Tomatoes are among the most valuable vegetables, rich in vitamins and mineral salts necessary for humans. They have high taste properties, contain sugar, vitamins A, C, B1, B2 and others, valuable acids - malic and citric, protein compounds, iron, starch, nitrogenous substances. In terms of the amount of vitamins, tomatoes are almost the same as lemons and oranges.
The harmonious combination of organic acids and sugars in the fruits, as well as the high content of vitamins, characterizes them as a valuable food product, suitable for fresh and canned consumption. None of the vegetable crops are used as diversely as tomatoes. More than 100 different dishes can be prepared from their fruits.
The yield and quality of tomato fruits largely depend on the conditions of mineral nutrition. With fertilizers, plant growth and development can be controlled. So, when grown in the northern regions, in order to accelerate the development of tomatoes and protect them from the cold, it is necessary to strengthen phosphorus-potassium nutrition.
The positive effect of fertilization the quality of tomatoes is better manifested when applying a complete mineral fertilizer in combination with manure. The yield increase is 30-60%. The amount of dry matter in fruits increases from 5 to 7%, total sugar - from 3 to 5% and ascorbic acid - from 20 to 30 mg%. The average fruit weight increases from 50 to 80 g.
A change in the biochemical parameters of fruits towards improvement can be traced when N9P12K9 g / m² is applied, when the fruit yield increases from 6.69 to 8.90 kg per 1 m², the dry matter content increases from 6.0 to 6.8%, the total amount of sugars - from 3.2 to 4.7% and ascorbic acid - from 25.9 to 27.2 mg%, in addition, tomatoes ripened faster.
The content of solids, acidity, sugars and ascorbic acid in tomatoes increases with an increase in fruit yield. If the yield increases by 60%, then the dry matter content - from 5.8 to 6.3% (8.6%).
The effect of certain types and forms of fertilizers on the yield and fruit quality is manifested in different ways. With enhanced nitrogen nutrition, tomato plants grow faster, form a plentiful dark-colored leaf apparatus, ascorbic acid accumulates in the leaves to a greater extent than without nitrogen fertilizers.
Nitrogen fertilizers tend to increase the dry matter and sugar content of tomatoes. For example, with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers with an increase in the fruit yield by 25%, the dry matter content increased from 5.84 to 6.14%, total sugar - from 3.44 to 3.56%, ascorbic acid - from 20.04 to 25, 01 mg%.
Lack of mobile nitrogen in the soil leads to a decrease in the yield of tomato fruits and to the deterioration of their quality. The maximum decrease in the content of dry matter in fruits as a result of nitrogen starvation of plants occurs by 2.0% (23%), sugars - by 1.3% (25%) and titrated acids - by 0.18% (26% of the optimal level of healthy plants).
The best form of nitrogen fertilization for tomatoes is ammonium sulfate. Compared with ammonium nitrate and urea, it has a greater effect on an increase in yield, an increase in the content of dry matter, sugar and vitamin C in fruits.
Tomatoes also place great demands on the conditions of phosphorus nutrition. Phosphorus accelerates the development of plants, stimulates the process of fruit formation, and improves their quality. The yield increased with the introduction of superphosphate from 2.8 to 3.2 kg per m², the amount of dry matter in fruits increased from 5.84 to 6.33%, total sugar - from 3.44 to 3.61% and ascorbic acid - from 20.04 to 21.69 mg%.
The same dose of phosphorus fertilizers against the background of nitrogen and potash fertilizers further increased the yield and improved the quality of the fruits. The yield increased to 3.37 kg, the dry matter content was 5.99%, total sugar 3.52% and ascorbic acid 22.12 mg%. Against the nitrogen-potassium background, phosphorus fertilizers did not have a significant effect only on the sugar content of the fruits, and the rest of the quality indicators of this crop improved under the influence of phosphorus.
The lack of mobile phosphorus in the soil reduces the yield and quality of tomato fruits. The maximum decrease in the content of dry matter during phosphorus starvation of plants reaches 2.6% (30%), sugars - 2.4% (43%) and acids - 0.13% (this is 19% to the optimal level).
Tomatoes are especially sensitive to a lack of phosphorus in the soil during the first period of development. Therefore, the positive effect of phosphorus fertilizers on the yield and fruit quality is manifested especially when fertilizers are applied at two times - before planting for digging and in the holes when planting seedlings. A two-week delay in carrying out these works reduces the yield of fruits and worsens their quality. Lack of phosphorus at a young age is not compensated for by fertilization in subsequent growth phases.
