How to find out from the trees that the winter will be with little snow


It is possible to find out whether the winter will be snowy not only according to the forecasts of weather forecasters. In nature, there are no less accurate "indicators".

Look at the north side of the trunk

On the trunks of trees, a kind of vegetative bloom is quite often formed. These are lichens. They are called bioindicators of the natural environment. From them you can find out about the degree of air pollution or about what winter will be like.

Lichens form on trees that are not overgrown with shrubs, as they need open space for propagation and photosynthesis.

If in autumn a large amount of lichen appears on the bark of a tree on the north side, it means that in winter the trunk will be covered with snow only slightly. The sun's rays will freely pass to the lichens, which will allow them to photosynthesize in the winter.

Terrestrial forms of lichen can grow on soil. Under a thin layer of snow, they retain their ability to absorb sunlight.

Having found active lichen growth on the northern side of the trunk and on the soil nearby, we can confidently assert that the winter will be with little snow.

Late leaf fall

Trees always react in advance to various changes in the atmosphere. This is a kind of defensive reaction. Early or late leaf fall, complete foliage or partial foliage, whether the leaves hold during the first snowfall - according to these signs, an experienced person will be able to tell what the winter months will be.By the time the cold weather sets in, woody plants freeze, the movement of juices inside almost completely stops. In order not to waste extra vital energy, to stop the process of moisture evaporation, the branches shed their leaves. In addition, the fall of the foliage helps to cleanse the plant of excess mineral salts. Until the tree goes into hibernation, these chemical compounds accumulate in the cuttings of the leaves and are excreted from the plant body along with them.

By shedding foliage, the tree protects itself from damage and injury. If the snow has fallen, and the foliage is still holding, it means that the plants are not afraid that the branches will break off under its weight.

This suggests that the snow will soon melt and such precipitation is not expected in the near future, the culture will continue the process of photosynthesis and accumulate the vital chlorophyll. Trees are in no hurry to get rid of foliage also because as soon as fallen leaves cover the ground, for their processing worms and microorganisms are accepted.

The deciduous cover becomes thinner and protects the roots from frost worse.

By holding the leaves, the plant thus takes care of the microclimate of the trunk circle. This is what becomes a signal that there will be little snow. This means that the snow cover will not be enough to preserve the root system in the cold season.

Covetous resin on conifers

Conifers are also able to tell if the winter will be with little snow. In this case, you should pay attention to the amount of resin emitted by them. Resin, or turpentine, is popularly called sap. If the bark is damaged or a branch is broken, the tree immediately directs the resin to the site to heal the wound.

Drops of turpentine fill the crack, preventing harmful microorganisms from entering the plant.

If a coniferous culture anticipates an abundance of snow, which will warm and protect, then it generously spends resin, sending it along resin passages to treat damaged areas. A lot of yellowish liquid accumulations appear on the trunk, but if the tree begins to save resources, emits little resinous substance, then you should not expect intense snowfalls in winter.


The trees are watered in order to saturate them with sufficient moisture. In winter, despite the fact that the water freezes, evaporation, albeit slowly, still occurs. Also, moisture evaporates from the branches of plants. Therefore, trees that have not been given enough water can "dry out" at low temperatures. The bark shrinks and the resistance of plants decreases. Frost can damage the ground part of trees.

Before watering, the ground around the tree trunk is loosened

In addition, well-moistened soil freezes less, has better thermal conductivity, which contributes to the heat from the lower horizons to warm up the roots and protect them from frostbite.


Miracle Trees project

Svetlana Kozhevnikova
Miracle Trees project

Attached file: http://www.maam.ru/users/files/download2730.html

Miracle Trees project

Project type:

group, cognitive - research with a given result for children 3-4 years old

Participants:

educators MDOU "Kindergarten No. 87" Keche "" Y-Ola

Kozhevnikova Svetlana Pavlovna

Ivanova Ludmila Vladimirovna

Children of the younger group No. 2 "Little Red Riding Hood"

Parents of the junior group No. 2

Project implementation:

Duration of the project:

Relevance of the problem:

During the walk, the children saw green and yellow leaves on the birch, and began to express their reasoning. Opinions were divided. During the conversation, it turned out that the children's knowledge about trees is very poor. Thus, the problem arose “Why are the leaves different on the trees? What happens to them? " The participation of children in the project will allow to form ideas about trees at different times of the year, develop creativity and search activity.

