Good morning. I would like to know if the white dots that appeared on the branches of the camellias are a fungus or I don't have to worry about them. Thank you
Dear Vittorio, welcome to our website. We thank you for writing to us through the expert column and we hope our answer will help you. Camellias are beautiful acidophilic plants widespread in many varieties that differ in flowering time, posture and characteristics of the leaves. Camellias are mainly prone to certain diseases such as root rot of the collar, necrosis of flowers, apoplexy and mites but the only disease that truly resembles your description is something more common and less specific of this plant: cochineal. Sometimes the cochineal can apparently look like a mushroom and to understand if it is a fungus or if it is cochineal we must carefully remove and observe the parasite. In some types of scale insects the lower area of the insect has a bright red color and this is a character that allows us to understand that the parasite in question is not a fungus. We therefore advise you to check if your camellias are affected by cochineal or if it is a fungus (it could also be powdery mildew). If it is the cochineal that affects your plants, you can intervene with a white oil treatment but only in vegetative rest (unless you have a white oil for summer use) otherwise you risk asphyxiating the plant.
Yellow, small and very fragrant, the lemon it is a citrus fruit that is extremely used in cooking. Particularly in Italy, it is difficult not to have a fresh lemon somewhere in the refrigerator, especially considering the beneficial properties it brings with it (it is in fact rich in vitamin C and flavonoids) and its versatility. There are those who use it for tea, some to dress salads or to flavor dishes, some to create jams and digestives. Cheap, small and exotic, having it at home is always good. In addition, it is very fragrant and is beautiful to look at. If you are tired of buying it in nets at the supermarket fruit counter and instead want a lemon that is produced directly by you, you must know that its cultivation it is not complicated at all, indeed it could give you various satisfactions. Indeed, plant and care for a lemon plant it is easy, pleasant and will give your home and garden a nice extra touch of color. Would you like to know the basic rules to grow it at its best and give you and your family a supply of fresh, healthy lemons born from your hands? Here you are served!
Fertilizers for your light. Visit us on the site for more information on the products The question is extremely generic: it would have been necessary to know what types of plants are concerned (herbaceous perennial or annual, shrubs, aromatic, etc.) and to have a description of the white dots (if detected, if spots, if present only on the leaves or also on the stems etc.), even better with the photo kit
. The white powder appears similar to a floury compound that covers all or part of the affected plant area If you notice white spots on the leaves, consisting of a substance that looks like flour, such as a light powder, it is powdery mildew, or white mal this disease is caused by a fungus that develops when the leaves are damp and remain so for a long time in summer the development of powdery mildew is favored by night watering, which also includes the foliage of the plants, whose leaves. I noticed very small and numerous white dots from these three types of succulents: wrong: (the photos I stole from the succulent section of the site, I didn't have any of my own) I was alarmed for a moment, it's not that (the throw there) a virosis, a fungus or something similar: confused:, if so what can I do? Crassula portulace Begonia, Hawthorn, Evonimo, Lagerstroemia, Cherry laurel, Lilac, Hydrangea and Rose are some of the ornamental plants most affected by the white disease. On Roses, white disease affects the leaves, the flower calyxes and the buds, covering them with a white mold with a floury appearance. White dots are found on all leaves, even those at the very top. The burns are more evident in the larger plant, the 3 lower leaves have this type of burn that was previously made by some dots, now they are enlarged and also involve the edge of the leaf (see image
The cottony cochineal feeds on the sap of the plants it has infested: its eggs hide and hatch under a whitish coating Whiteflies - more commonly called whiteflies - are insects belonging to the Aleyrodoidea family, which - in turn - are part of the homoptera, a very large species with over 1500 living subspecies. These white insects can destroy tender or leathery plants, and transmit diseases Plant diseases and parasites: how to recognize the most common ones, what to do to eliminate them and to have healthy plants, many tips for each plant Powdery mildew or white sickness is a cryptogamic disease , or of fungal origin, which can affect sage plants and occurs on the leaves. It is the most frequent pathology among those that can affect this aromatic herb and occurs in particular with mild temperatures and high humidity