Potassium plays an important role in the life of tomato plants, which is directly involved in carbohydrate metabolism. With potassium starvation, the movement of assimilates from the leaves to the roots and fruits is delayed, the growth of tomato stems slows down or stops altogether, the leaves at the edges acquire a yellowish-brown color, curl up into a tube and dry out.
With a low level of potassium nutrition, the tomato yield decreases slightly, but the quality of the fruit deteriorates significantly. The maximum decrease in dry matter content during potassium starvation was 1.3% (15% of the optimal level), sugars -1.5% (27%) and titratable acids - 0.23% (33%). At the same time, the physical properties and marketability of tomatoes significantly deteriorated: more than 70% of the fruits had a pronounced green at the stalk, the number of fruits with cracks almost doubled, their color was uneven, the fruits turned out to be small.
Typically on sod-podzolic soilscharacterized by a low content of exchangeable potassium, the application of potash fertilizers increases the yield and quality of the fruits. Potassium fertilizers at a dose of 12 g of active ingredient per 1 m² against the background of N9P9 increased the tomato yield by 2.76 kg (29%), and the sugar content in fruits from 2.01 to 2.42%.
High yields of tomatoes with good fruit qualities can be obtained using organic fertilizers, which increase the yield of this crop without significantly affecting the quality of the fruit. So, on soddy-podzolic soils, the use of 3 kg of manure increased the tomato yield by 1.71 kg (by 27%), and the content of dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C in fruits practically did not change.
Correctly selected doses and ratios of mineral fertilizers together with manure, as a rule, increase the yield and quality of tomatoes more significantly. The most effective for early tomatoes was the introduction of 9 g of nitrogen, 12 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and 3-6 kg of humus per 1 m². This combination of fertilizers increased the sugar content in tomatoes by 0.2-0.5%, dry matter by 0.85% and ascorbic acid by 3.7 mg%.
Trace elements affect the yield and quality of tomato fruits in a variety of ways. They enhance photosynthesis, increase the activity of vitamins, affect the movement of carbohydrates and protein synthesis. Under the influence of microelements, the susceptibility of plants to diseases decreases, and their resistance to unfavorable external conditions increases. Trace elements increase the number of buds, accelerate flowering and thereby increase the yield and quality of tomato fruits.
Trace elements are effective in all methods of their introduction - with the main application before planting, during planting and in top dressing. Foliar feeding with weak (0.03-0.05%) solutions of magnesium, copper, boron, zinc, iron and other microelements increased the number of flowers and inflorescences in plants by 11-37%. Trace elements contributed to a significant increase in the dry matter content of fruits.
On soils insufficiently provided with mobile molybdenum, spraying tomato plants with a solution of this element accelerated ripening, increased the yield and improved the quality of fruits, the yield increased from 3.96 to 6.56 kg, the dry matter content increased from 6.44 to 7.39%, total sugar - from 2.70 to 3.27%, ascorbic acid - from 17.54 to 19.34 mg%, carotene - from 2.8 to 3.4 mg%.
Ammonium molybdate, mixed with macrofertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), also increased the yield and quality of tomatoes. Under the influence of boron fertilizers, the growth of tomatoes accelerated, a large leaf surface was formed, which remained for a longer time. When boric acid was introduced at the rate of 0.55 g per 1 m2, the yield increased by 1.56 kg, the dry matter content in fruits increased from 5.28 to 5.69% and total sugar - from 2.41 to 2.59%. A similar dose of zinc sulfate increased the dry matter content in fruits from 6.28 to 6.26% and total sugar from 2.41 to 2.82%.
It should be noted that the use of micronutrient fertilizers for tomatoes does not require large additional costs, but gives a tangible economic effect. So, every ruble spent on the use of micronutrient fertilizers for tomatoes was paid off by 5-7 rubles of net income.
Costs for the purchase and application of fertilizers for tomatoes, peppers, leafy vegetables in quantities - manure 3-6 kg / m², urea 10-15 g / m², superphosphate 20-25, potassium chloride 15-20, boric acid, copper sulfate, sulfate 0.55 each zinc and 0.2 g / m² ammonium molybdate - will amount to a maximum of 5-7 rubles / m² and will easily pay off with a yield increase of 2.0-2.5 kg / m² - at a market value of 20-25 rubles / m² ...