Objective of the project:

Creation of conditions for the development of cognitive and creative abilities of children in the process of implementing the educational project "Miracle Trees"

Project objectives:

- to acquaint children with 3 trees: birch, maple and mountain ash, to draw the attention of children to the shape of leaves and color at different times of the year, and also to teach to distinguish trees by bark

- to teach to observe, to see cause and effect relationships, to draw conclusions

- to form in children an emotionally joyful feeling from active participation in joint, collective work

- develop logical thinking, speech, horizons

- to educate curiosity, love and respect for the nature of the native land

Hypothesis:

If you follow a clearly defined plan within eight months, then you can achieve all the tasks.

Subject of study:

The process of involving families and children in introducing children to trees as a means of fostering love for nature.

Explanatory letter:

By implementing this project, it is possible to ensure that children will have a lot of different impressions and knowledge about trees at different times of the year. Various forms of work with children will contribute to the solution of the assigned tasks: conversations, observation, did. games, excursions to squares and parks, reading relevant literature, collecting herbariums.

The intended result:

- formation of knowledge about trees at different times of the year

- differentiation of trees by leaves, fruits and bark

- self-affirmation of the child's personality: removal of the clamp, stiffness

- the development of a child's fantasy, spontaneity, emotionality; activation of vocabulary

- getting pleasure from the work done in a team of children

Preliminary work:

- search work on the selection of illustrative material on the topic "Trees"

- viewing trees for a walk.

- reading poetry, works, viewing illustrations.

Family cooperation:

- consultation with parents about the project, "What are the different trees"

- Creation of a folder-moving for parents "Beauty of Autumn" "

- collection of leaves for herbarium

- excursions to the autumn forest, looking at leaves on trees, comparing with each other, are they similar or not

- selection of books, illustrations on the topic

Project stages:

1. Organizational

a) selection and study of literature:

b) goal setting and development of the content of the educational process

c) grouping of material, drawing up a plan

2. Practical

d) excursions and targeted walks

e) educational, didactic games

i) productive artistic activity

- viewing reproductions, paintings, postcards

g) experimental research work

h) reading fiction and listening to musical works

3. Final

- final diagnostics of cognitive processes

- dissemination of experience in kindergarten.

List of used literature

1. Forest encyclopedia. In 2 volumes / Ch. ed. G.I. Vorobiev. Ed. count : N. A. Anuchin, V. G. Atrokhin, V. N. Vinogradov and others - M.: Sov. encyclopedia, 1985.-T. one

2. Ponomarev N. A. Birches of the USSR - M.: Goslestekhizdat, 1932. - 247 p.

3. Vokhrintseva S. The surrounding world "Trees and leaves" - Land of fantasies, 2003.

4. Mini - Encyclopedia in Pictures "Trees" - Machaon, 2001.

5. Stepanov V. Textbook for kids "Native nature" - LLC Flamingo, 2007.

6. Stepanov V. Textbook for kids "Reading Lessons" - LLC Flamingo, 2008.

7. Suteev V. Spring - Astral LLC, 2001.

8. Walk in the woods (crossword coloring) - Hatber LLC. M., 2005.

9. A popular guide for parents and educators. 100 riddles - Ya.: Academy holding, 2004.

10. Erofeeva I. Seasons - LLC Ling-Kniga, 2008.

Application

- types of joint activities

- a long-term plan for observing trees (birch, maple, mountain ash) in the 2nd junior group

Types of joint activities

Communication

- Examination: photos, reproductions, illustrations

examination and examination of leaves:

determine the shape: round, oval, carved

coloration: shades of green, yellow and red, color irregularities (mottling, streaking)

value - use more accurate gradations in the definition: small, large, medium leaves

leaf surface: smooth, fleecy, glossy - not glossy density and thickness of leaves

- Didactic, cognitive speech, finger games

- Unfolding in ascending and descending order

Reading fiction

- Reading poems, stories and fairy tales on this topic

- Examination of pictures, postcards, illustrations

Social and personal development

- Excursions: on the site of the kindergarten and in the autumn park

- "Why can old dead trees be dangerous?"

- "Why is it dangerous to run with sticks?"

According to the plan of the music director

Physical development

free communication "Can trees heal?", "On the benefits of trees and shrubs"

creation of conditions for independent activity of children

Center for productive activities

- A selection of materials for the manufacture of a herbarium, design

Perspective plan for observing trees (birch, maple, mountain ash) in the younger group.

Purpose: to draw the attention of children to trees (birch, maple and mountain ash) and ask whether they are the same or not. What is the difference? Consider each separately - to identify the similarities (there is a trunk, leaves, branches) and differences (the shape of the leaves, the structure of the trunk, there are berries on the mountain ash)

Purpose: to show that a birch has a trunk, branches (there are many of them, they are different: they are large at the bottom and small at the top) and leaves, that birch is a very slender tree. Invite the children to approach the birch, touch its trunk, show the branches, depict their size, go around it, admire its harmony and beauty. Consider the leaves, what shape, note that the leaves of the birch are yellow and green.

