Almost every gardener has his own set of favorite flowers, which he regularly plants on the site. There are people who are experimenting, looking for something new. Both of them have one thing in common - at least once they have grown cosmeya in the garden - an amazing flower that looks simple and unpretentious at first glance. How to plant a cosmos in the open field and what care nuances should you remember?
Kosmeya (its second name is "space") is an unpretentious plant, quite easy to care for, even a novice gardener can cope with the task of growing it. However, here too there are rules and subtleties that must be adhered to.
Cosmeya came from the southern latitudes, but, as it turned out, she also liked the climate of the middle and northern regions, and she began to march through the cities and villages, gaining more and more distribution, and at the same time the people's love.
Kosmeya is an unpretentious and unpretentious flower, which, however, blooms amicably and very effectively
Kosmeya loves warmth and light, especially for perennial varieties. She has well developed roots, so drought does not pose a great threat to the plant.
Kosmeya takes root on almost any soil, but it blooms most beautifully and most luxuriantly on light soils with good drainage and low acidity.
For the cosmos, a sunny, but at the same time protected from strong winds, place on the site is required. The flower also feels good in a shaded place, however, being deprived of such a beloved sun, it will use all its strength to build up lush greenery at the expense of flowering.
Like many flowers, cosme has many varieties that are divided into several categories. Some are perennial, others are double-feathery (a variety widespread in the European territory of Russia), and there are sulfur-yellow cosmos.
A big plus of terry varieties obtained as a result of selection is that they do not change color as a result of sowing seeds collected by hand after flowering.
Of course, it is easy and simple to propagate cosmea with the help of stem cuttings, which have exceptional rooting. However, in this case, we will consider precisely the seed method, which is divided into seedling and non-seedling.
This option takes less time and is the simplest. And given the germination of seeds, it is practically a win-win. The rules for planting seeds in open ground are as follows:
When planting in the spring, closer to August, kosmeya will bloom on your site.
Kosmeya is usually propagated by direct sowing into the ground - there is less hassle, and the germination is good.
If you are going to grow cosmea through seedlings, then you need to proceed as follows:
Growing seedlings of cosmos allows you to see flowering earlier than with direct planting of seeds in open ground
Since kosmeya is undemanding to care, your main occupation will be periodic weeding and loosening. Plants should be watered only in case of prolonged drought - once every one and a half to two weeks.
Cosmos can be used to create beautiful flower arrangements in the garden, or simply let it grow on its own anywhere.
Cosmeies of some varieties grow quite tall and need a garter. Pegs or sturdy stems of neighboring plants can be used as support.
Cosmeya can also be grown on the balcony due to its unpretentiousness
If you want the plant to bush well, just cut off the top, and then the cosmos will direct all the forces to the development of lateral shoots. Faded inflorescences need to be removed so that the flower begins to grow new ones sooner. You can also work with the shape of the cosme, subjecting it to a haircut - this way you will not only get neat bushes, but also stimulate them to bloom abundantly.
By the way, if you want to collect seeds on your own, do not remove your old inflorescences - just wait until they dry a little and the seeds darken. Then the time will come to collect them. If you overdo the baskets, they will open, the plant will begin to multiply itself.
There is another interesting point regarding the reproduction of cosmos: you should collect seeds by hand only if you are interested in simply breeding a flower, and not preserving varietal traits. Kosmeya belongs to cross-pollinated, and therefore the seeds of the hybrids next year will make it possible to see plants with smaller pink flowers. However, if you liked this or that hybrid variety, it is better to purchase seeds in the store next year. All this does not apply to varietal plants, the seeds of which can be harvested by hand if you want to keep your favorite species.
An important advantage of cosmos over many flowering plants: it does not get sick and is not damaged by anyone. On the contrary, it attracts pollinating insects and beneficial insects that fight pests to the site.
Most varieties of kosmeya grow easily and naturally outdoors, but there are varieties that need shelter, such as blood red kosmeya and chocolate.
Kosmeya reproduces very well by self-seeding and can form whole fields
Of course, we are talking about perennial plant varieties that you want to keep on your site for next year. It is easy to do this: immediately after the end of flowering, the cosmea is cut so that the length of the remaining stems is no more than 15 cm, and before the onset of cold weather, the plants are covered with spruce branches.
