As soon as the first shoots appear on the beds, or the seedlings are planted in a permanent place, the shoots are invaded by a huge number of small black bugs - cruciferous flea beetles. It happens that a few days are enough for them to render all plants unusable for further growth.
There are several types of this harmful parasite:
The beetles are painted in black, blue, green tones, there are also two-color insects - a winding strip of yellow tint is clearly visible on a black background. The length of insects is different - from 1.8 to 3 millimeters. The pest can be found in almost every region of the country, except for the northern ones. It is rightfully considered the most dangerous enemy for cruciferous plants.
Adults are able to hibernate under the plants remaining in the beds, fallen leaves, in the upper layers of the earth, greenhouse and hothouse crevices. They wake up in early spring when the soil thaws. As a rule, this time falls in April - May.
For the first time, their diet consists of weeds, but as soon as seedlings appear on the beds, the flea moves to the garden plots, damaging the foliage of plants, leaving depressions on them that resemble ulcers. On young leaves, the flea gnaws through holes. The peak of their activity occurs in the morning and evening.
The female lays eggs in most cases directly on the ground. The larvae that appear from them hide in the soil for the first time, feeding on the roots and roots of plants for several weeks. Then they pupate, and after a week and a half, you can observe the appearance of a new batch of young beetles, actively destroying the plants.
The flea chooses rutabagas, mustard leaves, cabbage, watercress, radishes, turnips, horseradish, turnips, and spinach as the main food items for the flea. Of the cultivated flowers, alissums, levkoi, matiolla most often suffer from the parasite.
Experienced gardeners will always be able to protect their garden from a pest, using not only chemical preparations, but also folk tricks for the fight.
For the destruction of fleas, insecticidal agents known to many are quite suitable:
Any of the drugs can be purchased at a specialty store. It is best to process the beds with them in the evening, when the sun has already gone down. Fleas are still on the foliage.
It is not recommended to use preparations for early maturing crops!
When working with chemical compounds, one should strictly adhere to the requirements of the instructions for their use.
— humid environment - the easiest way. It is only necessary to water the beds abundantly, since the flea does not tolerate damp places;
— foliage dry pollination method - performed with a gauze bag, which must be shaken over the plants. You can put wood ash in the bag in its pure form or with the addition of tobacco dust. It is best to perform such procedures in the morning, so that the repellent agent settles on the foliage damp with dew. The flea is afraid to sit on dirty plants. By the way, the aisles can be treated with mothballs or tobacco dust;
— the use of infusions and herbal decoctions:
A simple remedy is to cover the seedling beds with covering non-woven materials. They perfectly transmit light, water and air, reliably protect seedlings from fleas.
Make flags from a dense material, fix them on sticks, spread something sticky - resin or grease. Flags must be waved over the plantings, barely touching the leaves. The procedure is recommended to be carried out during the day, when it is very hot.
Soak a piece of cloth in machine oil and place it next to the garden bed. It is best if such traps are set at intervals of three to four meters. After a couple of days, simply turn the fabric over to the other side.
You should try to prevent the appearance of a pest. It is necessary to constantly remove cruciferous weeds by all available means.
In the autumn season, the garden must be dug up... This will help get rid of the flea, which will be on the surface and freeze in winter.
Do not neglect feeding plants with organic compounds, regular watering, loosening the soil. All this will help speed up the development of plants.
Some gardeners recommend combining cabbage, radishes and other cruciferous plants with potatoes, garlic, dill, and caraway seeds. These plants secrete phytoncides that repel the flea.
You should not neglect the weather conditions - sow early crops while the flea is still sleeping, or do it in June, when the activity of the pest decreases.
Remember that it is imperative to fight a flea! This will help you preserve the future harvest of not only vegetables, but also berries, strawberries, for example. If timely measures are not taken, then all plants will be destroyed in the early phase of their growth.
Insect from the family of leaf-eating beetles, belongs to the species of earthen flea beetles. An adult does not exceed 2.5 mm in length, has a blue, black or dark green body color.
A flea can jump, moving from one plant to an adjacent bush. Over the summer, it gives 2-3 generations of individuals. The insect hibernates in the surface layer of the soil, at a depth of up to 7 cm, under plant debris, coming to the surface with the arrival of heat.
The cruciferous flea beetle is common throughout Eurasia, up to the Arctic. Insect larvae feed on young foliage of cabbage, radish, lettuce, turnip, turnip, leaving numerous round holes on the leaves.
Although the cruciferous flea is small in size, it is difficult not to notice its presence on radish plantings. It is expressed in the following features:
It is very easy to understand that a cruciferous flea has appeared on the radish: all the leaves of the plant are riddled, and small, shiny bugs are jumping between them
The danger of the pest lies in the fact that in a short period of time it is able to completely destroy young seedlings. Radish sprouts appear early, it is the first to take on the attack of the aggressor, because just at the time of emergence of the culture, cruciferous fleas are activated after the winter period. The massive spread of the pest is dangerous not only for young seedlings, but also for adult plants: beetles will eat the leaves and the upper layer of the skin on the stems, and the larvae will damage the roots of the plant.
The flea is happy to attack even the hardened testes of radish: it damages the buds, gnaws holes and pits in the pods.
A cruciferous flea appeared on cabbage - how to deal with this pest? Cabbage is one of the parasite's favorite habitats. Insects appear on seedlings when it gets warm outside. They usually hibernate in the topsoil or under plant debris since last year. If traces of gnawing or interveinal gnawing appear on the cabbage, then this indicates the appearance of a flea. If the leaves are badly damaged, then at first this leads to the fact that the plant begins to dry out, and then dies. It is especially dangerous if the flea begins to infect young seedlings.