Purpose: to find the trunk and branches of a maple, compare with a birch. Consider the leaves of the maple, pay attention that the leaves are carved, very beautiful: yellow, green, orange, red. Please note that maple is a very beautiful tree. Invite the children to come to the maple tree, touch its trunk, show the branches, walk around it, admire its beauty.

Purpose: to find the trunk and branches of the mountain ash, compare with birch and maple: to note how they are similar and how they differ. Note that rowan leaves are different from others. There are many of them on the branch, the leaves are oval and are symmetrically located opposite each other. There are green, red, orange, burgundy. Note that mountain ash has berries that birds feed on in winter. Ask which tree they like best, why. Walk around the mountain ash, admire its beauty

Purpose: to continue to form a love for trees and a caring attitude towards them, to clarify the idea of ​​the bark and its purpose: protects from frost, sun and wind. Compare the bark on trees: birch, maple, mountain ash and note the differences. Teach children to identify a tree by its bark.

Purpose: to draw the attention of children to the leaves lying under the trees - fallen leaves have fallen: multi-colored, of different shapes. Ask if all trees have the same leaves, compare the leaves by color, size and determine from which tree. Select the most beautiful leaves with the children, ask why children like them. Invite the children to walk on the leaves to listen to how they rustle to make

conclusion: the leaves are getting smaller, the fallen leaves become dark, dry.

7. "How do trees prepare for winter?"

Purpose: to tell children that trees, shedding their leaves, prepare for the cold. The leaves cover the ground with a solid carpet and thus protect the roots from frost: the ground under the fallen leaves will not freeze deeply. And in spring there is more moisture under the fallen leaves, which is very good for plants that will revive after winter.

8. "From the history of wood use"

Purpose: to tell children what paper is made of wood. This means that the longer paper things serve a person, the more trees will remain in the forests. What can be done for this? We must take good care of the books, carefully glue the old ones, hem them.

Purpose: inspect the site, find familiar trees: birch, mountain ash and maple. What do trees have? (Trunk, branches, and red berries on a mountain ash) Ask why the trees are bare, where did the leaves go, why? Tell how the trees have changed and why? It is important for children to understand that the changes are caused by a decrease in sunlight and heat, the onset of cold weather. Asking what trees do they know? Exercise in distinguishing trees by branches and trunks.

Came, scattered in shreds

Among the fields, around the hills. A. Pushkin

10. "Grandfather Frost walks along the street, sprinkles frost on the branches of birches."

Purpose: to draw the attention of children to the abundance of snow. He is both on the ground and in the trees, and even it seems that he is in the air. And what trees grow on the site? (maple, birch, mountain ash.) Is it good for trees because there is a lot of snow on their branches? Good, because snow, like a fur coat, saves from severe frosts, bad - from heaviness, branches can break.

11. "Frost and sun - a wonderful day"

Purpose: to tell that in winter the trees are at rest, rest, as it is very cold, there is little light, instead of water there is snow. Explain to children that on frosty days tree branches are very fragile, easily break, so they must be protected, not broken, not knocked on the trunk with a shovel, not run over by sledges.

The forest slumbers under the fairy tale of sleep.

Purpose: to clarify the knowledge of children about mountain ash, to note what mountain ash has (trunk, branches, bunches of red berries). Admire the beauty of the tree in winter, how beautifully the berries are red in the snow. Explain to children what benefits these berries bring (birds eat fruits in winter)

Purpose: to observe the trees during the thaw (how beautiful are the trees with frozen branches, how melodiously they ring). Explain to the children that a thin layer of ice forms on the branches. When the branches sway from the wind and touch each other, a quiet melodic ringing will be heard. Go to the birch to admire its beauty and listen to the melodic ringing.

14. "Clear, sunny weather"

Purpose: to explain that in winter - in clear sunny weather - the bark of the tree is warm. On a bright winter day, when the sun is shining brightly, and the sky is clear, blue, the trunks of the trees are warm (go up to the trees and touch the bark of the tree with your hand)

Purpose: to show the dependence of the state of trees on weather phenomena. Snowstorms and blizzards sweep high snowdrifts, and gusty winds drive snow drifts across the ground, thus insulating tree trunks. After a blizzard, the trees are all white, covered with snow.Snow warms the roots of trees, they will not freeze, and in spring the snow will melt and give the tree water, leaves will appear and the tree will come to life, wake up from hibernation.

Purpose: to deepen the understanding of what trees cannot live without. On the panel depicting a tree, gradually lay out the drawings and clarify their significance: the sun (the tree needs light and heat - in March the sun warms more) a drop of water or a cloud - without water the trees will die, they feed on a lump of earth - soil (everything that an earthworm is needed for growth in the soil - it loosens the soil to make it easier for the tree to breathe the wind, bee and bumblebee - they carry seeds, due to which new trees germinate, and air is needed, but how to depict it - it is transparent, invisible.

