Methods and timing of apple grafting


To obtain new varieties of apple, gardeners resort to such an operation as grafting. There are many ways to pinch the variety you want. The choice of method depends on the time of year and experience. Vaccination is not as difficult as it requires attention and accuracy. The success of the event depends to a large extent on the correctly selected rootstock and the preparation of the scion.

Apple tree grafting and why is it needed

Many gardeners have heard of the concept of grafting. However, not everyone knows what it is, why and how to perform it. One of the popular horticultural crops, which is quite often grafted and re-grafted, is the apple tree. In simple terms, this procedure is the fusion of two plants with different properties. The apple tree has been cultivated by humans for many years in order to improve the taste and size of the fruit. Such a situation, when a tree is prone to frost, disease and drought, is not uncommon.

If we consider the wild apple tree, then it is much better adapted to the environment. The root system of the wild is located quite deep, which contributes to good tree retention, resistance to winds and stress under the crop. At the same time, the taste of the fruit of such an apple tree does not suit a person. However, with the help of grafting, the properties of a cultivated and a wild plant can be combined. As a result of such crossing, it is possible to get a tree that will have tasty fruits, higher resistance to diseases, a root system that allows you to extract moisture and nutrition from the depths. All of the above is the primary and main task.

Grafting an apple tree improves the quality and size of the fruit and, in general, the tree's resistance to diseases and climatic influences

However, vaccination is also used to achieve the following goals:

  • quickly multiply a favorite or rare variety;
  • accelerate the onset of fruiting;
  • replace the variety of an adult apple tree;
  • increase the size of the fruit;
  • get several varieties on one tree;
  • make changes to the crown if it is asymmetrical or one-sided.

When is it better to plant an apple tree

Vaccination activities can actually be carried out at any time of the year. However, each season has its own nuances. If the procedure is performed properly, but at the wrong time, then the scion will simply not take root, and the tree may hurt or even die.

A graft is a stalk (shoot) that is fused with the stock. The rootstock is the lower part of the grafted tree.

In the spring, grafting work is carried out at the beginning of sap flow, that is, when the tree is at rest and the buds have not yet woken up. This is explained by the fact that at this time the processes that occur in the tree are aimed only at maintaining vital activity. If the growing season has not started, then the cutting will simply not be able to take root. Determining the timing of spring grafting is quite simple:

  • the buds are barely swollen, but their growth has not yet begun;
  • the branches of the tree have acquired a red hue;
  • under mechanical action, the bark is detached and cambium remains on it.

Cambium is a green tissue located under the bark.

During the grafting of the cutting, it is necessary to combine the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock.

Depending on the region and climatic conditions, spring grafting occurs at the end of March or beginning of April. At a later date, the grafted material will most likely be rejected.

As for the summer period, most gardeners do not carry out such procedures at this time. It is generally accepted that the scion takes root very poorly, and the tree itself can only suffer from such an operation. However, it is far from always possible to vaccinate in the spring, because there may simply not be enough time. If you approach the issue under consideration more seriously, you can find out that grafting an apple tree in the summer is possible, but at a certain time:

  • the fruits begin to pour;
  • an apical bud has formed on the shoots;
  • the bark, as well as in spring, is easily separated from the wood;
  • on annual shoots, internodes in the upper part were reduced.

In summer, the best time to vaccinate is at the end of July.

Cleavage in autumn is not suitable for every region. So, in areas that are characterized by early frosts, all work can go down the drain. If for some reason it was not possible to plant an apple tree in spring or summer, then it is permissible to carry it out in early autumn, and more specifically, in early September. In regions with warm winters and late frosts, work can be carried out until mid-October.

Winter vaccination is carried out indoors, so all materials are harvested in advance:

  • one- and two-year-old rootstocks are dug up in late autumn, stored in a frost-free room;
  • cuttings with 2–4 buds are used as a scion, which are harvested at the beginning of winter.

The stock is brought into the heat 7 days before the work, and the cuttings for 2-3 days. In terms of timing, winter grafting is carried out in mid-December, and the grafted seedlings are planted around the second half of March. The planting material is stored at a temperature of 0 ... -4˚С.

How to prepare cuttings

Before proceeding with the procedure, you need to know how to prepare cuttings for scion. The tree from which it is planned to cut the shoot must be fruitful and be characterized by stable fruiting. You need to choose ripe annual twigs from the southern part of the tree.

Cuttings are recommended to be cut from the middle tier of the crown.

