Dionaea - Carnivorous plants


The Dionaea they are carnivorous plants that capture their prey by means of JACKING APPARATUSES that imprison animals with active movements.

The genus DIONAEAalso known as venus or flytrap it is a terrestrial species with an active trap system. They are plants native to eastern South America and typical of places with a mild and marshy climate.

There is only one species, the Dionaea muscipula and it is among the carnivorous plants, the most famous. It is not a plant that reaches large dimensions, at most 30 cm with a rosette habit.

Its prey capture mechanism is made up of leaves modified to form a kind of trap that snaps when a prey leans on it. Subsequently, the plant secretes enzymes to digest the prey.

We now propose a video on the Dionaea... spectacular

Dionaea - Carnivorous plants

Cultivation list (almost complete!)

-Sarracenia alata Heavily veined, Desoto. (Dennis Balsdon)
-Sarracenia alata A53 MK. White's Crossing, State rd 26/15. De Soto National Forest MS. , WS
-Sarracenia alata All Red, Mississippi, A27 / 2 Phil Wilson
-Sarracenia alata
-Sarracenia alata SA12, alata, red throat, heavy veining in interior, Carniflora 2005

-Sarracenia flava "Maxima"
-Sarracenia flava Gert- "The Steed"
-Sarracenia flava Blue Green Pitchers
-Sarracenia flava Gert-Mira 2010
-Sarracenia flava . (Erby) 1 tw
-Sarracenia flava . (Erby) 2
-Sarracenia flava var. atropurpurea all red Blackwater State Forest Florida Phil Wilson F02
-Sarracenia flava var. atropurpurea ipF96 (Aidan Selwin) - Blackwater River State Forest, Florida
-Sarracenia flava var. atropurpurea Bay County, Fl (A. Friends)
-Sarracenia flava var. cuprea FC12 Santee Coastal Reserve, SC
-Sarracenia flava var. cuprea Copper top (from Maxplants)
-Sarracenia flava var. flava heavy black veins, Dr. Kцnig
-Sarracenia flava var. flava Ghent University Botanical Garden
-Sarracenia flava var. flava by Marsure (Furio Ersetti)
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned Marcello Catalano
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned 1st Site, Sandy Creek Rd, Bay Co., N. Florida Clone 4
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned FO6 "Filiformis" (V. Bordin), aberrant form, seed grown
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned (Fanatlo-Blu)
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned “Golden”, Marston Clone
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned "Lidless" (P. Wilson)
-Sarracenia flava var. adorned FL57 Rogier van Loenen, F88 var. ornata, Solid red throat with diffused veins around neck, Apalachicola National Forest, FL W, (PW)
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora F20 MK Giant Red Tube Apalachicola National Forest (W) Tall maroon pitchers and deep coloring to the lid
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora F20 MK Giant Red Tube Apalachicola National Forest (W) Tall maroon pitchers and deep coloring to the lid
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora F26 MK `Burgundyґ
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora FL 92 (R. van Loenen) giant red tube Apalachicola, W - F23 MK
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora Apalachicola, north Florida, clone 2
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora F11 (Plantev) Holley, Santa Rosa Co., FL
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora FL 141 (RvL) (P. Wilson, 2009)
-Sarracenia flava var. rubricorpora “Open Pitchers” Wistuba clone
-Sarracenia flava var. rugelii intergrade A. Friends
-Sarracenia flava var. rugelii F17 MK Milton, FL W (F68, JA), copper tinged in early growth
-Sarracenia flava var. rugelii F52 MK Clone 5, Milton FL (W)
-Sarracenia flava var. rugelii F146 MK Large Pitcher, AP
-Sarracenia flava var. rugelii Ghent University Botanical Garden