17. "The snow is still whitening in the fields ..."

Purpose: to show that with warming, a gradual awakening of nature begins. Snow still lies under the trees, but craters have appeared near the trunks - this is the lower part of the trunk that has warmed up from the sun and melted the snow. The trees will soon begin sap flow. Inspect the trees on the site (before sap flow, in the presence of children, remove damaged and dry branches. Explain why this is done.

Purpose: to see how the buds swell on the trees - "houses of leaves". Gently tilt the branch and show each child the swollen buds: all winter the leaves slept in these houses, now the sun warms up, sends out its rays - when they become completely warm, the leaves will wake up. Examine the buds on birch, maple and mountain ash, determine that they are different, differ: some are round, others are oblong, small and large. Birch has small and oblong buds, and

To correct your palaces. G. Ladonshchikov

19. "What are these different branches"

Purpose: together with the children, cut 3 branches: birch, maple, mountain ash and look at the buds on them, clarify which branch on which buds. Invite the children to put them in a vase in a group, and observe on which of the branches the first leaves appear

In the meantime, the leaves are sleeping in them

Purpose: to form a careful and caring attitude towards birch. In early spring, many people collect birch sap: they make an incision in the bark - and the sap flows down. To tell about the health benefits of birch sap (the sap is very useful, it is rich in vitamins, to teach that after sap collection, cover the wounds on the trunk with clay so that the tree does not get sick and does not die.

Purpose: to explain to children that trees also bloom, but in different ways: long earrings appear on some, and flowers on others. This means that the trees have woken up from hibernation. Admire the beauty of the trees, come closer to each tree and examine the earrings and flowers.

Purpose: to draw the attention of children to the beauty of spring trees. Pay attention to the shiny leaves, their bright and juicy color, and also consider them, they are different: small, large and carved. May beetles and insects hummed near the green branches of the trees.

23. "Does the birch trunk get warm in hot weather?"

Purpose: to show that the trunk of a birch does not heat up in hot weather.

If you touch the trunk of a birch on a hot day, you will notice that even in the sun the trunk of a birch remains cool (ask the children to touch the trunk of a birch and another tree with their hands). Explain that white reflects the sun's rays (conduct the experiment “Which will heat up faster - black or white fabric).

Implementation of the project

For the convenience of project implementation, work planning, control and self-control, analysis and reflection

all the material was divided into blocks: autumn, winter, spring.

1 block "Autumn" - (September, October, November)

conversations and observations

- "What does the tree have" (trunk, branches, leaves)

- "Slender birch" - consider the leaves, trunk

- "Beautiful maple" - consider the leaves, trunk

- "Ryabinka" - note what the mountain ash has

- "How Trees Prepare for Winter"

conclusion: the leaves are getting smaller, the fallen leaves become dark, dry.

excursions and targeted walks

- Around the kindergarten - pay attention to autumn trees, find familiar trees

didactic games

- "How many birch leaves are in your hand?"

- "Find a sheet by color (size, shape, size)"

- "Spread the leaves (alternation)"

- "Let's put together a garland of leaves"

- "Find the largest leaf (the most beautiful)"

speech development games

- "Autumn Leaves" - finger gymnastics.

One, two, three, four, five, (bend their fingers, starting with

We will collect the leaves. (clenching and unclenching fists)

we will collect oak leaves, (bend fingers, starting with a large one)

we will bring an autumn bouquet to mom (walk on the table with middle and forefingers)

outdoor games

- "Find and bring a red (yellow, green) leaf",

labor activity

- Raking dry leaves to a specific location

- Collect colorful leaves.

- Collect fallen leaves around trees

- Care for broken branches.

productive activity

- "My favorite tree" -application

- "Slender birch" - drawing

- "Autumn Leaves" - coloring

- "Autumn" - application (teamwork)

- "Listopad" - fabric applique

- "Wood in Gold" - dough molding

fiction

The house is open from all sides,

The house is open from all sides.

Both in the columns and in the tents. (Forest.)

2 block "Winter" - (December, January, February)

conversations and observations

- "Why there are no leaves on the trees"

conclusion: in winter the trees are bare, without leaves. They rest, sleep, gain strength.

excursions and targeted walks

- Around the kindergarten - pay attention to winter trees, find familiar trees.

didactic games

- "Name the tree: birch, maple, mountain ash"

- "Build a pyramid of leaves (ascending)"

- "Arrange the leaves by color" (descending, ascending

- Lotto "Fold the picture", "Trees and leaves

speech development games

- "Rain" - for the coordination of speech with movement, work on the tempo and rhythm of speech.