Sometimes gardeners are faced with the fact that their beloved kosmeya flatly refuses to bloom. There may be several reasons for this:
Kosmeya is an elegant, beautiful and very unpretentious flower that does not require special care, reproduces well by self-sowing and almost always pleases with friendly flowering. In addition, many beneficial insects gather on the site where the kosmeya grows, as a result of which the garden only benefits. That is why you should definitely try to plant this wonderful plant in your home.
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Description of the kosmeya plant, planting and growing in the open field, how to propagate with your own hands, methods for solving problems arising during cultivation, curious notes, species and varieties.
Cosmos can often be found under a name similar to transliteration in Latin - Cosmos. The plant belongs to the Asteraceae family. The native area where it grows in nature falls on the territory of South and North America with a tropical and subtropical climate. There are almost 40 different species in the genus of botanists, with most of them found in Mexican lands. If we talk about the regions of Russia, then Cosmos bipinnatus (Cosmos bipinnatus) can grow as an invasive plant, along roadsides or even in garbage cans.
Among all the diversity in our latitudes, among gardeners, mainly only two species and their varietal variations are grown - the already mentioned Cosmos bipinnatus and Cosmos sulphureus.
|Family name||Compositae or Astral|
|Growing time||Perennial or annual|
|Growth form||Herbaceous curly|
|Reproduction methods||Seed and growing seedlings, tubers or cuttings|
|Period of transplanting to a flower bed||The end of May|
|Disembarkation rules||The distance between seedlings should be at least 0.3-0.4 m|
|Soil acidity values, pH||Neutral (6.5-7) or slightly acidic (5-6)|
|Lighting degree||Solar flower bed with protection from draft and wind|
|Recommended humidity||Watering 1-2 times a week|
|Special Requirements||Easy to care for|
|Approximate plant height||0.5-1.5 m|
|Color of flowers||Snow white, yellow, pink, red and crimson|
|Inflorescence shape||Shield-shaped or paniculate, loose|
|Flowering period||From June to the first frost|
|Application in landscape design||Landscaping of borders and fences, the formation of flower beds, planting among vegetable beds, shelter with tall types of garden structures|
|USDA zone||5 and more|
This representative of the flora bears its scientific name thanks to the Greek word "kosmeo", which translates as "decoration". All due to the fact that the outlines of flowers served as an ornament to any flower garden. But besides this, there are the following synonyms - space and cosmos, Mexican aster and beauty, bloom.
All cosmos are characterized by a herbaceous form of growth, with shoots strongly branching along the entire length. Although in nature these plants have a long life cycle, in our latitudes they are cultivated as annual decorative flowering species. Stems are thin, measuring from 50 cm to one and a half meters in height. The entire surface of the stems is covered with a light green skin smooth to the touch, which is decorated with reddish stains. On the shoots, leaf plates unfold in opposite order, which provide openwork outlines. Together with the branches, the foliage forms a spreading semi-shrub, which is similar in appearance to green foam. The leaves are attached to the shoots with elongated petioles, while the segment of the leaf that is adjacent to the petiole can take on an elliptical or thin contour, with a pointed tip at the top. Therefore, the leaves of the cosmos resemble needles fluffy to the touch.
When the buds of the Mexican aster bloom, they really serve as a decoration for the entire bush. Flowers appear from the beginning of summer days until the first frost. Usually, the top of the flowering stems is crowned with inflorescences in the form of scutes or panicles. Occasionally, such flowers are located singly. Flowers of the "beauty" are represented by inflorescences-baskets, like all representatives of the Astrovye family. When opened, the flower reaches 6–12 cm in diameter. The inflorescences have a fluffy central part, made up of tubular flowers, of a chocolate brown or almost black color. This heart-shaped part can take both flat outlines and in the form of a ball. Anthers towering above the core are characterized by a yellow or golden tint.
The entire central part can be surrounded by one or more rows of marginal (or as they are also called) reed flowers. Their color is very varied, this includes golden yellow, snow-white, red, pink or purple tones. The petals in the rim can have splicing, forming a flat sail or form a solid funnel, which is more decorative.
Insects pollinate the flowers of the cosmos, after which the fruits ripen, represented by dry achenes with a lush crest. This will allow the wind to carry them long distances from the mother bush, thereby facilitating reproduction in natural conditions. Cosme seeds have a dark brown tint, and their germination capacity lasts for three years.
The plant is unpretentious and even a novice florist can cope with its cultivation, so you can decorate your garden with brightly colored inflorescences until autumn.