When harvesting cuttings, annual branches are cut from the southern part of the crown

As for the timing of harvesting cuttings, the opinions of gardeners differ. Some believe that it is better to carry out the procedure at the beginning of winter, others - at the end of winter and early spring. Alternatively, the shoots can be harvested just before grafting. The main thing is that they do not have blooming buds. The stalk that is best suited for the scion must meet the following requirements:

  • the length should be 30–40 cm;
  • the diameter of the shoot should be 6–7 mm;
  • the buds should not bud;
  • internodes should not be short;
  • cutting is best done from a young fruiting tree no more than 10 years old.

Video: harvesting cuttings of fruit trees

How to plant an apple tree

The crop in question, depending on the season, can be grafted in many ways. Therefore, it is worth dwelling on each of them in more detail.

Bridge grafting

Such grafting differs from other methods in that it is not intended to produce new varieties. The main task of this method is to restore a tree from one or another damage. Quite often, rodents, severe frosts or the sun cause considerable harm to apple trees. When a wound appears, an obstacle arises to normal sap flow, which must be restored. It is worth considering that this procedure is not easy and not every gardener will cope with it.

For grafting with a bridge, apple trees with a trunk diameter of at least 30 mm are suitable.

The operation in question should be carried out at the beginning of sap flow. Dates may vary depending on the climatic zone. It is worth focusing on the following criterion: if the bark separates well, then it's time to start vaccination. But first you need to prepare everything you need. From tools and materials you will need:

  • grafting knife;
  • secateurs;
  • strapping material;
  • putty.

The knife is the gardener's main tool for grafting.

Cuttings for scion should be selected 10 cm longer than the width of the damaged area. As a rule, shoots with a thickness of 4–5 mm are chosen. If the tree is severely damaged, the cuttings should be thicker. For the bridge, you can use shoots even from a wild apple tree. They can be harvested from autumn to mid-winter.

Grafting with a bridge is used to restore sap flow in case of damage to the bark

Bridging vaccination consists of the following step-by-step actions:

  1. We clean the damaged area and wipe it lightly with a damp cloth.
  2. Trim the edges of the bark with a sharp knife, avoiding damage to the wood.
  3. We select the required number of cuttings, which depends on the nature of the damage. For small wounds, 2–4 cuttings will be required, and for large diameter trunks, 8–10 pieces. If the cuttings were stored in the refrigerator, they are pre-warmed to room temperature.
  4. We remove the buds from the shoots, and cut the edges obliquely.
  5. On the bark of the tree, above and below the damaged area, stepping back 1 cm from the edge, we make T-shaped cuts.
  6. The edges of the cuts to the folds and insert the cuttings into them: they should be slightly curved. In the process, it is important not to confuse the top and bottom of the cuttings. Arrange the shoots evenly in a circle.
  7. Cover the grafting site with garden varnish and fix the cuttings with electrical tape.

Video: a method of grafting trees with a bridge

Bark grafting

One of the simpler grafting methods that can be recommended for beginners is the bark graft. The procedure is carried out during sap flow and is used to graft adult apple trees or simply thick branches. In terms of timing, such an inoculation is carried out, as a rule, in May. For the operation to be successful, preparation must first be carried out.

To begin with, prepare the stock. The branch to be re-grafted is cut down with a sharp saw in the sequence shown in the image.

If the stock has a large diameter, it is cut in a certain sequence.

This is especially important when cutting down thick branches to avoid breaking off. Then they clean the saw cut with a sharp knife and start preparing the scion. As a grafting material, as a rule, the middle part of the cutting is used. This is explained by the fact that the kidneys are located close to each other in the upper part, and poorly developed in the lower part. To work, you need a grafting knife and garden putty.

The procedure consists of the following steps:

  1. The lower part of the scion is cut obliquely. The cut should be 3-4 cm long and have a flat surface. There should be a kidney on the opposite side of the handle. The second cut is made in the upper part above the third kidney.

    The graft at the bottom is cut obliquely

  2. On the rootstock, the bark is cut to a length of 3-4 cm, the bone of the grafting knife is separated from the wood.
  3. A cutting is inserted into the resulting gap so that the oblique cut goes into the cut of the bark on the tree.

    The cuttings are inserted into the stock in such a way that the oblique cut enters the cut of the bark on the tree

  4. The bark is pressed tightly and wrapped with a special film or electrical tape.

    To fix the cuttings, the grafting site is wrapped with electrical tape

Inoculation with the considered method can be performed without cutting the bark. To do this, the bark is carefully separated with a peg and the prepared scion is inserted. At the end of the procedure, the fusion site, the butt of the cut branch and the upper part of the cutting are coated with garden varnish.