Drop of times, (Jump on toes, hands on the belt)

(Hands in a semicircle above your head)

outdoor games

Leaf fall! Leaf fall! (actions are performed by children with yellow leaves)

Beautiful yellow leaves are spinning!

Beautiful red leaves are spinning!

(actions are performed by children with red leaves)

We sat down! (sat down and froze, do not move)

A light breeze flew in, blew (blow)

Leaves rose, scattered. (scattered in different directions)

Spun, spun! (spinning)

The breeze died down, and the leaves slowly descend to the ground

(yellow leaves first, then red leaves)

labor activity

- Shoveling snow to a tree trunk

- Cleaning the trunks from dead bark.

- Insulation of the roots of trees and bushes with snow.

productive activity

- "Trees in winter" - drawing (collective work)

- "Trees in hoarfrost" - application

- "A bunch of mountain ash" "- modeling (plasticinography)

fiction

And he will remove the trees with silver.

Bushes and a garden are sleeping under the snow,

3 block "Spring" - t (March, April, May)

conversations and observations

conclusion: trees wake up from hibernation, leaves appear.

excursions and targeted walks

- Around the kindergarten - pay attention to spring trees, find familiar trees

didactic games

- "Describe the tree / bush /" by the mnemonic map:

What is the trunk of the tree? (thick, thin, tall, low.)

what is the bark of the tree? (dark, light, smooth, rough.)

What color and shape are the leaves? (round, symmetrically arranged oval leaves, carved, elongated)

speech development games

- "Birch" for the development of speech breathing.

My birch, birch (children go in a round dance, holding hands)

Curly birch (change the direction of movement.)

You are standing, birch tree, (got up, raise your arms up, inhale.)

In the middle of the valley, (lower your hands, exhale.)

On you, birch, (raising hands, inhale.)

The leaves are green, (put your hands down, exhale.)

Under you, birch, (raising hands, inhale.)

Silk grass. (put your hands down, exhale.)

outdoor games

- "Who will run faster to the birch (maple, mountain ash)."

Autumn leaves whirl quietly

(spinning on tiptoe, arms out to the sides.)

Leaves fall under our feet

And underfoot rustle, rustle,

(hand movements to the right - to the left)

As if they want to spin again.

labor activity

- Loosen the ground with a rake, sprinkling it to the roots of trees

- Removal of damaged and dry branches

- Collection of broken branches on the site.

- Pruning and tying branches of trees and bushes

productive activity

- "Birch Festival" - fabric applique

- "Russian birch" - beading

fiction

Girlfriends in white dresses. (Birches.)

In the meantime, the leaves are sleeping in them

Elegant maple - carved sheet

Presentations in colleagues 'blogs 2 Presentations in colleagues' blogs - 2 In Galina Ivakina's blog [hide] Tasks of education and training of young children Presentation of work experience.

Presentations in colleagues 'blogs 3 Presentations for teachers in colleagues' blogs 3 In Elena Ivanova's blog [hide] Presentation of a soft toy circle Tula is a city with an ancient past [/ hide].


Protecting the garden from the raids of hares

Trees and shoots damaged by a hare have their own distinctive features. And, as if cut with pruning shears at the very root. There may be traces in the form of small pits along the site. Trees can be partially damaged, bark is missing at a distance of up to 1 meter.

The optimal protection will be the fence of the entire area around the perimeter with a mesh with small holes. It must be raised to a height of 1 meter and buried at least 30 centimeters into the ground. Hares perfectly jump from above and dig tunnels underground.
In late spring, you can wrap tree trunks to a height of 1 meter.


Here materials are used at the discretion of the summer resident: roofing material, parchment paper. I use regular nylon tights.

As one of the available options, which I have seen from no other person, I can suggest the use of plastic bottles. They are neatly cut in the middle, the top and bottom are removed. This design protects the tree until spring, when the bottles can be easily removed.

It is convenient to protect tree trunks for summer residents who have access to a river or lake. It is enough to cut the reeds and overlay the trunks with them to a height of 1 meter. Installed reeds are attached with a rope so that hares do not have access to the trunk. These animals do not eat reeds, therefore they leave such a site in search of a new tree.

It helps well in the protection of needles. It is enough to break the branches of the needles and place them around the trunk with the needles down. Hares climb up on their paws to eat the bark or process. With this arrangement of the needles, they will receive only unpleasant and painful sensations.

Protection should also include an unpleasant odor that will deter hares from entering the site itself. I use this trick: I spread the bitter pepper particles around the perimeter of the plot and near each tree. But there is a peculiarity here, if a heavy rain has passed or a thaw has established, then the procedure will have to be repeated, since the pepper will lose its aromatic properties.

