Plum is one of the most popular fruit trees, known to summer residents of almost all regions of Russia.
This stone fruit has a huge varietal variety and is the leader among all fruit trees in terms of the number of species. Yellow, red, blue, large or smaller plum, it pleases with its rich harvests, attracting more and more people who want to plant such a tree on their site.
There are effective ways to propagate plums on your own. and grow an excellent harvest on this tree. Plum is very susceptible to reproduction: it takes root easily, gives growth, it has rather high adaptive properties.
Consider artificial (grafting, cuttings) and natural (root shoots, seeds) methods of plum propagation.
This way of breeding plums is most common for dark varieties.
The soil is prepared in advance for planting a green cuttings - a mixture of peat and sand will create an optimal microclimate, before direct planting, good soil moisture and fertilization are needed (for example, superphosphate - 1 tsp per 10 liters of water).
On the mother tree, shoots are selected to be cut - firm and acquiring varietal reddish tint.
Shoots are cut with a sharp blade, each cut into several cuttings 25-30 cm long, each of which should have two or three leaves. After pruning, the cuttings are placed in water with growth stimulants for 12-16 hours.
After the preparatory work cuttings are planted in the ground about 3 cm deep (without closing the bottom sheet), the distance between plantings is 7x7 cm.
Experienced gardeners recommend creating a good microclimate for planted cuttings - several times a day, gently moisten the soil, cover the planting with a film, making sure that the temperature under it does not rise above 30˚С.
After 15-20 days, the film can be removed, during this time the first roots should appear and the plants will need ventilation and oxygen.
The timing of propagation by cuttings determines the success of the result. Cuttings are cut in the middle of summer, preferably in the early morning or evening, in the process of germination, it is important for them to avoid excessive heat and cold, for which a greenhouse film is installed.
For the winter, it is recommended to sprinkle the established cuttings with peat or fallen leaves to avoid frostbite on young roots.
How to root green cuttings:
The method of propagation of plums from root shoots is universal., which is recommended to be removed, as it takes away the fruitful forces of the mother tree.
A small young shoot (up to 50 cm in height) from this shoot can become material for planting. The shoot should grow at a distance of about 1 m from the main tree, be well developed, not affected by insects.
When choosing, a developed root system is important, which will allow the shoot to easily take root in a new place.
The shoot is neatly separated from the main roots of the mother plum, the place where the root was cut is sprinkled with ash. The separated shoot is placed in a well-moistened soil, in a shady place, where it will adapt to new conditions - independent growth.
Its tip is pinched... As a rule, after a month, fresh leaves will appear on it - this means that the rooting process was successful.
Plum is an unpretentious plant that can multiply by root shoots and adapt on its own, which only confirms this. but a young seedling needs good care and timely fertilization.
A month after transplanting the shoot, the plum is required the first feeding - saltpeter, azophos, nettle infusion or cow dung, which are diluted in water... Feeding can be done every two weeks to keep the plant strong.
Plum seed propagation is also often used. gardeners. At the same time, it is unlikely that varietal properties will be preserved, here special observations of the seedlings, control and selection of the best ones are required, only then will a varietal plum be obtained.
For planting with seeds, it is necessary to prepare the planting material. The famous breeder V.N. Shalamov writes that the fruit from which the seeds are taken must be completely ripe, after removal, it is left to the limit of lying, only then the bones are removed from it.
They are freed from the pulp, washed and dried naturally, avoiding sunlight. Dried seeds are transferred to a plastic bag, covered and stored until autumn or spring planting at room temperature.
The process of ripening of seeds in plums of different varieties takes up to 180 days.During this period, many breeders suggest mixing selected plum seeds with wet sand and keeping them in a refrigerator or a special box, dug into the ground and protected from water, insects and rodents.
After such storage, many seeds hatch, which means that the planting results will be more successful.