Depending on the thickness of the rootstock, a different number of cuttings can be planted. So, on a branch with a diameter of 2-3 cm, you can graft one stalk, 5-7 cm - two, 8-10 cm - three.

Grafting an apple tree with a grafting pruner

The apple tree and other fruit trees can be grafted with a grafting pruner. This tool allows you to perform a high-quality operation, even with insufficient experience. It is recommended to hold it not earlier than April, and later. The tool is quite simple to use, so everyone can handle it. The work is carried out in the following order:

  1. An incision is made on the stock with a secateurs.

    An incision is made on the stock with a secateurs

  2. An incision is also made on the scion. It is important to ensure that the shape of the incision is opposite to the rootstock incision.

    The shape of the notch on the scion must be the opposite of the rootstock.

  3. The joints are connected, after which the site is treated with garden pitch.
  4. The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape or special film.

    The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape or special film and a bag is put on to maintain moisture

Root grafting

There are situations when you manage to get a cutting of an interesting apple tree variety, but there is nothing to plant it on. In this case, you should not be upset. The grafting can be done on the root of the tree. Sometimes the roots of an apple tree are located at a shallow depth and when digging a site, they can be found almost on the surface. When buds appear on the tree, you can vaccinate. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. A root is incised a meter from the trunk. Then they rinse it with clean water, wipe it with a cloth, clean it with a sharp knife.
  2. The cutting is grafted by the bark with a saddle.
  3. The grafting is tied with insulating tape, and the upper and lower parts of the cutting are coated with garden varnish.
  4. To avoid breakage of the scion, it is fenced off with pegs.

Bark grafting with a saddle is slightly different from the usual method.

If the procedure is successful, the kidneys will begin to grow. The next year, you can separate the young apple tree and transplant it to another place.

Video: how to vaccinate to the root

Root collar grafting

To carry out an inoculation into the root collar, you will need the following tools and materials:

  • secateurs;
  • sharp knife;
  • cuttings;
  • strapping material;
  • a few clean rags.

A knife, pruner, tape and cuttings are used for grafting.

From the cuttings prepared in advance, you will need to cut the middle part, making the upper cut 2-3 mm above the bud. Wild can be used as a stock. The process itself is performed as follows:

  1. Slightly dig up the ground around the vaccination zone, wash off the dirt and wipe the trunk with a rag.
  2. With pruning shears, cut off the wild at the level of the root collar or just above it.
  3. An oblique cut with a tongue is made, for which the base of the trunk is placed between the soles of the legs.
  4. On the trunk, using a knife, with an upward movement, make an oblique cut about 3 cm long.
  5. At a distance of 1 cm from the edge of the cut, a vertical incision is made to a depth of 1 cm.
  6. In the lower part of the cutting, the same oblique cut is made as on the rootstock, then an incision is made 1 cm deep into the wood.
  7. Insert the stalk into the stock and wrap it with a strapping.

Kidney vaccination

Grafting an apple tree with a bud (eye) is also called budding. The procedure is carried out in the summer, as a rule, in late July and early August. This method will require cuttings 25-40 cm long with the growth of the current year. Shoots should be lignified with healthy leaves and smooth bark. It is best to remove the foliage to reduce moisture evaporation, but leave the petioles.

The best time to harvest cuttings is in the morning hours on the day of grafting.

The technology itself boils down to the following steps:

  1. Foliage and branches are removed from the stock at a height of 15–20 cm from the ground.
  2. The site of the future vaccination and the stalk from which the kidney will be taken are washed with clean water and wiped with a dry cloth.
  3. A T-shaped incision is made on the stock with a knife, dropping down by 2-3 cm.

    A T-shaped bark incision is made on the rootstock

  4. Raise the bark by the corners at the place of the resulting intersection.

    Using a knife, the edges of the bark are separated from the wood

  5. Choosing a bud on the handle, cut it off together with a part of the stem 2.5–3 cm long. The bud should be located in the middle of the scutellum.

    The selected bud on the handle is cut off along with part of the stem

  6. With the help of the bone of the grafting knife, the bark is pushed back onto the rootstock so that the shield with the kidney can easily enter.
  7. Insert the kidney all the way, holding it by the handle.

    The kidney is inserted into the incision until it stops

  8. If the flap is too large, the excess is cut off at the level of the transverse incision on the rootstock.

    If the flap is too big, cut off the excess with a knife

  9. The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape, and the kidney itself is left open.

    The vaccination site is wrapped with electrical tape or other winding, leaving the kidney open

This method is also called T-incision grafting.