-Sarracenia leucophylla Carniflora, 2001
-Sarracenia leucophylla Giant, Marsure
-Sarracenia leucophylla Gulf Breeze
-Sarracenia leucophylla seedling von "Helmut's Delight"
-Sarracenia leucophylla Anthocyanin-free clone 1 (Mari)
-Sarracenia leucophylla Anthocyanin-free clone 2 (Mikй)
-Sarracenia leucophylla "Pubescent", 30-40cm. Completly covered with white hairs, stunning plant (Klein)
-Sarracenia leucophylla "Pubescent Pink", Perdido, Al., 40cm. Nice pink colored pitchers, covered with hair (Klein)
-Sarracenia leucophylla LE08 (RvL), Schnell's ghost, yellow flower. Perdido Alabama. Pwilson L09, 2002
-Sarracenia leucophylla LE40 (RvL), Large white lid, Citronelle, Alabama, W. PWilson L03, 2004
-Sarracenia leucophylla L02 MK
-Sarracenia leucophylla Dark red
-Sarracenia leucophylla Near Freeport, FL. 5Ђ (PH)
-Sarracenia leucophylla L22 MK Red & white
-Sarracenia leucophylla Red & white
-Sarracenia leucophylla Deer Park (Klein)

-Sarracenia minor Large Form Brunswick Co., North Carolina (M2 Plantev)
-Sarracenia minor All green, anthocyaninfree
-Sarracenia minor var. okefenokeensis M16 MK, Okefenokee Giant, North East
-Sarracenia minor var. okefenokeensis Okefenokee Giant
-Sarracenia minor var. okefenokeensis Not giant (Alfonso Grossi)

-Sarracenia oreophila OR1 Sarracenia oreophila (Marsure)
-Sarracenia oreophila With heavy veins. (Marsure)
-Sarracenia oreophila (Wistuba 04)

-Sarracenia purpurea
-Sarracenia purpurea Very “Fat” pitchers
-Sarracenia purpurea
-Sarracenia purpurea "Smurf"
-Sarracenia purpurea
-Sarracenia purpurea subsp. venosa var. burkii f. luteola

-Sarracenia rubra ssp. gulfensis RG5 MK, Large form, Yellow River, FL., W, Mark Wilkinson
-Sarracenia rubra ssp. gulfensis f. heterophylla (C. Klein)
-Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra RR4 Long lidded form, NC. WS (PW)
-Sarracenia rubra ssp. wherryi Chatom Giant

-Sarracenia x 'Dixie Lace'
-Sarracenia x ((S. purpurea x S. flava) x (S. psittacina x S. minor)) clone A
-Sarracenia x ((S. purpurea x S. flava) x (S. psittacina x S. minor)) clone B
-Sarracenia x (S. oreophila x S. catesbaei). Short stocky red pitchers with a wide overhanging lid
-Sarracenia x (((purpurea x leucophylla) x purpures ssp. venosa) x 'Adrian Slack')
-Sarracenia x "Mushroom patch"
-Sarracenia x HF03 (S. flava var.cuprea x S. alata black tube)
-Sarracenia x Gent 01
-Sarracenia x Gent 02
-Sarracenia x Gent 03
-Sarracenia x (S. alata x S. flava)
-Sarracenia x moorei
-Sarracenia x 'Brook's Hybrid' (S. leucophylla x S. flava rugelii)
-Sarracenia x From Pecoranera
-Sarracenia x SH51 (RvL) ((flava rubricorpora x alata red) x flava rubricorpora)
-Sarracenia x H85
-Sarracenia x Garden hybrid
-Sarracenia x Gert 01
-Sarracenia x Gert 02
-Sarracenia x Gert 03
-Sarracenia x Gert 04
-Sarracenia x umlauftiana ((purpurea x psittacina) x (leucophylla x psittacina))

Dionaea - Carnivorous plants

The POSITION has a fundamental factor: it must be well lit (possibly from direct sun), it must be protected from sudden drafts and it must be relatively humid. Provided that it is kept indoors, the ideal place can be the sill of a very sunny window (therefore facing south), but it is also very suitable for cultivation in terrariums.