For the processing of mid-season and late varieties of cabbage, chemical agents are suitable, for example, "Karate", "Aktara", "Fufanon".
For early ripening types of cabbage, it is better to use folk methods. For example, you can prepare a vinegar solution. To do this, you need to take a glass of 9% vinegar or 3 tbsp. l. vinegar essence and mix with 5 l. water. Stir thoroughly, and then treat all the bushes with this solution.
Another effective remedy is chicken manure infusion. To prepare it, you need to take 1 kg of droppings and 20 liters. water. Mix everything and then let it brew for one outdoors. Strain the solution and sprinkle over the cabbage. This tool will not only help get rid of the pest, but also enrich the soil with nitrogen.
Although this insect has the word flea in its name, it is not a flea.
The reason for the name was the insect's amazing jumping ability. With the help of strong hind pushing legs, it can bounce several meters.
It is this, as well as the ability to fly, that allows pests to quickly spread.
They live wherever there is food for them. The small aggressors could not master only the Far North - it is too cold there.
Cruciferous flea - belongs to the genus Phyllotreta.
The dimensions of this bug are small - up to 4 mm. The body is elliptical, slightly convex. At first glance, they all seem the same.
But if you look closely, the differences are clearly visible. Up to 5000 species of flea beetles are known all over the world.
Not all of them are harmful to plants. On the territory of Russia, there are 129 harmful species.
In the middle lane, four are best studied.
The following two species are most commonly found in the south:
The peculiarity of the structure of adult beetles is jumping legs with thickened thighs and elongated tibiae.
Complete metamorphosis of flea beetles includes the following stages:
In the south, during the warm period, from 2 to 3 generations of cruciferous flea beetles are formed, in the middle lane - only one.
Most often, adults hibernate, but in some species, larvae and eggs are able to tolerate cold.
Reproduction takes place in calm weather at a temperature of about 24 degrees Celsius.
As soon as the soil warms up to 10 degrees, adult insects come to life and begin to feed.
Among them are monophages and polyphages. If the former feed only on cultivated and wild plants of the cruciferous family, then the latter are more omnivorous.
Therefore, you can find cruciferous flea on strawberries or salad. She especially likes young leaves.
Some growers noticed that a cruciferous flea appeared on irises, alissum, mattiola and levkoe.
Adults prefer green parts of plants; larvae eat roots, stems and leaves.
Invasion of pests not only seriously harms garden crops, it can lead to their death.
Therefore, how to get rid of a cruciferous flea in the garden is not an idle question. It should be fought immediately when the first individuals appear.
With a large population of insects, the use of folk methods has low efficiency. A good result can be achieved by using specially designed preparations for the destruction of flea beetles on cabbage. Means need to process the leaves.
It is a biological insecticide that is characterized by a low level of toxicity. It does not harm humans or beneficial insects if it is treated with cabbage.
The product must be dissolved in water. For 10 liters, take 4 ml of the drug. The composition must be used to process the cabbage immediately after its preparation to eliminate flea beetles. Otherwise, the effectiveness of the solution decreases.
In 12 hours after the procedure, fleas die within three days. It is necessary to re-process the cabbage after two weeks.
The insecticide has a gut action that provides thiamethoxam. The agent is dissolved in water. Its temperature should be 25 ° C. For 10 liters of water, take 3 g of the drug.
The flea insecticide takes effect in half an hour. It retains its properties for five weeks. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on adherence to the instructions. The procedure is not carried out an hour before the rain.
Aktara has several advantages. The drug does not accumulate in plants or fruits. However, the insecticide is toxic to major pollinating insects. That is why cabbage should not be treated for fleas during the flowering period.
The insecticide is characterized by a contact-intestinal effect. It affects the nervous and digestive systems of insects. To treat cabbage from fleas, 2 ml of the product must be dissolved in 2 liters of warm water. The specified volume is enough for 20 sq. m.
When processing cabbage leaves, it is important to take into account that an insufficiently concentrated solution will cause the death of only weak individuals. Strong insects can become resistant to the drug. The solution should not be used in strong winds or after rain.
The insecticide is dangerous for both bees and fish. It has a contact-intestinal effect. Crop processing is not carried out near water bodies or during flowering periods.
The effect after treatment lasts for 15 days. The procedure is carried out in the evening in warm and dry weather. Two sprays can be carried out per season. To combat the cruciferous flea on cabbage, prepare a solution. For every 5 liters of water, take 0.5 g of the drug.The specified amount of funds can handle 100 sq. m.
It is a systemic insecticide that has both intestinal and contact effects. It is used to prevent the appearance of insects. Cabbage seeds should be processed just before planting.
The product quickly adheres to the seeds, which ensures low consumption. After the treatment of cabbage from flea beetles, the effect lasts for six weeks.
The repellent insecticide helps you fight cruciferous fleas on cabbage. The drug is represented by tobacco ash dust. It is often used to improve plant nutrition due to the content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium.
It is a soil insecticide used against cruciferous flea beetles on cabbage. The product is in the form of microgranules that are evenly mixed with sand or soil. Processing allows you to create a protective zone. Fleas die on contact with the substance.
Fragrant herbs and some flowers release phytoncides into the air - volatile substances that repel the cruciferous flea and some other pests. It is recommended to plant on the same bed with cabbage:
Spraying cabbage with aqueous solutions of aromatic oils of these plants will also scare away the flea.