Video: budding an apple tree

Drilling grafting

There is a somewhat unusual way of grafting an apple tree - by drilling. The method is not that popular, but you can try it as an experiment.

For grafting by drilling, it is necessary to make a hole in the grafted handle with a drill

The bottom line is to drill a hole in the scion to a depth of 7–20 mm, cut off part of the wood from the stock and then combine the cambial layers. After the procedure, the site is isolated with garden pitch.

Crown grafting

Gardeners, as a rule, always have a desire to have many varieties of fruit trees. However, the size of the site sometimes does not allow planting many seedlings. In this case, you can create a tree with several varieties by grafting into the crown. When planting two trees, 3-4 varieties of apple or pear can be grafted into the crown of each of them.

When grafting different varieties, you need to take into account that they must all be of the same ripening period.

For such a procedure, healthy and strong trees are suitable, which have an annual growth of branches in length of at least 25-30 cm. The optimal age for grafting is 4-10 years. The operation is best carried out in the spring during the period of active sap flow, i.e. before the beginning of flowering. It boils down to the following actions:

  1. The cuttings are grafted at a height of 90–120 cm from the ground on well-developed branches located at an angle of 45–60˚ from the trunk.
  2. The branches that are planned to be grafted are cut with a garden hacksaw, stepping back 30-50 cm from the trunk. After cutting, the surface is cleaned with a garden knife.
  3. Annual shoots with 3-4 buds are used as a scion. This will allow you to see the first fruits in 2-3 years.
  4. The stalk is spliced ​​according to the selected grafting method, for example, splitting.
  5. The scion is tied with electrical tape or foil, and the open wounds are coated with garden varnish.
  6. At the end of the procedure, a paper bag is put on the branch for 2 weeks, which will prevent the cuttings from drying out.

Video: grafting trees with cuttings in the crown

Grafting an apple tree into a side cut

This method is suitable for branches with different diameters. Its distinctive feature is the high strength of rootstock and scion fusion. The procedure can be carried out in winter, summer or spring. The optimal time is the beginning of spring during the period of bud swelling. For grafting, cuttings harvested in the fall are used. The method consists of the following steps:

  1. An oblique cut of wood is made on the stock.

    Preparation of rootstock for lateral incision grafting

  2. On the scion, 2 oblique cuts are performed by analogy with the grafting into the split.

    When preparing the scion, the lower part is cut obliquely on both sides.

  3. The stalk is inserted into the resulting gap in the rootstock, coated with garden putty and wrapped.

    The graft is inserted into the cut on the rootstock and wrapped with strapping material

Budding apple seedlings using the knip-baum method

Growing seedlings using the knip-baum technology (flowering tree) allows you to get trees that come into fruiting 1-2 years after planting, which contributes to a rapid increase in yield. With this method, they resort to summer and spring budding, as well as winter grafting. The knip-baum system provides for several stages:

  • in the first year of growing seedlings, a stock is planted and budding is carried out;
  • in the second year - a one-year-old is grown;
  • in the third year - one-year-olds are cut off at a height of 70–90 cm, the central conductor with short lateral shoots and obtuse angles of departure from the central trunk is driven out of the upper bud, on which the fruit buds are laid.

Video: grafting seedlings using knip-baum technology

Grafting of apple trees according to V. Zhelezov's system

Valery Zhelezov, who is a gardener with extensive experience, suggests grafting on 1–2-year-old seedlings near the ground (2–5 cm) with cuttings harvested in the fall. Thus, it is possible to get strong and early-growing trees. In addition, it is recommended to vaccinate in the spring, when the ground thaws for 2 shovel bayonets. In this case, you need to adhere to the following scheme for combining the scion and rootstock:

  1. The seedling and the grafted stalk must be the same length and diameter.
  2. Dormant kidneys are unsuitable for the purposes under consideration.

With this method, it is possible to ensure the coincidence of the age of the scion and the rootstock.

Dormant (hidden) buds are those that do not develop in a timely manner and swim in the bark, remaining in a dormant state.

The essence of the method is as follows:

  1. A 1-2-year-old stalk is dug out of the snow.
  2. Inoculate the shoot into the cleft.

    The stalk is grafted onto the stock using the split method

  3. Cover the seedling with a transparent plastic bottle with a cropped bottom.

    After grafting, the seedling is covered with a plastic bottle.

  4. To prevent the bottle from being blown away by the wind, additional brick reinforcement is made.

Video: grafting an apple tree according to Zhelezov

Cleavage grafting

This method of grafting is quite simple and is recommended for novice amateur gardeners. An apple tree can be grafted into the splitting throughout the year, but the most favorable period is still considered to be spring and summer, namely during active sap flow, which contributes to rapid survival. The essence of the method is that the stock is split with a grafting knife and the scion is inserted into the resulting crack. On the handle in the lower part, two oblique cuts are preliminarily made. On a branch of a large diameter, 2 or more cuttings can be grafted. The main thing is to combine the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock on at least one side.