Answer: CYCAS. Dear Patty, it often happens that cycas are filled with white dots, which can be due to various problems. If you check under the leaves, and you see some tiny, gray-colored creatures, then your cycad has been attacked by the cochineal, an insect that loves hot, dry climates and poorly ventilated areas you can eradicate this parasite. Plants are living beings and, as such, are exposed to various diseases that affect garden plants, pot plants or those in your garden. It is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of different plant diseases in order to be able to intervene promptly and effectively. The change in color or the alterations of the leaves are the first alarm bell that signals us one. These insects (Heliothrips) of the order of the tisanoptera, infest the lower page of the leaves of citrus fruits and also of other plants, and on citrus fruits also flowers and fruits. By pricking these organs, they create discolored and necrotic dots, and the shoots in particular can dry out as a result of this, small white spots begin to appear on the leaves, which gradually grow until the entire foliage is whitened and dried. The disease is extremely fast: it appears within a day and in a short time covers the entire plant. This is also particularly vigorous in the case of plants grafted on non-resistant rootstocks. It typically occurs in the collar area, with the emission of gum from the cortex. The evolution of symptoms can be described as follows: The underground part rots and is surrounded by intense humidity
white powder on the leaves. I would like to know if it is a fungus or parasites, but above all if the leaves, once washed, can still be used or if it is better to throw the plant away and not use it in the kitchen. I've searched the net for a while but can't find anything about it. From the miner fly to its 'sister' whitefly, or others such as the louse or the caterpillar, these insects act quickly on the cannabis vegetation and do a great deal of damage. balconies are really numerous. Many times they are caused by insects and parasites, while other times they are related to one. On my fig it appears as a form of white mange on the apical parts of the trunk towards the top, they are white dots, Could you tell me if a treatment with lime and copper making a mixture and in what percentage this type can be eradicated of mange or white patches
The white dots on the upper face of the leaf are the sucking stings of the leafhoppers, while on the lower face, in correspondence, you find black dots, which are the feces of the leafhoppers.The mites attack the succulents when they are kept, for too long, in a warm, dry and poorly ventilated environment. Symptoms of a mite infestation are clear: small silver or brown spots form, discolorations and deformations appear on the leaves
Although camellia is a beautiful flowerless bush, it is grown for its near-perfect blooms. When something happens to spoil the beauty of camellia flowers, act fast. Brown flowers or brown spots on flowers in spring is a symptom of a fungal disease known as flower rust. After the first symptoms - brown spots on petals, spreading to include the entire flower - flowers drop off the plant, usually within 48 hours. Control flower blight by removing all infected camellia flowers, rake the garden bed of all plant debris and topdress the soil with a new 3-inch layer of mulch. Spray the remaining flowers with a fungicide containing mancozeb or triadimefon, according to the instructions and directions on the label.
Leaf gall is another fungal disease that appears in the spring. New growth has an abnormal appearance - thickened leaves and shoots - with coloration that is green, then white or pink. As the disease takes its course, the leaves turn brown and become crusty. Remove infected leaves and shoot at the first sign of disease, rake the bed of debris and avoid overhead watering. If the camellia goes down with the disease a year, avoid spraying the following season with a fungicide containing mancozeb to bud. Reapply every 1-2 weeks, according to the instructions on the label.
camellias are shade-loving plants and too much, or too intense, sunlight can cause the plant to turn brown. If the brown parts of the camellia are those that are in direct sun, suspect sunscald. While it doesn't kill the plant, it sunscald damages the leaves, allowing pathogenic fungi to enter the plant. Remove the camellia from its sunny location and plant in an area that offers more shade, especially in the afternoon. Remove the scorched leaves with scissors.
Edema is a condition that occurs when the soil is too wet and the air is humid. The roots absorb more water than the leaves of the plant can hold. At first, you may notice small bumps on the underside of the camellia leaves. As the disease progresses, the bumps turn rusty or brown in color and resemble cork in their texture. Reduce the amount of water and the frequency of applications, especially during the wet season.
First of all, it is important to recognize that not all symptoms are due to diseases. For example, sunburn is often mistaken for disease. Symptoms are yellow-brown spots in the central part of the upper surface of the leaf. Sunburn comes more easily to viral variegated varieties and generally occurs when plants are moved into full sun. If the camellias show these symptoms, place them in a more shady place.
Another situation that is often mistaken for a disease is salinity damage. This is due to excessive fertilization, whereby the salts become too concentrated in the soil. Its symptoms are brown burns on the edges of the leaves. Often the leaves that are affected first are the youngest and the very old ones. The problem occurs more often and progresses more rapidly in container grown plants than in open fields, because nurserymen tend to over-fertilize them.