The genus includes 7 different species. But the most widely known of them was and remains the tanning skumpia, it is ordinary. Since time immemorial, it has been used to prepare dye for fabrics. It was also used in the manufacture of furniture parts, in the manufacture of leather goods, etc. And of course, thanks to its external data, the tanning skumpia, planting and caring for which are simple, served as a decoration of the landscape in parks and estates.
Its bushes were first brought to the territory of Russia in the 17th century. But initially they were used exclusively in the leather industry. Only a little later were its decorative properties noted and appreciated.
Scumpia can be either a shrub or a tree with a crown resembling an umbrella dome. In the first case, it grows up to one and a half to three meters, in the second it can reach 4-5 meters in height. Its shape, in many respects, depends on the variety and place of growth. At the same time, inflorescences are considered a distinctive feature of all forms and varieties, which do not die off after the flower petals fall off, but, on the contrary, gain volume, creating a beautiful fluffy cloud around the plant. To some it resembles a greenhouse, to someone a smokescreen, which explains the variety of names.
Branches, regardless of shape, become covered with brownish peeling woody bark with age. Young vines are almost smooth, resilient, green or reddish in color. If you break a branch, a milky sap will appear at the break.
The foliage is obovate. The edges of the leaves are solid or slightly serrated. The leaves are arranged next. Their color varies from the usual bright green to rich dark red and purple. With the onset of autumn, they change color to purple, yellowish or fiery orange. In some specimens, the deciduous color can change several times throughout the year.
The flowers are very small and are collected in fluffy panicles. In length, panicle inflorescences often reach 30 cm. Flowers bloom towards the end of spring, or in the first summer month. During this period, the stalks lengthen and become covered with a reddish nap. Because of this, the shrub becomes like a large portion of cotton candy. In warm regions with a favorable climate, the skumpia blooms longer and can bloom several times.
After the flower petals fall on the same stalks, fruits are formed in the form of small drupes. As they mature, they darken and eventually turn completely black.
One of the first questions asked by those who were impressed by the scumpia, planting and care in the open ground (photo) - when to plant it on the site.
To this, experts answer that it is permissible to land at any convenient time, except for the cold season. It is important to take into account that the scumpia takes a long time to take root, and it takes a lot of time for it to accumulate enough strength for wintering. Therefore, late autumn planting can be disastrous for her. The option with the late spring planting of the skumpia would be not much better. Of course, in this case, frosts will not be terrible for her, but the adaptation period will fall on the hot season, which will significantly slow down the plant's habituation.
Choosing a place to plant a scumpia
So that the scumpia can fully reveal its beauty, it is recommended to plant it in a spacious and well-lit area. Although, she will be quite comfortable in a small partial shade. But she does not like winds and does not tolerate, therefore, the site should be well protected from them.
With regard to soil characteristics, light soils with a neutral or alkaline environment are suitable. But shrubs can also be grown on acidified, heavy soils, and even on rocky soils. An important condition is a sufficiently deep finding of groundwater.
A day before taking out the seedlings to the site, they are taken out of the container in which they were sold and soaked in water. In this case, the roots are carefully examined for damage. All discovered "illiquid assets" are carefully cut off, and the cut sites are carefully treated with fungicide and crushed coal. If the purchased specimen has an earthen coma around the roots, you should not remove the latter. In this case, the landing is carried out directly with him.
The size of the prepared hole should be such that the root system of the seedling fits easily into it without crushing. A bush or tree is planted right away - they do not require any special substrates. Landing is carried out according to the following algorithm:
It is important to ensure that when installing the scump in the pit, the root collar of the plant is located above the ground level (by 2-3 cm). Subsequently, the seedling sags slightly, the neck drops and turns out to be flush with the ground.
If you plan to land several skumpies nearby, they are placed at a distance of one and a half meters from one another. This will give the plants the opportunity to feel comfortable even in adulthood - when their crown is finally formed.
The scumpia will not bring any particular difficulties to its owner, however, it still does not hurt to know about some of the rules for its cultivation.
After planting, the plant must be watered often enough until it gets stronger and its root grows enough to independently extract moisture from the soil. Adult plants require abundant, but rare watering - an excess of water is contraindicated for them. If you mulch the scumpia in the spring, then even in the hottest months it will not need to be watered very often.
