil, in a lighted place, with a caring owner, it can live for tens of years. Officially, its productive age is limited to 30 years, but if the viburnum is rejuvenated by cutting off all the shoots on a stump, then it can be doubled.
Blooming bush of viburnum ordinary
To feel the hypotensive effect of viburnum, it takes 30 to 70 days of continuous treatment. Then you need to take a break for 1-2 months and the course can be repeated. The final schedule of "viburnum therapy" should be discussed with the attending physician.
Useful recipes for hypertensive patients:
Tea is very useful. It is better to brew viburnum in the morning, and drink in the late afternoon.
Contraindications for treatment
There are very few bans on the use of healthy berries. These are pregnancy, lactation, urolithiasis, a tendency to thrombosis, diseases of the digestive tract.
The use of viburnum-based products is possible after the approval of the attending physician.
It is important to understand that viburnum with hypertension is an auxiliary source of blood pressure normalization!
Also, one should not forget about the individual reactions of the body. For everyone who has never tried viburnum before, it is advisable to start eating a small amount of berries, drink a glass of fruit drink, a cup of tea. If there is no adverse reaction (digestive, allergic), you can safely stock up on a useful plant.
Before you start to use a berry in any form for the purpose of prevention or for treatment, you need to at least conduct a minimal medical examination in order to exclude contraindications. You need to exclude yourself from all risk groups, because the benefits with one disease can turn into harm with another. Treatment is contraindicated in such cases:
I hope that you have learned more closely what red viburnum is, its beneficial properties and contraindications. Hope my advice will help you.