Planting prepared seeds occurs in spring or autumn., in a well-prepared and fertilized soil (V.N.Shalamov recommends fertilizing 1 sq. m of the planting bed with a mixture of humus (4-6 kg), superphosphate (70 g), potassium salt (30 g), ammonium nitrate (30 g) and lime (50-90 g).
Planting should be carried out before the onset of frost or after the soil dries out after a snow cover.
Seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of 2-3 cm, spine down or the place where the root should appear, the distance between the seeds is 30x10 cm. The seeds are covered with fertile soil.
During the entire period of growth, the land must be free from weeds, moistened and loosened, pest infestation must be carefully avoided. After 1-2 years, the selected seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place..
The criteria for vitality and future yield are how the seedling has grown in one season. The better the growth, the higher the winter hardiness and vitality.
This method is the most successful to preserve the varietal qualities of the plum. Rootstock, i.e. the base on which the grafting is made is usually grown from seed, less often from root shoots.
Extra leaves and branches are removed in advance, it is watered abundantly to activate sap flow. The age of the stock should not exceed one year; it is desirable that its mother tree be a winter-hardy plum.
A graft can be a bud or a stalk, each has its own methods of grafting.
Kidney grafting is called budding... A bud is cut from a varietal tree with a special budding knife - a strip of bark about 3 cm and about 0.5 cm thick with a highly developed bud. An incision is made at the rootstock at a level of about 4 cm from the soil, where, carefully bending back the bark, a shield with a bud is inserted.
Budding can be done in another way, when the scion is cut with a wedge with a thorn up to 15 cm above the bud, which is inserted under the prepared tongue on the rootstock. In this case, it is recommended to graft two buds on one rootstock at once - at a distance of about 4 cm and 11 cm from the soil in order to increase the success of the grafting.
The place of budding is neatly tied with polyethylene, leaving only the kidney open. The harness is removed 3 weeks after vaccination.
Grafting with cuttings has a longer preparation... Cuttings are harvested in advance and stored during the autumn-winter season and are grafted in two ways: in the split or behind the bark.
Cleavage suggeststhat the rootstock and scion are of approximately the same thickness, but this is not a prerequisite. The stock is cut horizontally and a vertical split is made in the center with a depth of no more than 3 cm (if the stock is a stump left over from an old plum, then the depth does not exceed 7 cm).
The stalk should be cut so that 4-5 eyes remain above the place of the intended alignment. The lower part of the cutting is cut with a wedge similar to the rootstock (no more than 3 cm for a young rootstock). When in contact, the scion and stock should be tightly pressed against each other.
Do not touch the cuttings and rootstocks with your hands, this can infect the graft site and the future tree will not take root.
Bark grafting is carried out only with active sap flow, then the bark easily moves away from the stock. It is carefully cut, if it is supposed to plant several cuttings at the same time, then in several places.
The stalk is cut obliquely and connected to the stock. The connection should be tight, it is desirable that the wood layers come together.
After connecting the cutting to the stock, the grafting site is tightly tied with polyethylene, electrical tape or special elastic tape. The remaining open places are densely covered with garden varnish.
Until the first leaves, it is advisable to protect the vaccine from moisture, excess solar heat - the vaccination site is shaded and covered with a transparent bag.
Faced with the issue of plum breeding, many are wondering about the best time for him... Summer warmth, like the beginning of spring and autumn in different climatic zones, has its own boundaries. This critical factor must be taken into account when determining the time for breeding.
It is also important that reproduction of plums can have a rather lengthy preparatory stage, for example, when preparing seeds or storing root shoots or cuttings. All of them, as a rule, are collected in the summer-autumn period and stored until spring.
Reproduction of fruit trees:
Each plum multiplication action has its own seasonal terms:
Spring propagation of plums is recognized as the most successful and effective, summer is an adaptive period for fruit seedlings and seedlings, allowing you to judge how they will tolerate winter.
Although plum is an unpretentious plant, it requires care and maintenance. at all stages of its growth.