Cleft grafting is considered one of the easiest and is recommended for beginner gardeners.

How to roll a vaccine on an apple tree

Gardeners use different materials as strapping material for vaccinations: electrical tape, polyethylene strips, grafting tape, twine. However, the best material is cotton fabric, the pieces of which are impregnated with melted garden pitch. Such a winding will fit for the inner layer, and old bandages can be used on the outside. With regards to garden varnish, it is best to use a substance containing rosin.

Many people use electrical tape, plastic wrap or special tape as material for winding vaccinations.

Some gardeners use nails to fix the cuttings, but it is better not to use them, as additional damage is caused to the tree and the survival rate is impaired.

What trees can you plant an apple tree on

Having familiarized yourself with the methods of grafting, it is worth considering the crops on which the apple tree can be grafted, which in some cases can be quite relevant.

On a pear

The general rule of grafting is the following: closely related crops are characterized by good accretion, i.e. the apple tree takes root better on an apple tree than on the same pear or other trees. At the same time, many gardeners quite successfully graft an apple tree on a pear, and in different ways (in the split, behind the bark).

Video: grafting an apple tree on a pear

On a mountain ash

Despite the fact that the apple tree does not always take root on the mountain ash, many continue to practice and even improve this method. And there is a logical explanation for this, since rowan as a stock has:

  • frost resistance;
  • unpretentiousness to soils;
  • the quality of the fruit does not deteriorate.

In addition, it is possible to get an earlier and more abundant harvest, since the mountain ash is used as a weak rootstock. Since it ripens at the beginning of September, then the varieties of apple trees need to be selected appropriate. You can, for example, vaccinate Belfer-Chinese or Long (Chinese).

Grafting an apple tree on a mountain ash allows you to increase the frost resistance of the tree without losing the quality of the fruit

Grafting an apple tree on a plum

Although it is generally accepted that pome fruits should be grafted on pome fruits and stone fruits on stone fruits, experiments indicate possible exceptions. There have been cases when gardeners, due to confusion, planted an apple tree on a plum. After discovering the error, they were surprised that the vaccine took root and began to grow. Since apple and plum belong to the Rosaceae family, such splices take root. However, deliberately using plums as a rootstock is a dubious event. The fact is that the plum has a short lifespan compared to the apple tree. In addition, the apple shoot is usually thicker in thickness than the plum shoot, which leads to breakage at the grafting site. And there is no data on harvesting. Therefore, successful grafting is not yet an indicator of a future harvest.

Cherry

Cherry also belongs to the Rosaceae family and grafting an apple tree on it is quite real. But, as with the plum, the further development of the grafted cuttings is quite problematic. The likelihood that the cherry will reject the vaccine is high. How long this will take is unknown. Most likely, it will not be possible to get a crop with this combination. Cherries simply cannot withstand apple branches. Cherry in this regard is even more whimsical than cherry.

Hawthorn

Hawthorn as a rootstock for an apple tree is attractive because the plant is undersized. The grafting can be done with cuttings up to 50 cm long at a height of 50-60 cm from the ground, and by autumn a well-developed seedling can be obtained. Thanks to this splicing, it is possible to accelerate the entry of the apple tree into fruiting by a year or more. The fusion turns out to be quite strong and without any defects. A positive quality of hawthorn is also the fact that the plant has a root system that is located closer to the surface of the earth. Therefore, it can be used for planting fruit trees in areas with high groundwater levels.

Video: hawthorn grafting

On irgu

Irga is known as a dwarf rootstock, onto which apple and pear trees can be grafted. For long-term growth, it is best to vaccinate at a height of 15-20 cm from the ground. If the splice is higher, it must be borne in mind that the irga has flexible and thin branches. Cultures will develop unevenly. In addition, supports will need to be placed under the apple branches to avoid breaking.

Irga is used as a dwarf rootstock for grafting apple and pear

On quince

An apple tree can be grafted onto a quince only as an experiment, since the probability that the stalk will take root well and begin to bear fruit is not very high. In most cases, after 3-5 years, the vaccinated part simply dies.

On a birch

Sometimes you can hear information about grafting an apple tree on a birch. The result of such a crossing will most likely be negative, although IV Michurin himself succeeded. In this case, it is worth considering whether such a vaccination is needed even as an experiment. After all, birch is a tall tree and it will be very difficult to get fruits, if any, will grow.