It is also good to paint the wood with a special solution. It consists of clay and cow dung, taken in equal proportions. In order for the tree to be under reliable protection, I also add a spoonful of carbolic acid. The specific smell scares hares away from such a tree.

Hares are very shy, so it is enough to install noise-repelling systems. The best option would be sheets of paper or polypropylene fabric. Such sheets will create noise from any breath of wind. An interesting fact is that some gardeners find dead hares in their area. These animals are so shy that they can get a heart attack even from the rustle of paper.

Another version of the device is cellophane bags. Hanging them on the branches of trees, you can forget about uninvited guests for a couple of months. Such bags will make a rustling sound even in calm weather.

One of the options that some gardeners in our society use is hare feeders. In the summer, they stock up on hay and in the winter put it in the installed feeders. But here is a new problem, not only hares are suitable for such feeders, so I do not think this is the optimal and reliable way.

The biggest mistake gardeners make is wrapping a tree with straw. This is a surefire way that will definitely attract hares. Do not use mixtures and solutions that contain oils or fats in their composition. This will burn the trunk and can completely destroy the tree.


Bibliography:

Perspective tree observation plan

Draw the attention of children to trees (birch, chestnut, maple and mountain ash) and ask whether they are the same or not. What is the difference? Consider each separately - to identify similarities (there is a trunk, leaves, branches) and differences (the shape of the leaves, the structure of the trunk, there are berries on the mountain ash)

Show that a birch has a trunk, branches (there are many of them, they are different: they are large at the bottom and small at the top) and leaves, that birch is a very slender tree. Invite the children to approach the birch, touch its trunk, show the branches, depict their size, go around it, admire its harmony and beauty. Consider the leaves, what shape, note that the leaves of the birch are yellow and green.

Find a trunk and branches near a chestnut, compare with a birch. Examine the leaves of the chestnut, pay attention that the leaves are carved, very large and beautiful: yellow, green, orange. Please note that chestnut is a very beautiful tree. Invite the children to come up to the chestnut, touch its trunk, show the branches, go around it, admire its beauty.

Find a trunk and branches near a mountain ash, compare with a birch and a maple: note how they are similar and how they differ. Note that rowan leaves are different from others. There are many of them on the branch, the leaves are oval and are symmetrically located opposite each other. There are green, red, orange, burgundy. Note that mountain ash has berries that birds feed on in winter. Ask which tree they like best, why. Walk around the mountain ash, admire its beauty.

To continue to form a love for trees and a caring attitude towards them, to clarify the idea of ​​bark and its purpose: it protects from frost, sun and wind. Compare the bark on trees: birch, maple, mountain ash and note the differences. Teach children to identify a tree by its bark.

To draw the attention of children to the leaves lying under the trees - fallen leaves have fallen: multi-colored, of different shapes. Show that the pine does not discard leaves (needles). Ask if all trees have the same leaves, compare the leaves by color, size and determine from which tree. Select the most beautiful leaves with the children, ask why children like them. Invite the children to walk on the leaves and listen to how they rustle to conclude: the leaves are getting smaller, the fallen leaves become dark and dry.

How do trees prepare for winter?

Tell the children that trees, by shedding leaves, but not pine, prepare for the cold. The leaves cover the ground with a solid carpet and thus protect the roots from frost: the ground under the fallen leaves will not freeze deeply. And in spring there is more moisture under the fallen leaves, which is very good for plants that will revive after winter.

From the history of wood use

Tell the children what paper is made of wood. This means that the longer paper things serve a person, the more trees will remain in the forests. What can be done for this? We must take good care of the books, carefully glue the old ones, hem them.

Inspect the site, find familiar trees. What do trees have? (Trunk, branches, and red berries on a mountain ash) Ask why the trees are bare, where did the leaves go, why? Has the pine tree changed? Tell how the trees have changed and why? It is important for children to understand that the changes are caused by a decrease in sunlight and heat, the onset of cold weather. Asking what trees do they know? Exercise in distinguishing trees by branches and trunks.

Came, scattered in shreds

Among the fields, around the hills. BUT.Pushkin

Grandfather Frost walks along the street, frost sprinkles on the branches of birches

Draw the attention of children to the abundance of snow. He is both on the ground and in the trees, and it even seems that he is in the air. And what trees grow on the site? Is it good for trees because there is a lot of snow on their branches? Good, because snow, like a fur coat, saves from severe frosts, bad - from heaviness, branches can break.

Frost and sun is a wonderful day

To tell that in winter the trees are at rest, rest, as it is very cold, there is little light, instead of water there is snow. Explain to children that on frosty days tree branches are very fragile, easily break, so they must be protected, not broken, not knocked on the trunk with a shovel, not run over by sledges.