On the influence of fertilizers on the quality of vegetable crops
- How and what to fertilize cabbage
- How and what to fertilize tomatoes
- How and what to fertilize cucumbers
- How and what to fertilize carrots
- How and what to fertilize beets and onions
associate professor, chief specialist
North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
Mainly microelements are applied on the leaves. Calcium and boron have already been mentioned above. Tomatoes also need: manganese, iodine, iron, copper, etc. All this is in complex mixtures for tomatoes (Red Giant, BioHumus, Bio Master, Pure Leaf, etc.). The instructions for each one tell you how to do foliar dressing.
But in the case of spraying tomatoes, it is better not to overuse. Carry them out only when absolutely necessary, for example, in bad weather, when the ground cools down to + 10… +13 ° C, and the roots are not able to absorb food from the ground. By wetting the leaves, we create a favorable environment for the development of fungal diseases. In addition, foliar dressing will never replace full-fledged root dressing.
It is not difficult to understand the principle of applying dressings for tomatoes in a greenhouse. The main thing is not to overfeed with organic matter and nitrogen fertilizers. For tomatoes, apply them just before planting. And then you need complex mixtures, feed them, focusing on the instructions and the state of the bushes.
By the time of fruiting, tomatoes already have time to suck out a huge amount of nutrients from the soil, as a result of which it becomes poorer and depleted. In such an important and crucial period, it is imperative to restore the composition of the soil and deliver all the important components to the bushes.
On them you will find materials completely devoted to these topics.
Often in horticultural practice, improvised means are used for feeding tomatoes. The components that make up such dressings are absolutely harmless both for a plant and for a person.
To prepare the solution 3 drops of iodine are poured into a bucket of warm water... The consumption of the working solution depends on the parameters of the bushes: for indeterminate - 1 l, for undersized plants - 0.7 l. Saline solution... Top dressing with the addition of ordinary table salt to the ash infusion improves the taste of tomatoes: they become sweet and fleshy.
The infusion is made by making 1 tablespoon salt and 1 cup wood ash in a bucket of water... After mixing the components, the mixture is infused for 1 hour. The resulting fertilizer is shed by tomato bushes, spending 0.5 liters per plant.
Some gardeners recommend feeding the tomatoes with ammonia during this period, but most prefer to use this remedy for other purposes. For example, for pest control or watering during flowering.
From organic fertilizers during the fruiting period of tomatoes, the following types can be applied.
Pour 200 grams of wood ash into a bucket of hot water, mix and leave to infuse for 5-6 hours. After that, the infusion is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3, respectively.
Mullein... The introduction of this top dressing will increase the yield of tomatoes. Mullein is bred in water in a ratio of 1: 6, respectively. To improve the efficiency, it is recommended to add mineral and complex fertilizers to the resulting solution.
"Solution"... This complex fertilizer contains large proportions of potassium and phosphorus, as well as copper, zinc, boron, manganese - everything that tomatoes need when pouring fruits. Dissolve 25 grams of the drug in a bucket of water for root application.
Spraying can be carried out by lowering the amount of "Solution" to 10-15 grams.
Potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate)... In addition to potassium, the share of which in this fertilizer is more than 50%, it contains trace elements and sulfur.
For root feeding, dissolve 1 tbsp in a bucket of water. sulfate, and for spraying - 2 g per 1 liter of water.
This fertilizer cannot be used together with urea.
There are several more potassium-containing mineral fertilizers, but due to the presence of chlorine in the composition, they are undesirable for use for tomatoes (potassium magnesium, potassium chloride).
Therefore, in the case of a clear lack of potassium in plants, it is better to use this drug, but do not forget to strictly follow the recommended dosage.
Do you want tomatoes to fill up faster? These chemicals are used by gardeners for a variety of purposes, including this:
When grown in greenhouses, summer residents face another problem - at the end of the season, tomatoes begin to hurt, so it is recommended to harvest as early as possible. In this case, similar drugs will also help.
Brewer... The product accelerates the ripening processes of green fruits, and the complete reddening of tomatoes occurs after a one-time treatment after 10 days.
However, this miracle drug has several serious drawbacks.
Firstly, it cannot be applied to unripe green fruits (they must have a shiny surface), otherwise there is a risk of premature aging.
Secondly, Only healthy tomatoes can be processed with the matcherthat are not under stress and have a good root system.
Etrel... When it gets into the juices of the bush, the drug decomposes and releases phosphoric acid and ethylene. As a result fruits ripen 1.5 weeks earlier... The treatment is carried out once, diluting 5 ml of the drug in 2 liters of water. This amount of solution is enough for spraying 20 m 2 plantings.