A way to prevent this problem is to use a very good and above all very well drained substrate. If the plants show symptoms of salinity damage, wash the salts with copious irrigations and then repot them in another container with a better substrate.
Now let's move on to treating the different diseases that afflict camellias. Only two of them - apoplexy and root rot - are generally fatal for plants. There is always hope, however, to cure all diseases with treatments. Remember that commercial product names and doses are provided for reference only and for your information only. Contact the relevant offices to check the products recommended and registered for these uses in your country. Furthermore, always strictly follow the instructions on the labels.
Apoplexy is probably the most common and widespread disease of camellias, which is caused by the fungus Glomerella cingulata. Many camellias live for years with the infection in progress, but then eventually die. It typically affects weak and neglected plants, so one of the most effective preventions is to keep them healthy and sturdy.
The apoplexy mainly affects the more humid areas, and occurs when the fungus enters the plant through cuts, wounds in general, including the scars of the leaves that fall in spring. The fungus generally originates from droplets of contaminated water or carried by nearby infected plants. In a fairly humid environment, even insects can carry the infection if they come into contact with a cut or wound on a plant.
Apoplexy manifests itself in various ways according to the vegetative stage or the infected part of the plant. In very young plants or freshly rooted cuttings, the new leaf may appear small, weak and limp. The plant dies quickly. The apoplexy of the twigs affects the new hunts. On newer vegetation the leaves wilt while the rest of the plant looks normal. Sometimes the withering is so extensive that the symptoms are confused with those of root rot. For a few days the leaves on the wilted part dry out and discolour slightly. After three to four days they begin to turn brown and fall off the branch. The plant after this can live for a while but is doomed to die if the infection is not eliminated.
Another symptom of apoplexy is a growth or cancer that often appears where a branch dies or near a leaf scar. Cancer, which can also groan from liquid in more humid areas, is usually found near the branch attachment or a bifurcation. It can also be found near a lenticel, scar, wound, or pruning cut. If the tissues around a cut or wound don't seem to heal well or fast enough (typically a wound takes three days to heal), it's probably infected. The longer it takes wounds to heal, the more vulnerable they are to stroke infections.
The best way to control Camellia apoplexy is prevention. A Captan fungicide treatment mixed with Cleary 3336 is very effective. You can improve it by adding a wetting product to increase coverage. This treatment is able to stop the infection and prevent it from spreading. I recommend a treatment every 2-3 weeks especially in spring, in the period in which they lose their leaves, starting from mid-late March, continuing until the end of May.
You don't have to do fungicide treatments just for the sake of them: it's neither cheap nor healthy. If the plants are healthy and clean it is not necessary. But if the spring season is very humid and rainy and there are already outbreaks of infection, do not hesitate to treat. Also cleaning up the plants and the growing area helps a lot. The infected material must be destroyed by fire not simply thrown away and it is better to sacrifice a whole plant that is too infected than to try to heal it together with the others.
To heal plants affected by apoplexy, there is no other means than surgery: cut the diseased branches with sterilized tools up to the brown-orange area that delimits the infected area. The scissors must be sterilized with each cut! Otherwise you risk spreading the infection on all the branches you cut! Good sterilizing solutions consist of 70% isopropyl alcohol, or 10% sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or finally the concentrated solution of Captan and Cleary 3336 (two tablespoons in 5 liters of water). A trick to work freer is to put the alcohol in a sprayer and spray it on the scissors after each cut (in this case it is better than bleach because chlorine corrodes metals). On the other hand, bleach is more suitable for directly disinfecting wounds because it remains in contact with the plant for less time.
The same principles apply for cleaning the branches from cancers. If the cancer is small you can cut it off with a (sterilized) knife. If, on the other hand, it is large and on a main branch, cut everything on it, going back to the first node, until you get to the healthy wood.
After eliminating the infected part, treat the cut on healthy wood with bleach or the fungicide solution, to eliminate the risk of reinfection. In very humid areas, paint large cuts (with a diameter greater than half a centimeter) with wound mastic (not based on petroleum substances).
Finally, some species of Camellia are more resistant to apoplexy. C. sasanqua is generally more susceptible to C. japonica and common varieties are more resistant than selected ones.