If the skumpia was planted in depleted soil, then it is advisable to fertilize it. Moreover, the composition of the top dressing will depend on the season. At the very beginning of spring, nitrogen compounds are introduced into the soil, later, closer to the middle of the season, potassium-phosphorus compounds. If the plant grows on sufficiently fertile soil, then it may not need any additives at all.
Prune the plant regularly, but not very often. Sanitary pruning is done once a year. The best time for her, according to experts, is the time before the scumpia wakes up from winter peace. It is necessary to cut off frozen branches or branches broken under the weight of the snow cover.
Also, with the help of pruning, the shrub can be given certain shapes. The approximate frequency of molding pruning of shrubs is after a year for the second. In this case, the branches of young bushes are cut off by a maximum of 2/3 of the length. And adult scumpies can be cut to hemp. With regular correct shaping, the shrub will be more branched, and its foliage will be large and bright enough.
To prevent young bushes and trees from freezing, it is recommended to cover them for the winter. To protect them from frost, they can be tied with spruce branches or covered with non-woven material. Before covering the scumpia, it should be well mulched with humus or peat, laid in a thick layer on the near-trunk soil. When the plants get stronger, they will tolerate well even fairly severe frosts. But even adult bushes for the winter are best mulched.
It is noteworthy that even slightly frozen plants of the common scumpia can recover during the next growing season. True, they will no longer have enough strength to bloom in the coming season.
Skumpia leather has a fairly good immunity to diseases, and pests do not bother her often, but there are still exceptions. "Lovers" of the scumpia are:
If you notice a defeat in time, then getting rid of insects can be quite simple. For this, the shrubs must be treated with Karbofos or Decis.
As for plant diseases, most often the shrub can suffer from verticillary wilting - a fungal infection transmitted from the roots. The main sign of defeat is premature wilting of foliage and death of shoots. To prevent the further spread of the disease, the damaged branches must be cut off immediately and the cut sites must be treated with garden varnish purchased from a specialized store or prepared on their own.
There are several ways to increase the number of skumpies on the site.
Seed propagation is more suitable for professionals. The collection of material for subsequent planting begins at the end of summer. For this, the ripe fruits of the shrub are collected and subjected to first scarification, and then stratification at t 3-5 ° C.
The first process makes it possible to make a tight shell that does not allow moisture to penetrate inside. To soften the dense protective layer, the seeds are immersed in an acid solution for 20 minutes. The stratification process lasts 3-4 months.
You can sow ready-made seeds both in spring and autumn. In the latter case, there is no need to carry out additional processing of the planting material - nature will take care of this. When sowing, the seeds of the scumpia are laid out in holes no deeper than 2 cm. They are not covered for the winter. The first shoots usually appear a year after planting.
Scumpia: planting and care in the open field
Cutting is the simplest, and therefore the most common way of reproduction. To grow a new shrub, green cuttings are cut from an already mature plant in June. Before planting, they are soaked overnight in a growth stimulator, and in the morning they are planted in the soil of a greenhouse or container. For the preparation of the planting substrate, peat, clean sand and sod land are used. All ingredients are taken in equal proportions. For better rooting, planted cuttings should be regularly ventilated and often, but not very abundantly watered (the most optimal option is to moisten the plants from a spray bottle).
The approximate rooting time is 3 weeks. In this case, as a rule, no more than 30% of the plants take root completely.
Breeding layers are created in the spring. For their formation, the branch, located as close to the base as possible, is slightly cut along the outer side and carefully, without breaking, bent down, fixing it with staples or sprinkling it well with earth. Layers do not require special care - they are simply watered with the same frequency as all other plants. After sufficiently strong roots appear at the cut site, the “baby” is separated from the mother plant and transplanted.
Representatives of the genus Agapanthus differ in the height of the peduncle, the shape and color of the flower and leaves.
The whole difficulty in determining a particular variety lies in the fact that there are many hybrids among these plants. You can get an interesting kind of Agapanthus flower by crossing various varieties of representatives of its genus. As a result of cross-pollination, various shades of Agapanthus flowers are obtained: blue, blue and others.
Another name is "African lily" or "Abyssinian beauty". Umbrella agapanthus grows up to 70 cm.
The leaves are dark green, densely growing from the root area, long, about 45 - 60 cm, wide, with a clearly visible groove along the entire length of the leaf, slightly narrowed at the edges. The peduncle grows up to 1 meter.