On viburnum

Despite the fact that the viburnum stock endows the apple tree with winter hardiness, the fruits may shrink.

Video: grafting apple cuttings on viburnum

On the aspen

Cleavage of an apple tree with aspen, bird cherry and sea buckthorn can be carried out only for the purpose of experiment. If the cuttings take root, then their viability will be low and there is no need to count on any result.

Features of vaccination in different areas of cultivation

The peculiarities of grafting an apple tree in different regions are reduced, as a rule, to the timing of the operation. So, in the south of Russia the vegetation period is longer than in the middle lane. Work can be started earlier - at the beginning of March. Splicing in the autumn can be carried out almost until the beginning of November.

In the south of the country, return frosts for scion can be much more dangerous than in the north, due to the higher humidity.

The second stage of sap flow occurs in early July and lasts about a month. However, it should be remembered and taken into account that hot and dry weather, which is inherent in the south, is not recommended for vaccination procedures.

In the middle lane, spring vaccinations are carried out from late April to early May. If the operation is performed in the summer, then it is better to carry it out at the end of July. Since the movement of juices stops already in mid-September, the autumn crossing work must be carried out in a timely manner.

As for Siberia and the Urals, in these regions the soil condition is the benchmark for spring grafting. If it can be dug up on a pair of shovel bayonets, then this serves as a guideline for the beginning of sap flow near apple trees. Summer vaccinations are performed at the beginning of August. Because winter comes early in these regions, autumn splitting becomes impossible. However, the winter time for the procedure is considered ideal.

After reviewing the step-by-step instructions, both experienced and amateur gardeners will be able to vaccinate apple trees. Thanks to this process, it is possible not only to preserve rare and develop new varieties, but also to treat trees, adjust the quality of fruits.

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How to plant an apple tree

Many gardeners are faced with the need to plant an apple tree. Today we will tell you how to do this, even without much experience, how to choose the right stock, prepare and save the scion material, how to care for the plant after the "operation".

Grafting is one of the main methods of vegetative propagation of fruit crops

Preparation and storage of apple cuttings

For grafting, they use cuttings that were prepared in late autumn and early winter, before the onset of frost. The branches must be cut from fruit-bearing trees. An ideal stalk is an annual branch that grows on the southern side of the tree, in the middle tier, 50-60 cm long, 7-8 mm thick, with 5-6 developed buds. The harvested branches of scions are stored:

  • In the snow
  • in the basement
  • in a refrigerator.

If the winters in your area are frosty and snowy, you can store the harvested cuttings in the snow. To do this, a trench 30–35 cm deep is dug, covered with spruce legs, then cuttings are laid and again a layer of spruce legs. Everything is covered with earth, sawdust or straw and thrown from above with a half-meter layer of snow.

When stored in a cellar, the lower sections of the cuttings are dropped into wet sand. It is important to maintain the temperature between -2 ° C and + 2 ° C and the humidity around 65%. To determine moisture content, you need to squeeze the sand in your hand. It should be moist, but free of water droplets.

The easiest way to save the cuttings is to put them in the refrigerator. It is necessary to wrap bundles of branches with a damp cloth, put in a bag or bottle and set the temperature to +2 o C.

Cuttings can be stored in the refrigerator

Frozen, sprouted, dried out or moldy branches are not suitable for grafting, so it is worth preparing cuttings with a margin. You can also use branches cut in early spring, before the sap flow begins.

We use potatoes for transportation or short-term storage of the cuttings. A puncture is made in the potato tuber, but not through. A handle is inserted into this hole. In this form, our scion will be perfectly preserved for several days.

As a rootstock, which will be responsible for the nutrition and vitality of the tree, they take local varieties or wild animals adapted to the conditions of this region.

At the time of vaccination, the stock should already wake up in order to provide the grafted cutting with food, and the scion should still sleep. Therefore, we take out the cuttings only 1-3 days before vaccination and examine them. A good scion should be firm, with smooth bark and light green wood on the cut.

To determine that the cuttings are not frozen, I cut the branch below and put it in the water. If the water turns yellow, then the branch is unusable. If the water has not changed, you can take a cutting for grafting.


Autumn grafting technologies

The limited number of good and favorable days for the survival rate of vaccinations affects the choice of methods.

Each of them has its own advantages:

  1. Oscillate with an eye (from the summer shoot):
    • In the butt.
    • With an eye in the cut.
  2. Plant with a handle:
    • For the bark.
    • Into a split (half split).
    • Copulation (simple and improved).