Root rot is a serious disease that in its initial stages is often confused with apoplexy. Camellias get this disease mainly because we involuntarily get it. These plants need to oxygenate their roots and often have shallow roots out of the ground for this purpose. Unfortunately many nurserymen, seeing these roots, cover them with soil. Likewise, a substrate that is too fine and compact is certainly a doom to rot. The fine peat, not very fibrous, removes the air from the roots because it is not porous and also retains too much water, which causes the roots to asphyxiate and become susceptible to the most common rot: that caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
The symptoms of Phytophthora rot are a browning of the leaves with the veins that remain in relief and often a gradual and progressive defoliation. During the wettest periods, the entire plant can suddenly wither completely, as if it were affected by apoplexy.
As a preventative measure, do not plant camellias too deep. If you transplant them in the ground make sure that the place is not subject to stagnation. For those grown in containers, on the other hand, get a very loose substrate that ensures good ventilation and drainage.
I recommend adding to the substrate 10-20% of balanced fine sand with as much pine bark of the grinding from 0.5 to 1.5 cm. This should ensure perfect drainage. Pine bark also has another advantage: it contains a substance that retards the development of Phytophthora.
Keep the substrate pH between 5.5 and 6.5 for optimal development and healthy plants. the more the pH approaches 6.0-6.5, the more the camellias are resistant to diseases. To increase the pH, you can use dolomitic limestone, which is the most common and cheapest additive.
However, you don't have to be a slave to pH - good drainage is much more important.
It is not recommended to mix the fertilizer with the substrate. Slow release fertilizers in cover are preferable. Keep the substrate moist, not wet. Regular watering helps the slow release fertilizer to gradually release nutrients to the roots. And if the roots, well oxygenated, receive the right amount of fertilizer, the plants grow faster, are healthier and resistant to root rot.
Another preventive measure is to apply a specific fungicide such as Ridomil to the most susceptible plants such as C. japonica and C. reticulata, once in March and a second time in September. Of the more common varieties of Camellia only these and their hybrids are considered susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Many camellias, including C.sasanqua and C.oleifera are immune to this root rot.
If your plants show symptoms of rot, you may be able to control and eradicate the infection, if it hasn't progressed too far. Use fungicides such as Aliette or similar to treat Phytophthora root rot.
In the United States, organic products have been introduced that can be very useful in the control of Phytophthora or other fungi. One of these Actinovate employs a strain of the microorganism Streptomyces lydicus. Field tests of this product indicate that the results obtained are positive and allow to obtain healthier plants as it counteracts a whole series of harmful microorganisms. The product is mixed with the substrate, but it can also be distributed on the soil of the plants already planted.
The most common non-lethal disease of Camellia is the drying of the petals, caused by the fungus Ciborinia camelliae. This pathogen only attacks Camellia, no other plant, and affects only the flowers, never the leaves, stems or roots.
This disease does not spread from flower to flower as other similar diseases do. It is characterized by a brown spot on the petals which rapidly expands to occupy the entire flower. The development of a gray fluff may occur at the base of the flower, where it is attached to the bud. The infected area of the flower is sticky.
Infected flowers fall to the ground and black, compact masses of sclerotia develop at their base. These sclerotia, which can be 1.5-2 cm long, are the form that allows the fungus to survive until the next season and can be kept viable in the soil for more than five years.
The sclerotia produces a brownish gray, mushy fungus, which disperses the spores in the air. The wind carries them to the flowers of the camellias, which are infected, and the cycle begins again. The wind is the diffusing agent of the infection, which can carry it up to a kilometer or more, depending on the humidity and temperature conditions.
Even if the disease is not fatal for the plant it is very dangerous for the nurserymen who find themselves unsaleable plants for that season.
They often ask me how to fight this disease but unfortunately, when the symptoms are noticed on the flowers, it is too late it cannot be eradicated.
The only thing that can be done is prevention and hygiene care.
To prevent the petals from drying out, cover the soil around the plants with a black cloth or mulch it with 10-15 cm of pine needles. Using one or both of these measures reduces the risk of infection by more than 95%.
If you suspect that you have an infection, immediately remove all infected flowers and petals (even those that have fallen to the ground or on vegetation, both infected and not). Do not throw them with the other materials, but destroy them with fire.