The inflorescence is voluminous, spherical, up to 45 cm in diameter. As a result, 30 bluish and funnel-shaped flowers bloom on one peduncle. Each flower consists of six petals that are combined at the stems. The peak of flowering is June - July.
Agapanthus umbrella includes such a perennial plant variety as Agapanthus Blue. Its stem grows up to 1 m. The flowers are bell-shaped, bright blue, about 2 - 3.5 cm in diameter, collected in umbellate inflorescences on the crown of the peduncle. The leaves are long, growing tightly from the root zone. The flowering period is from July to September.
Great for growing as a houseplant, as well as in gardens and flower beds.
Agapanthus Blue Triumphator
Homeland - South Africa. Another name is Agapanthus early. Perennial, evergreen plant. It grows up to 70 cm. The leaves are long, curved, broadly linear, up to 60 cm long. The spherical inflorescence includes up to 100 blue flowers. Flowering begins in July - August.
Evergreen perennial up to 65 cm high. Leaves are straight, up to 40 cm long, dark green, with a light longitudinal stripe, emerge from the basal rosette. The stem with inflorescence reaches 70 cm. The diameter of the inflorescence is up to 25 cm. 20-30 flowers bloom on one peduncle, depending on the type of plant, the color is white, blue, blue and purple. African agapanthus begins to bloom from mid-July.
variety Variegata - height up to 1 m, a white stripe can be traced on a long leaf
variety Albidus - a characteristic feature is that there is a bright red blotch on the white perianth
variety Albus - up to 20 cm high, bell-shaped white flowers, well suited as a houseplant.
The leaves are short, narrow, no more than 15 cm long. With the onset of cold weather, the plant sheds its foliage. Flowering begins in mid-July - early August. The shape of the flowers is bell-shaped, the color is blue.
The aforementioned ripe seed pods are taken from large, faded buds. They are cut, dried and used for planting the next year. Cosme seeds retain their germination capacity for 4-5 years.
To speed up seasonal flowering seedlings are grown at the end of March on windowsills, observing a temperature regime of 15 degrees Celsius. The hardened plant is pinched and planted in open ground in May.
If you follow all the rules for caring for the helipterum, then no diseases and pests will be scary. Although rare, there are still cases when a plant is attacked by diseases and insect attacks. Most often, acroclinum is affected by fungal diseases, it is very simple to cure a plant from them, it is enough to exclude errors in flower care and treat the plant with a special solution of fungicides.
As for pests, nematodes and caterpillars of night moths love to feast on helipterum. In order for the plant not to infect nematodes, it is necessary to plant garlic or marigolds not far from it, they are very good at driving away pests with their specific and persistent smell. Caterpillars can only be removed by thoroughly spraying with special insecticides. In order for the plant not to suffer from various insects, it is necessary to remove weeds in a timely manner and regulate the frequency of watering, as well as observe all the rules for caring for helipterum.
Planting and caring for cosme in the open field has its own characteristics. With the seedling method of growing, the planting of young plants begins in the second half of May. They are planted in small holes at a distance of 30 cm from each other. After planting, the plants are watered abundantly.
Tall varieties of cosmeas require support. It is best to install them immediately after planting.
When the plants reach a height of half a meter, pinch the tops. This technique contributes to better tillering and abundant flowering.
Caring for the cosmos also consists in timely watering, loosening the soil and applying top dressing. Also, do not forget about the timely removal of weeds. Cosmeya should be watered no more than once a week. Its powerful root system perfectly draws moisture even from the deepest soil layers.
To prevent the formation of a soil crust, the soil surface is loosened after each watering. To save time, loosening can be combined with weeding. Timely feeding will significantly improve the appearance of plants and increase the abundance of flowering.
The first time fertilizers are applied two weeks after planting the seedlings. For this, universal mineral complexes are used. The second time is in the budding phase, the third time is during flowering.
With a strong overgrowth of the bushes, you can cut them. It will give the plants a more compact look. Overgrown bushes should be cut off by no more than 30 cm, while already faded inflorescences must get into the pruning zone.
Kosmeya is such a non-demanding and resistant plant that it is almost never damaged by pests and diseases. The main threat to its seedlings is only slugs. It is easy to destroy them; you just need to scatter special preparations in the aisles. With a small number of pests, they can be collected manually.
Planting and caring for cosmos flowers is not difficult at all. This culture reproduces well by self-seeding, having planted it once on your site, you will enjoy its spectacular, abundant and long flowering for many years.