To propagate plums, having received excellent varietal qualities and good adaptability, attentive attitude, regular watering, feeding and monitoring the grown pets will help.
Some stone fruit crops can be propagated by root shoots, this is especially true when the tree is aging and you need to keep your favorite variety. However, it should be borne in mind that some varieties of trees and shrubs may not retain varietal characteristics, for example, those grown on a rootstock. Find out if it is possible to grow a plum from a root shoot, if it will bear fruit. Check out the nuances, as well as the pros and cons of this breeding method.
This method is suitable for both the experienced gardener and the beginner. For propagation, we select only green cuttings that are not lignified.
For regions with harsh winters, we advise you to carry out this process starting in spring, until the buds begin to bloom. If you live in a warmer region, then you can start planting a tree closer to autumn. The best option is from May to the end of August.
Choose smooth, visually healthy tree branches. It is advisable to cut the cuttings early in the morning, while they have the maximum amount of moisture. If you do not immediately start rooting, then you need to put the green cuttings in a jar of water.
Cut off the middle part of the cut off branch with 3 buds. We make the bottom edge just under the kidney, and also cut off the bottom sheet. We make the upper cut a little higher than the upper kidney. On the resulting workpiece, if there are large leaves, they must be cut in half, since they will take up energy and there will be a lot of moisture evaporation. Roots will form from the bottom of the bud, and the plant itself will be from the top.
For the nutrient solution, we need:
This solution must be watered with sand and do not forget to loosen if necessary.
The plant needs a temperature of + 25 + 30 degrees, as well as humidity. Therefore, you need to make a small greenhouse. It is very convenient to make a greenhouse from an ordinary plastic bottle, or from a plastic box, you can also put it in an ordinary bucket.
Pour prepared moist soil about 12 cm deep at the bottom of the greenhouse. It is better if the soil is loose and without lumps.
We plant the cuttings in moist soil 6 cm deep so that the lower bud goes into the ground. After planting, cover with a lid or foil, but so as not to touch the leaves. Over time, as needed, weeds will need to be weeded and watered to maintain moisture. Greenhouse tightness must be observed without fail. The greenhouse can be placed in the shade, where the sun's rays sometimes fall, or it can even be placed in the house, on the balcony or loggia.
There are several reasons why plum leaves curl. What should gardeners do in order not to be left without a crop and not to destroy the tree? First of all, they are determined with characteristic symptoms and find out what this plant signal is associated with. A thorough examination and timely measures taken will help to avoid negative consequences.
The appearance of curled plum leaves depends on the cause that led to this deformation. The leaf can not only curl up into a tube, but also wrinkle, and also change color, dry out and fall off. The reasons for this can be different:
Correct determination of the cause of the curling of the leaves at the plum will help you quickly navigate and take measures to eliminate it.
This pest has another name - plum elephant. Outwardly, it looks like a weevil, only very microscopic. The female insect lays its eggs on all parts of the plant, including the leaves. The appeared larvae not only eat away part of the plate near the petiole, but also fold it into a tube. Over time, such a leaf dries up and falls off.
To combat the pipe-runner on the plums, the Lepidocide agent is used. You can use it a week before the expected harvest, in dry and warm weather. After a day, insects will suspend their activity, and in a week they will die. To combat pipe-runners at the drain, insecticides of a wide spectrum of action are also used (for example, Fitoverm or Aktaru).
An adult butterfly does not harm the plum, but this cannot be said about its offspring. Caterpillars are capable of destroying all green parts of a tree (from buds and leaves to buds and ovaries). They roll up the leaf plate into a tube and pupate in them. If you shake the plum, the caterpillars will fall out and hang on a thin web. It is recommended to deal with them in the same ways as with a tube-runner.
The danger of this pest is that it spreads very quickly. During the growing season, up to 15 generations are reproduced. It is difficult to fight aphids even when isolated cases of damage are found. The parasite settles not only on the outer, but also on the inner side of the plum leaf plate, folding it into a tube and making it difficult to carry out processing. In habitats, a sooty fungus often settles, blocking the nutrition of the plant and clogging its pores.