The forest slumbers under the fairy tale of sleep.

Clarify the knowledge of children about mountain ash, note what mountain ash has (trunk, branches, bunches of red berries). Admire the beauty of the tree in winter, how beautifully the berries are red in the snow. Explain to children what benefits these berries bring (birds eat fruits in winter).

These berries are mountain ash like pebbles, ruby

On the hills and on the plains, brushes are scarlet on the mountain ash.

Watch the trees during the thaw (how beautiful are the trees with frozen branches, how melodiously they ring). Explain to the children that a thin layer of ice forms on the branches. When the branches sway from the wind and touch each other, a quiet melodic ringing will be heard. Go to the birch to admire its beauty and listen to the melodic ringing.

Explain that in winter - in clear sunny weather - the bark of the tree is warm. On a bright winter day, when the sun is shining brightly, and the sky is clear, blue, the trunks of the trees are warm (go up to the trees and touch the bark of the tree with your hand).

Show the dependence of the state of trees on weather phenomena. Snowstorms and blizzards sweep high snowdrifts, and gusty winds drive snow drifts across the ground, thus insulating tree trunks. After a blizzard, the trees are all white, covered with snow. Snow warms the roots of trees, they will not freeze, and in spring the snow will melt and water the tree with water, leaves will appear and the tree will revive, wake up from hibernation.

To deepen ideas about what trees cannot live without. On the panel depicting a tree, gradually lay out the drawings and clarify their significance: the sun (the tree needs light and heat - in March the sun warms more) a drop of water or a cloud - without water the trees will die, they feed on a lump of earth - soil (everything that an earthworm is needed for growth in the soil - it loosens the soil to make it easier for the tree to breathe the wind, bee and bumblebee - they carry seeds, due to which new trees germinate, air is also needed, but how to depict it - it is transparent, invisible.

Show that with warming, a gradual awakening of nature begins. Snow still lies under the trees, but craters have appeared near the trunks - this is the lower part of the trunk that has warmed up from the sun and melted the snow. The trees will soon begin sap flow. Inspect the trees on the site before the start of sap flow, in the presence of children, remove damaged and dry branches. Explain why this is being done.

See how buds swell on trees - "houses of leaves". Gently tilt the branch and show each child the swollen buds: all winter the leaves slept in these houses, now the sun warms up, sends out its rays - when they become completely warm, the leaves will wake up. Examine the buds on birch, chestnut and mountain ash to determine that they are different, different: some are round, others are oblong, small and large. In birch, the buds are small and oblong, and in chestnut they are larger.

The buds swell, the leaves break through

The ants begin to repair their palaces. G. Ladonshchikov

Together with the children, cut off 3 branches: birch, chestnut, mountain ash and look at the buds on them, clarify on which branch which buds. Invite the children to put them in a vase in a group, and observe on which of the branches the first leaves appear.

Spring will open these little barrels

In the meantime, leaves sleep in them and grow during sleep.

To form a careful and caring attitude towards birch. In early spring, many people collect birch sap: they make an incision in the bark - and the sap flows down. To tell about the health benefits of birch sap (the sap is very useful, it is rich in vitamins), to teach that after sap collection, cover the wounds on the trunk with clay so that the tree does not get sick and does not die. No wonder the Russian proverb says: "The birch cries with bloody tears."

Explain to children that trees also bloom, but in different ways: long earrings appear on some, and flowers on others. This means that the trees have woken up from hibernation. Admire the beauty of the trees, come closer to each tree and examine the earrings and flowers.

Draw the attention of children to the beauty of spring trees. Pay attention to the shiny leaves, their bright and juicy color, and also consider them, they are different: small, large and carved. May beetles and insects hummed near the green branches of the trees.

Does the birch trunk heat up in hot weather?

Show that the trunk of a birch does not heat up in hot weather. If you touch the trunk of a birch on a hot day, you will notice that even in the sun the trunk of a birch remains cool (ask the children to touch the trunk of a birch and another tree with their hands). Explain that white reflects the sun's rays (conduct the experiment “Which will heat up faster - black or white fabric).

Foster a desire to protect and preserve nature

Thus, the comprehensive implementation of environmental education activities through project activities contributed to:

    the growth of the professionalism of the educator, real achievements in working with children, knowledge and practical possession of the methods of environmental education and upbringing, the awareness by children of a respectful attitude to nature, the importance of its protection and the formation of practical skills to create and maintain excellent conditions together with adults. Participation in project activities has become for children a way of satisfying cognitive activity, acquiring skills to respect the world around them. Children received new knowledge, and at the same time a positive attitude from the fact that walking through the kindergarten site, they can show their relatives the result of their labor knowledge and together admire the beauty of spring trees.