The space for the roots also plays a vital role: often these plants are found on the market in small pots, too small for a good sustenance of the plant. In the long run this could suffer and even die. It is therefore convenient to repot (in late spring) in a second pot (possibly in plastic) and 10 to 15cm high. In this operation it is necessary to be extremely careful, as the delicate roots could be damaged.

Another fundamental role is played by the compound which must essentially consist of good high acidity sphagnum peat, possibly mixed with 1/3 of sand (absolutely not calcareous) in order to favor drainage.

The pot must therefore be placed in a bed of water of at least 1-2cm so that the soil is always well wet.

The water, as for other carnivorous plants, must be rain or distilled, since the presence of limestone is very harmful to the roots and will lead the plant to a short and inevitable death. The acidity and the absence of limestone are two complementary factors.

Never apply fertilizers to the soil in any way. They represent a real poison for all carnivorous plants, capable of bringing the plant to death in a short time.
Feeding through the capture of prey is important, but not essential. The dionaea, like other carnivorous plants, is capable of surviving and growing even in the absence of "prey": so avoid "feeding" it with squashed flies or pieces of meat, which would not only be useless, but could cause a real "indigestion".
If you really want to feed your plant, you need to get relatively small and above all live prey: mosquitoes are excellent and particularly welcome.
But, beyond the attraction that seeing your plant "eat" a mosquito can arouse, it is better to play as little as possible with the traps and leave the plant to its natural and spontaneous nutrition.

The Dionaea can be reproduced according to three different methods: division, cutting and seeds.

Among these the simplest is probably the division method, but it is necessary to wait until the plant is already well mature and developed.
In this case the plant is extracted from the pot with extreme care and the earth is dispersed in a basin of water. Once bare, the rhizomes are divided and repotted in the compost.

Reproduction by cuttings should be done in spring or early summer. It consists in cutting a leaf of the plant (as close as possible to the base), depriving it of the "trap" and placing it on a moist layer of peat and sphagnum. Then protect it with a cellophane sheet or a glass bell to preserve the humidity.
Within a month or more, new shoots may appear capable of generating as many plants. A single leaf is in fact capable of recreating more than one plant.

Dionaea - Carnivorous plants

Fungal infection caused by Colletotrichum

- phytium: also known as collar and root rot, it spreads rapidly, even from plant to plant, thriving on not very luxuriant or debilitated specimens, in conditions of high humidity and with temperatures around 20 degrees. It manifests itself with dark spots and rottenness on the plant, which rapidly deteriorates, since at the moment of the onset of symptoms the infection is already in an advanced state. In case of infection, isolate the affected plants to avoid the spread of the mycelium on healthy individuals, and then treat the affected plants with specific products.

- virus: although in the past there has been a certain alarm about it, there are no known cases of virosis on the Dionaea muscipula. The plants, then analyzed in the laboratory, were found to be infected with anthracnose.

Fertilization: usually Dionaea, like most carnivorous plants, does not need fertilization, which can be fatal if given at wrong dosages as this plant has evolved precisely to survive in soils that are very poor in nutrients. Newbies should stick to this rule, not to fertilize these plants.
However, there are clones and varieties of Dionaea in which the traps are so profoundly changed as to render the plant unable to capture prey (such as Dionaea "Mars"). To these plants a very scarce fertilization can certainly be of benefit.

Nutrition: outdoors it provides alone to attract prey, so it is not necessary to provide it. In any case, the dionaea needs live prey, otherwise the trap reopens by refusing food. Provide only insects and never other types of food (meat, cheese or other), indigestible if not harmful to the plant. The plant must not be gorged: 2/3 monthly preys are more than enough for it.
In any case, avoid triggering the empty traps as this costs the plant a lot of energy: an excessive stimulation of the "empty" traps, without the trigger resulting in a capture and therefore the consequent benefit of the nutrients provided by the insect, can stress and debilitate the plant.