Suite... The drug is used to improve the quality of tomato harvest: sugar content, keeping quality, color skins. For spraying, you need to dilute 25 g of the product in a bucket of water. Processing is carried out 1-1.5 weeks before harvesting the fruits.
Benefit... Accelerates the ripening of tomatoes, the processed fruits grow to the same size. 25 ml per bucket of water. Spraying is carried out once a week from the moment the ovaries form. The advantage is the absence of synthetic hormones.
The main reason why you should not neglect feeding at this time is that lack of nutrition can lead to the formation of a large number of barren flowers in the plant.
They will take up nutrients from the developing fruit, which will lead to a significant decrease in the volume of the crop.
It can also be very bad for tomato seeds.... The seeds of weakened plants do not germinate well, the seedlings from them are weak and often sick.
So if you prefer to grow tomatoes from your seeds, pay attention to feeding during this period.
All fertilizers for growing tomatoes in a greenhouse are divided into:
In addition, there are various stimulants of root formation, fruit formation, growth, anti-stress (Energen, Epin, Ovary, Bud, HB-101, Zircon, Kornevin).
You will need funds from each group to grow tall tomatoes in a greenhouse. Of course, you can apply fertilizer to the ground once before planting and no longer feed it, you will get 1-2 kg per bush. But for abundant fruiting, effective use of the greenhouse, so that each square meter brings maximum benefit, you will have to make more efforts, in particular, to feed.
Lawn grass is a crop intensive cultivation. It is constantly mowed, and part of the accumulated nutrients is removed from the site along with the plant mass. With the help of fertilizers, the mineral nutrition is replenished and the growth of grass plants is regulated.
For a more complete understanding of the correct use of fertilizers, we will consider the properties of each nutrient and its effect on lawn plants.
Like any plants, the main nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which must be maintained in the soil in optimal quantities.
Nitrogen, denoted by the Latin letter N, is necessary for plant growth. The intensity of growth of lawn grass and its color depends on its amount in the soil.
With an excess of nitrogen, there is a very strong growth of plants and a dark green color of the leaves, but at the same time they become unstable to unfavorable conditions, age quickly, the lawn becomes overconsolidated, and diseases begin to appear.
With a lack of nitrogen, plant growth is very weak, they wear out quickly, bald spots appear on the site, the color of the leaves is pale green. Plant nitrogen is available in nitrate and ammonium forms. The most easily assimilated nitrate form, but it is easily washed out of the soil.
The ammonium form is less mobile and, under the action of microorganisms in the soil, turns into a nitrate form, therefore, nitrogen reserves must be replenished constantly. Lawn nitrogen fertilizers are ammonium nitrate and urea (urea).
Phosphorus, denoted by the Latin letter P, is responsible for energy metabolism in plants and the accumulation of nutrients necessary for overwintering lawn grass. With a lack of phosphorus, plants become brittle and take on a purple hue.
Excess phosphorus blocks the entry of many trace elements into plants, which leads to a cessation of plant growth. Plant phosphorus is available as phosphoric acid ion.
In some soils, it easily turns into an insoluble compound and becomes inaccessible to the plant, therefore, phosphorus is introduced into the soil in fractional small doses.
Potassium, denoted by the Latin letter K, maintains the water-salt balance in the plant and is responsible for the resistance of plants to high temperatures and low air humidity, improves the winter hardiness of lawn grass.
Usually in soils, potassium reserves are in an average value, but its application to the area with lawn grass is necessary due to the high consumption. Lack of potassium causes edge burns of the leaves and their death.
High doses of potassium lead to root burns and root death, since potassium is usually present in nutritional mixtures in the form of salts.
Compound lawn fertilizers usually contain phosphorus and potassium together.
Lawn grass also needs trace elements. They are involved in a variety of chemical reactions in plants. The most important trace elements for lawn grass are iron and copper. Their deficiency usually reduces the growth and intensity of green leaf color.
In order for the lawn grass to have continuous growth and emerald-green color of the leaves, it is necessary to timely fill the need for macro- and microelements. We will talk about how to do this below.
Fertilizers for the lawn are chosen such that they can give a uniform color to the grass cover. Granular fertilizers give the best results in areas with lawn grass. Their granules should be 0.5 to 1.5 mm in size and easily separate from each other.