What trees are for, the benefits of trees:

Trees purify and humidify the air, create coolness, and some give delicious edible fruits.

Sawed wood is a building material: boards, plywood, furniture, toys, and paper are made from dried trunks.

Trees grow slowly, so they need to be protected.

It is necessary to protect the trees, take care of them, sometimes talk to them affectionately, and in the spring, plant young trees with their parents.

Riddles about trees:
***
Cheers in the spring
It gets cold in the summer
Nourishes in autumn
Warms in winter. (Wood)
***
Like pines, like fir trees,
And in winter without needles. (Larch)
***
In the spring it turned green, in the summer it got tanned,
In the fall I put on red corals. (Rowan)
***
A Russian beauty stands in a clearing
In a green blouse, in a white sundress. (Birch)
***
Curls lowered into the river
And I was sad about something,
And what is she sad about?
Doesn't tell anyone. (Willow)
***
You will find her in the forest,
Let's go for a walk and meet.
It is prickly like a hedgehog
In winter in a summer dress. (Spruce)
***
In the summer - snow! Just laugh!
Snow flies around the city
Why doesn't it melt? (Poplar fluff)
***
Nobody scares, but everyone is trembling. (Aspen)


The snow must be delayed ...

The main wealth of winter is snow. It is truly invaluable for gardeners and gardeners, since it allows us to protect our green friends from frost without material costs. According to the recommendations of agricultural scientists, for the safe wintering of perennials in moderately cold winters, a layer of snow of at least 10 cm in December and 25-40 cm in the following winter months is required.

Therefore, the main task at the beginning of winter is to keep snow on the site. After all, plants are often damaged by frost at the beginning of winter.

Let us recall the main methods of snow retention. which will not take much time, but will bring great benefits. First of all, it is necessary to scatter branches on the site, which are quite possible. remained after the autumn pruning of trees and shrubs. Moreover, around their trunks it is worth throwing more such "brushwood" so that in the future, when snow falls, something like a snowdrift is formed, which will reliably protect the root system from the effects of cold.

We put up shields and build rolls

An effective addition to this simple work will be the construction of artificial snow barriers. This is especially important in those areas where winds blow in winter blowing snow from the surface of the earth.

First you need to find out what the prevailing wind direction is - for each area it is determined by hydrometeorological centers. Then, on the leeward side, it is necessary to install shields hammered from the boards, to which the "skis" are attached. For greater stability, they can be secured with stakes on both sides. There should be cracks in the shields. otherwise they will turn into "sails", which will simply be carried away by the wind. Therefore, one should hardly heed the recommendations on the use of plywood and slate for snow retention, which I also have! windage.

Another very old method is to create snow swaths. But for that reason. of course. we must wait for the snow to fall. The height of the rolls must be at least 50 cm. Snow retention has its own peculiarities in areas located on a slope. It is also necessary here. but sketch out branches, but it is better to do it in rows and across the slope. This is how the snow swaths are placed, which will prevent the snow from rolling down.

Each has his own "fur coat"

However, not every snow "coat" is useful for all plants. For example, a very thick layer of snow - more than 1 m - is contraindicated for garden strawberries. This threatens the berry plant with boiling-down and possible death of plants. Therefore, the strawberry plantation must be freed from excess snow. It can be transferred to planting currants and gooseberries, these crops winter well, being completely covered with snowdrifts. This "shelter" is very useful for these crops, in which the fruit buds are not very resistant to frost.

Chokeberries, plums and cherries do not like excess snow. If there is a lot of snow between the boles, it is better to trample the snowdrifts.

The benefits of melt water

Snow retention, in addition to protecting from cold weather, performs another function - the accumulation of moisture, which in the spring, after the melting of the snow cover, will water the garden and vegetable garden with life-giving moisture. Back in the 60s of the last century, scientists found that watering plants with melt water increases their productivity. So the liquid obtained from the snow is truly priceless.

Author Vyacheslav Konstantinovich DOBROMUDROV. Moscow region, Pavlovsky Posad


What to do with fallen leaves

Discarded leaves cannot be used for mulch. They may contain pests and pathogens.

Processing of fallen leaves in the fall is not required. The best option is to throw it away. You can also bury it away from fruit plants.

It is possible to burn a carrion, but not desirable. During combustion, toxic substances are released that negatively affect the environment. Combustion products also poison the human body.

Deciduous plants always get rid of green mass in the fall. If this does not happen, you need to find out the cause and start treatment. This will keep the planting healthy.


Watch the video: Winter Bushcraft Hike - No Sleeping Bag - Natural Shelter in Snowfall - Lavvu Poncho


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