And what is needed for vaccination:

  • The tool you are working with is sharp and clean: wipe the cutting parts of the knife and secateurs with a solution of potassium permanganate.

What is missing from the picture?

  • That's right, a garden hacksaw and a hatchet.
  • And also cuttings trees (seedlings).

For the bark

Grafting for the bark.

Grafting the apple tree for the bark is most successful in early autumn.

Main conditions:

  • The part to be vaccinated must not be more than 4 years old.
  • The branches are medium to large in size.
  • Various sizes in the diameter of the grafted part (rootstock) and grafted cuttings.
  • The elasticity of the bark and its easy separation for the prepared cutting.

Sequence:

  1. Prepare the graft for grafting:
    • Make an oblique cut of its lower part (the length of the cut is three times the diameter of the cutting).
    • Leave 2-4 buds.
  2. Prepare the apple tree to be grafted:
    2.1. Cut the grafted branches and clean the cuts with a knife:

  • Distance from the trunk is 40-80 cm.
  • If grafting completely, leave 2-3 main branches to provide nutrition.

2.2. Make bark incisions 3-6 cm long along the branch:

  • The blade of the knife reaches the wood, but does not cut it.

2.3. Separate the bark carefully with a knife.

  • Insert the prepared stalk.
  • Wrap the vaccination site.
  • Grafting for the bark. Step-by-step instruction.

    Cuttings

    1. If you need to grow planting material.
    2. Inoculating wilds on which budding has not taken root.
    3. Grafting overgrown rootstocks seedlings.
    4. Growing dwarf trees with an insert.
    5. Repairing damaged trees.

    Use reliable and most effective methods when grafting cuttings.

    In a side cut, each of you will be able to:

    • Re-graft young branches in the crown of the apple tree.
    • Re-vaccinate wild in case of unsuccessful kidney vaccination.

    If you vaccinate cuttings of the same diameter as the stock - you cannot do without copulation (more reliable than improved copulation).

    • You will get good results using this method with winter grafting of branches of 1-2 years old.

    Inoculation of branches

    In what situations will you do this:

    • You wanted to significantly change the variety by adding a few good varieties you liked.
    • And the Michurin enthusiasts use it to create a whole garden of numerous varieties from one apple tree.

    That being said, remember:

    • You can inoculate on one branch, depending on its diameter, 2-4 inoculations.
    • Graft the branches not at the same time, but in 2-3 years.
    • Do not plant branches growing vertically (less than 30 degrees).
    • As well as diseased branches.
    Incorrect branch grafting.

    Known methods:

    • Into the cleft.
    • For the bark.

    Kidney (eye)

    Grafting an apple tree in the fall with a kidney (in the language of gardeners - an eye) you can do from late August to mid-September. And even longer in the south.

    For reference:

    • This is a grafting method suitable for gardeners from spring to autumn.
    • But in the fall, you don't even need to spend time harvesting cuttings - everything is at hand.
    • And you don't need a lot of cuttings.

    And you can use any of the methods at your discretion:

    1. In the butt with a flap. It is more acceptable if the bark does not separate well for various reasons.
    2. In the cut. Execute it as the letter T.

    Sequence:

    1. Prepare the stock (grafted branch or seedling):
      • Water the apple tree liberally in 1 to 2 weeks.
      • Select a site on the branch for grafting, clean it from dust and dirt: Distance - 5-8 cm from the ground for seed and 12-15 cm for clonal rootstocks.
      • Make a T cut in the bark with a knife: Along 2-3 cm. Across - 1.5 cm.
      • Pry the bark on both sides with a knife and fold back the edges.
    2. Prepare a grafted shield with a bud - this is a summer bud from an annual cuttings: Gardeners call it dormant, because it will begin to grow in spring.
      • Cut with wood and to the size of the rootstock cut.
      • Cut in one motion to keep the cut smooth and free from jaggies.
    3. Carefully insert the flap into the incision and press down: if the flap was cut out narrow, align one of the edges with the cambium of the branch.
    4. The peephole looks up and in the middle of the cut (as in the photo).
    5. Make the wrapping film: remove it only in the spring.

    • In autumn budding, experts advise against wrapping the kidney.
    • Graft two buds at once (from different sides).
    • Check the survival rate of the kidney after 10-15 days.
    • In the spring, when pruning a branch, you can leave a small thorn to tie a new shoot: it is removed in summer.

    Barrel grafting

    In words, we are all aces and geeks. We know how to cut and shape the crown of an apple tree.

    And when the apple tree begins to grow, we notice:

    • This branch is weak.
    • This one didn't go quite right.
    • And here she is not for various reasons.