In the spring, after overwintering, having cleared the lawn grass from dead plant debris, it is necessary to quickly bring it out of hibernation and give it readily available food.
Ammonium nitrate belongs to the category of the best lawn fertilizer in the spring.
It contains nitrate nitrogen, which is available to plants at temperatures from +5 degrees and gives rapid growth to restore plant mass after winter damage.
In the summer, it is necessary to use complex mineral fertilizers for lawns with a full range of basic nutrients. Nitroammofoska is a universal source of food during this period for lawn grass. batteries in it are N16P16K16 (the numbers indicate the percentage of the element).
Due to the presence of easily washed out nitrogen in nitroammofosk, it has a short-term effect. To solve this issue, it is alternated with urea (carbamide), where the nitrogen content is highest and it is in the amide form.
Amide nitrogen in the soil is gradually released under the action of microorganisms into an ammonia or nitrate form available to plants, so the period of action of urea reaches one month or more.
Fertilizers for the lawn, containing trace elements, I use in the summer with the active growth of lawn grass, and are presented both in dry and liquid form. It is better to use them in a chelated form (Mikrovit, Hydromix), but ordinary salts can also be used (iron, copper sulfate).
The last application of nutrients for growth should be done at the end of August.
What are the best autumn lawn fertilizers? These include those that will prepare the lawn grass for overwintering. The main task of fertilizing a lawn in autumn is to reduce growth processes and provide nutrition so that the plant can stock up on nutrients in the underground parts.
Diammophoska N10P20K20 meets these requirements. It contains a small amount of nitrogen and a high content of phosphorus and potassium. It belongs to the category of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer for the lawn. Diammofoska is rather difficult to dissolve, so it is advisable to apply it before the rain.
With the help of it, the question is easily solved: how to fertilize the lawn in the fall.
Having prepared the lawn grass for overwintering, the nutrient cycle is completed and begins again in the spring.
The introduction of nutrients is a very responsible process, on which in most cases the beauty of the lawn grass depends, and improper actions can damage and even destroy it in a short period.
The main thing when applying any fertilizer for the lawn is the uniformity of distribution over the surface.
There are usually two ways to introduce nutrients for lawn grass: in liquid form and in dry form.
In dry form, granular fertilizers are applied: ammonium nitrate, urea, nitroammofosk and diammofosk. Their application rate when feeding is usually 10 g per sq. m of lawn once a month. But the exact rate is selected empirically. To do this, after application, observe the growth of the lawn grass. It is known that lawn mowing is done when the lawn has grown to half its height.
If the height of the lawn grass is 20 mm, then it is mowed when it grows back by 30 mm, and if the lawn is 40 mm, then it is mowed when it grows back by 60 mm. Nutrients are sufficient if at least one mow can be done in a week. If more than 2 mows are carried out per week and the lawn grass quickly outgrows, then the amount or frequency of feeding should be reduced by at least 2 times.
Before applying, the area of the site is considered and the required amount of fertilizer is weighed out for it.
Granular fertilizers can be applied with a special hand-held spreader in small areas up to 100 sq. m., which is a large mug with a drive of the spreading device on the handle.
With a plot of more than 100 sq. m, it is better to use a single-disc fertilizer spreader for lawn with wheel drive, with a width of granule distribution from 2 to 10 m.
Before applying, the spreader is adjusted to the minimum spreading rate and the amount of fertilizer required for the area is filled in without residue.
Then the application is carried out, passing the area in different directions (first along, then across, then at an angle, etc.) until the end of the fertilization in the hopper. In this way, the introduction is the most even distribution of nutrients.
It is not recommended to use a slotted spreader with holes on the bottom. The granules fall out of it in a path, and when they are clogged, uncomfortable stripes are obtained, which appear after a few days.
After the introduction of granular fertilizers, irrigation must be carried out at a rate of 100 liters per 100 square meters, while the granules must completely dissolve. Insufficient watering can cause burns on the lawn, especially during the hot summer period.
Microfertilizers are applied in liquid form using a sprayer once a month. The application rate is usually 10 g per 100 sq. M. First, dissolve the prepared dose on the site in a small amount of water, then dissolve it in full.
The concentration of micronutrient fertilizers should not exceed 10 g per 10 liters of water. Spray on the leaves of the lawn grass after mowing, distributing the entire prepared solution evenly.
This liquid fertilizer for the lawn must be absorbed through the leaves, so the area is not watered for at least 24 hours.
We hope that these recommendations will allow you to get a beautiful green meadow every year.