Reproduction: Dionaea naturally tends to divide into several plants. Moreover, it can be reproduced both by vegetative way and by seed, even if the times for obtaining an adult specimen are relatively long (on average from 2 to 5 years, depending on the method and the variety).
- division: it is a spontaneous process of the plant, and it is the best way to obtain new specimens. The plant spontaneously creates new shoots, either near the apex (especially after flowering), or along the oldest part of the rhizome. These shoots, being attached to the mother plant and therefore being sustained by it, usually become of a good size quite quickly. At the time of repotting they could already be completely detached from the mother plant, or if they are not excessively attached to it they can be cut and repotted like new plants. The specimens obtained are absolutely identical to the mother plant, having the same genetic code.
- rhizome cutting: the rhizome of the Dionaea can be sectioned into more or less large parts and buried in the normal substrate, better by wrapping the sections with possibly vegetating sphagnum to favor their development and prevent the formation of molds. Normally one or more plants are produced within one month of the rhizome portion, the faster the growth will be the greater the portion of rhizome used and the greater the size of the mother plant (section of the rhizome). The formation of the new plant should be quicker than the leaf or floral stem cutting, as the dormant buds that are already present along the rhizome at the attachment of the leaf are exploited. The moment to operate this division is the repotting, when it is easy to detach the oldest parts of the rhizome at other times it is not recommended to intervene, as otherwise the risk of disturbing or damaging the plant is excessive. The plants obtained are absolutely identical to the mother plant having the same genetic code.
- leaf cutting: the lower part of the leaf, closest to the rhizome and usually white in color, has a good amount of meristematic tissue (meristem, i.e. consisting of undifferentiated cells capable, by dividing and multiplying, to recreate all the tissues of the plant and therefore a new specimen). The best time to operate is also in this case the repotting, when it is simple to detach the leaves from the rhizome by "leafing" them (at different times from this some growers use a thin sheet of flexible material - plastic, for example a cut drink straw - to leverage the underground leaves and detach them, however, personally I consider this method too risky and not very productive, since operating in the blind way you risk damaging the rhizome of the mother-plant, and at the same time there are few guarantees of being able to obtain a leaf with sufficient tissue meristematic). It is better to use robust adult leaves: the larger the leaf used, the better the result. However, the "ribs" that have remained adherent to the rhizome, remains of leaves whose exposed part has dried up, can also be used. The leaves must therefore be buried similarly to the rhizome cutting. After a variable period usually from 1 to 3 months, one or more new seedlings should appear, also identical to the mother plant, which should be adult in 2/3 years (but the times, in general, can vary a lot depending on the variety. used).
- floral stem cutting: similar to the leaf cutting, only in this case the inflorescence is used for the cuttings it is advisable to let it develop so that the portion for the cutting is at least 5 cm and not more than 10. Cut it off therefore and treat it as a leaf cutting: the more it has been cut down, the greater the chances of success of the cutting (it is also possible to tear it, if the rhizome is not very buried or if you are proceeding with a repotting. the inflorescence risks damaging the plant).
- from seed: reproduction from seed is the only one that allows to obtain different plants (with a different genetic code) than the parents. However it is not practiced both for the strong stress caused to the plants by the flowering, and for the very long times to obtain adult plants (about 5 years). The first step is to obtain the seeds: the flowers must therefore be pollinated. They are self-fertile but not self-pollinating, which means that the pollen of the plant itself or of one of its divisions can be used for pollination, but unlike other species, even carnivorous, whose flowers self-pollinate themselves (Drosera capensis), however, the intervention of a pollinating agent will be required. However, pollination will soon be dealt with in detail on a specific page. Once the seeds have been obtained, it is advisable to plant them immediately, as soon as they are collected, they should be stratified first. The seeds will be placed on the normal compound used for cultivation. The seedbed must therefore be placed in a bright position but not in direct sunlight, to prevent the sun from drying the surface of the soil and the compost, and possibly covered with transparent perforated film to increase the humidity of the air (so however, the film does not touch the substrate and seeds). It is necessary to pay attention that there is some air circulation and that the temperature inside the seedbed does not rise excessively. After about 1/2 months the new seedlings should appear.

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