    To eliminate these errors, use a graft in the trunk behind the bark.

    1. Remove dust and dirt.
    2. Cut the bark as a T, or an inverted L.
    3. Prepare the stalk:
      • Make an oblique cut at the bottom.
      • Leave 2-4 buds on the handle.
    4. Insert the stalk into the cut.
    5. Wrap the graft tightly.
    6. Cover the graft with garden varnish.
    7. You can use oblique side grafting:
      • In doing so, do on the branches upside-down L oblique cut.

    • Use thin cuttings for grafting.
    • Use thin nails to secure the cutting firmly to the trunk.
    Grafting with a branch for the bark.

    Is it possible at home?

    We constantly remind about timing for vaccinations... Autumn can be picky about the weather. And the cold may come earlier than you expected them.

    therefore more and more hobby gardeners use rooms for vaccinations (specialists are engaged in vaccination all year round).

    And they benefit in many ways:

    • No hot sun.
    • Not necessarily early in the morning.
    • Don't be afraid of rain.

    And even more so if you have grown one-year seedlings.

    We chose the day and time for vaccination:

    1. Dig up the correct number of seedlings.
    2. Get the vaccine you need.
      Preference is given to methods:

    • Budding.
    • Into the cleft.
    • Improved copulation.
  • Plant the grafted seedling in prepared containers (pots, cut plastic bottles).
  • Store them until spring in a dark, stably cool and dry place:
    • Cellar.
    • Basement.
  • Benefits:

    • Additional roots germinate at the seedling.
    • Such seedlings take root better and begin to grow in spring along with grafting.

    Moss application

    In relation to the apple tree, the phrase moss and lichen meant for me that it was necessary to somehow deal with them. And here sphagnum moss it turns out - the most valuable thing for those who are fond of and engaged in the cultivation of rare orchids. It is he who creates the moist aura in the orchid apartment.

    In the garden and vegetable garden as well. For rooting cuttings stir chopped sphagnum stalks into the soil.

    Try to put sphagnum moss in pots with grafted seedlings for:

    • Soil drying out warnings.
    • Good root formation.
    • Better adhesion of the vaccine.

    By budding method

    One of the methods (inoculation with an eye in the incision) we have discussed above.

    But there are situations where the bark on cooked branches does not separate well (both the time and the characteristics of the variety).

    In doing so, you can bud in the butt:

    1. Prepare the shield by cutting off the bud from the prepared cutting: Its length is 2-4 cm, and its width is 1-1.5 cm.
    2. Prepare the branch to be grafted (seedling): Cut the bark at the internodes:
      • As well as the size of the prepared shield.
      • Leave a small pocket (its size is a third of the cut).
    3. Insert into the pocket (or attach) the flap to the cut.
    4. Wrap the inoculation with foil (do not wrap the kidney).
    Budding the apple tree into the butt.

    Into cleavage or semi-cleavage

    Autumn (September-October) in the cleavage method, vaccinate indoors (and heated). After vaccination, store for some time at a temperature of 3-5 degrees, and then even less. And until spring.

    Features:

    • The age of the grafted branches does not matter.
    • The diameter of the grafted branches can be much larger than that of the grafted cuttings.
    • Often they use a cut on a stump and plant 4 cuttings at once.

    Your actions:

      Prepare the grafted branch (trunk):
      1.1. Cut (saw down) a branch at a distance of 15-20 cm from the ground or trunk.
      1.2. Split the branch (trunk) in the middle to a depth of 4-8 cm:

    • The thinner the branch, the shallower the depth.
    • Do it with a grafting knife, hatchet
    • Use a wedge (this could be a simple screwdriver)

    1.3. When grafting into a semi-split, split the branch not in the middle, but slightly shifting it to the edge.

  • Prepare the stalk:
    • Make oblique cuts on both sides - you get a wedge of 3-5 cm:
  • leave 3-5 buds on the cutting.
  • Insert the handle.
  • Wrap tightly with foil or cloth so that the handle is stable and does not move when touched.
  • Coat with garden varnish:
    • Leave no crevices on the top or sides.
    • Don't forget the top cut of the grafted cutting.
  • Plant 2-4 cuttings (depending on the size of the rootstock branch):
    • After 2-3 years, keep the best one (in terms of quality and location).
    • Carefully cut the rest.
    • Don't make the split longer than necessary.
    • Watch the alignment of the cambial layers of the participants in the vaccine.

    Watch the video on how to plant an apple tree in a split:


    Watch the video: How to air layering simple with soil, easy and fast, new techniques - my agriculture


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