If the infected plants are in greenhouses or under tunnels, take the camellias out, clean everything and then disinfect the environment as best you can. Remove the surface layer of soil, about half a centimeter, from the containers and, if possible, the surface layer of one centimeter of the bottom of the greenhouse. If possible, steam sterilize the soil and the removed soil. After carrying out these operations, try not to return the camellias to that greenhouse for at least five years.
More precisely known as botrytis of flowers, it mainly affects the interior of mature flowers that have suffered some damage. The cold, splashes of water, wind or other often damage the blooms. High humidity and temperature combined with poor air circulation are often the factors that favor the onset of this disease.
The most frequent symptom is the development of a gray, dusty mold, particularly on the stamens. Unlike the drying of the petals, this disease spreads rapidly, with the gray powder, from flower to flower, damaging all those it reaches.
Gray flower mold isn't a major problem if it's not neglected. Again, prevention is important. Try to maintain good air circulation around the plants and when you prune them, you prune the clusters of vegetation to facilitate ventilation inside the canopy. Collect the flowers that fall to the ground, do not let them rot but destroy them. Also eliminate those infected on the plants: once affected they will no longer be recoverable. The normal fungicides, active against Botrytis, are able to control the attacks of the disease well.
Leaf galls are minor diseases caused by a fungus of the genus Exobasidium. They occur on new shoots in early spring and generally affect only one or two shoots of which only some leaves are infected. It is very easy to control: just remove the infected leaves both on the plants and on the ground. No fungicide treatments are necessary because with the arrival of the summer sun the galls dry up and disappear.
Collar galls are an infrequent disease on camellias, caused by the very common fungus Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The best defense is to transplant on disinfected soil and not to cause injury to the collar with processing. If an infected Camellia is found, it is necessary to destroy the entire plant and disinfect the soil from where it has been eradicated.
Irregular variegations of leaves and flowers are usually caused by viruses (but in other cases they are varietal genetic characteristics). There are no cures for viruses but don't worry, they are not very harmful: they only slow down the growth of plants a little. They can also make it look more attractive. The main drawback is that variegated leaves are more prone to sunburn.
Leaf spots are spots of variable color caused by fungi (penetrated inside the leaf by a wound) or by algae on the surface. They are not a major problem and are easily controlled with copper-based fungicides.
Leaf scabies is a physiological problem that manifests itself with irregular suberified areas detected on the upper side and darkening on the lower side. It is not caused by a pathogen but by environmental conditions. Excess moisture in the air, water stagnation around the roots or extreme fluctuations between excess water and substrate that is too dry generally cause this physiopathy.
Removing the causes of the problem is the only solution, but the improvement will only be noticed at the next change of foliage.
In most cases the presence of diseases is caused by errors during cultivation. Here are the eight most important mistakes to avoid:
Ironically, the so-called burn plant is sensitive to direct sunlight relentless indirect light is best for these plants. If the leaves have brown or orange spots, the plant has probably been sunburned. Aloe vera can be moved outdoors for the summer in most climates, but the plant should be introduced to direct light slowly. Even for houseplants, keep in mind that sun exposure changes direction throughout the day. Ad esempio, una finestra che ha luce indiretta ideale al mattino potrebbe diventare troppo illuminato nel pomeriggio , con conseguente foglie bruciate .
Aloe ruggine è un fungo che provoca piccole macchie marroni sulle foglie della pianta . Le macchie sono il risultato della pianta secernono un composto di guarigione sulle zone colpite . Queste macchie sono permanenti , ma la malattia di solito non si sviluppa . Evitare di annaffiare la pianta sopra le foglie in cui l'acqua si siederà sul fogliame . Mantenere l'impianto di caldo e trattare con uno spray anti-fungine se il problema peggiora .
Acqua di rubinetto
La pelle esterna della foglia di aloe vera è sensibile e non deve essere sovraesposto all'acqua ( cioè , l'acqua che si trova sulle foglie ) . Inoltre , alcune concentrazioni di minerali in acqua di rubinetto può danneggiare le foglie . L'acqua del rubinetto varia da comune , ma le linee guida nazionali vengono applicate per servizi igienici di base . Alcuni acqua del rubinetto contiene alti livelli di composti organici e inorganici che possono essere dannosi per le piante , e alcuni comuni aggiungere fluoruro l'acqua del rubinetto . Aloe vera deve essere innaffiato con acqua di sorgente o acqua piovana per evitare lividi o bruciare il fogliame .