Experienced gardeners recommend treating plums with Inta-Vir every spring for prevention purposes. Also, plants are planted in the garden with a characteristic repelling smell:
If the plum is already affected by aphids, then all the foliage is cut off and burned, and the tree itself is sprayed with insecticides containing karbofos ("Decis" or "Spark").
The condition of plum leaves also depends on environmental factors. In particular, freezing leads to curling and wilting of the green mass. This phenomenon is typical for regions with a changeable climate, where spring return frosts or early autumn cold snap often occur. The tree should be protected with good shelter for the winter, otherwise it may die. This is especially true for young seedlings.
A common cause of plum leaves folding is excessive moisture or close groundwater. In this case, the green mass not only collapses, but also massively turns yellow. If such symptoms are found, watering the drain is stopped, and if necessary, the tree is transplanted to a hill.
When transplanting or loosening the soil in the area of the trunk circle, damage to the root system occurs. If the plum leaves begin to curl for this reason, then it should be fed. In the spring, 20 g of carbamide is added to the soil.
Inexperienced gardeners often make mistakes when feeding plums. With their excess or deficiency, the plant not only shrivels, but also turns yellow, and then leaves fall off. Lack of nitrogen affects not only the state of the green mass, but also the growth and development of the tree itself, its shoots. But as a result of its excess, the opposite is true: greens grow abundantly, and a cap of swirling leaves forms at the top. Flowering and fruiting are scarce.
Phosphorus deficiency manifests itself in curling the edges of plum leaves closer to autumn. Fruits near the tree either crumble green or ripen tasteless. The foliage begins to fall off prematurely. If the plant lacks potassium, then it can become sterile. In this case, the leaf plates turn yellow at the edges and curl, then acquire a completely yellow color. Over time, they turn black, but do not fall off even with the onset of cold weather.
With a lack of magnesium and iron in the soil, the foliage on the plum turns yellow, curls to the bottom and wrinkles. Outwardly, this resembles signs of curliness in raspberries or gooseberries. If there is a deficiency of magnesium, then adult leaves are modified, and if the gland is deficient, young ones.
This disease is a consequence of a violation of the production of chlorophyll in the plum. The foliage first acquires a yellow color, then brown, then curls up, a tube is formed, which turns black over time. Its edges begin to dry. Gradually, the disease spreads to young shoots, the upper leaves of the plum are already curled up.
The branches become very fragile and break easily. Carbonate soil contributes to the development of the disease. For the treatment of plums, the drug "Antichlorosin" is used, alternating with "Khilat". Treatments are appropriate throughout the growing season.
If you neglect the treatment and let the disease take its course, over time it can affect the entire garden.
Spores of this fungus tolerate winter well directly in the soil. As soon as warmth comes, they penetrate the roots through the resulting cracks and wounds. The mycelium does not allow nutrients to move along the trunk; as a result, the foliage on the plum first turns yellow, then begins to curl upward and dies off. At the initial stage of the lesion, the tree is treated with Topsin-M or Vitaros.
If the disease is neglected and the leaves are curled at the tops of the plum, the question of how to treat it is no longer relevant. It is best to uproot the plant and burn it so that the infection does not spread further. For prophylaxis, every spring and autumn, the plantings are sprayed with the preparation "Previkur".
Every year this disease is becoming more and more common. It affects not only plums, but also other stone fruit plants, harming shoots, leaves, fruits and flowers. Small red dots on foliage are the first sign of infection. Over time, they cover the entire plate, after which it is rolled up into a tube. When unfolding, small pads of a pale pink color are clearly visible - traces of spores.
High humidity and damp weather are favorable conditions for the spread of fungal diseases. If you start the disease, then the spores are clearly visible even on the wounds and cracks in the bark. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture (3 times per season) will help to save the plum. They spray not only the tree and its trunk, but also the soil in the near-trunk circle.
Preventive measures taken in time allow avoiding many problems and keeping trees healthy. When the first signs of a disease are detected, it is necessary to immediately take measures aimed at treating the plant and eliminating the causes of the disease.
Digging the soil in the trunk circle in late autumn helps to destroy the wintering plum pests and their larvae. Once on the surface of the earth in a cold winter, pathogens and pests die. With the onset of spring heat, insects that eat the ovary actively accumulate on the branches. But to attract beneficial insects, it is recommended to plant honey plants next to the plum.
The moth is caught on traps in the form of hanging cans with fermented compote or beer. In the spring, the ticks emerging from the shelters are destroyed by spraying with acaricides. Also, at this time of the year, it is necessary to clean the wood of old bark and whitewash it with a solution of lime to get rid of overwintered larvae and pests.
In the first year of life, the plum does not require additional fertilizing at all. This is especially true for nitrogen fertilizers. If the plant is overfed, then it will begin to build up the root system and young shoots by autumn, as a result of which it will not survive the winter. As for organic fertilizers, they are used no more than 3 times in the whole year.
Plum care is not only about regular watering and top dressing. The tree needs crown molding, weeds removal, loosening of the soil in the near-trunk circle, preventive treatments. In regions with cold climates, plants are prepared for winter, insulated and covered.
When spring comes and dangerous insects fly out, it is recommended to spray the plum with an infusion with a pungent aroma (for example, conifers or wormwood). This will not kill the pests, but will confuse them and force them to look for another place to stop.
Prevention of the appearance of aphids is carried out by treating the plum with ash and soap infusion. For its preparation, 1 kg of ash is taken for 10 liters of boiling water, the resulting mixture is infused for 2 days, after which 100 g of soap is thrown in and mixed well. This drug is sprayed on trees every 2 weeks.
To prevent the appearance of dangerous diseases in the garden, plums are treated with insecticides 3 times a season. The first time spraying is carried out before bud break, then before flowering and before the crop begins to sing. Autumn processing with Bordeaux mixture will help prevent the development of fungal diseases in the garden.
The best time to graft any horticultural crop is spring. But for different methods it is worth choosing a specific period.
This method allows the most complete preservation and transfer of the varietal qualities and properties of the plant to the offspring. It implies the presence of a rootstock - a base plant on which the grafting is carried out. This plant is usually grown from seed or root weed. It is watered abundantly, excess foliage and shoots are removed. The stock should not be more than 1 year old.
Budding (grafting) of fruit trees
The considered method is very laborious and is carried out according to a certain scheme. Long growths of this year are cut from a varietal plant with a pruner, from which large buds and a small part of the bark are then peeled off with a sharply sharpened budding knife. An incision is made on the rootstock at a level of about 4 cm above the ground. The bark is carefully folded back and the cut soil is inserted there. The place of budding is tightly wrapped with a strip of plastic film, which is removed after 3-4 weeks. If the procedure is carried out correctly and all conditions are met, the kidney will take root and form a sprout.
The place of budding is tightly wrapped with a strip of plastic wrap
The time for planting cuttings in open ground is autumn or spring. There is only one regularity - the survival rate of trees is better in spring.
Spring starts at different times in different regions. The best guideline for planting is soil temperature. The earth should warm up to 8-12 ° C.
Home-grown cuttings should be hardened 2-3 weeks before planting. First, take out in the daytime to the terrace, balcony. Every day the time of "walks" is increased, up to disembarkation.
Cuttings grown in a greenhouse also require hardening. In the first decade of September, the film is slightly opened in the daytime. The duration of the walks is increasing every day. By the end of the week, open the ends of the greenhouse for the night.
After 2 weeks, the cover is removed completely. The starting point will be the first "walk".
In the spring, loose soil is prepared, where the seedlings will be planted. Throughout the season, plantings are looked after: watered, removed weeds, fed.
In the second spring, the young tree is transplanted to a permanent place.