Medlar is an evergreen tropical plant... The entire trunk is entwined with dark gray bark. The leaves are large and have a gloss on the surface.
During flowering, the plant develops white fragrant flowers. The fruit is characterized by a spherical or pear-shaped shape and a thin skin. Ripe fruit tastes sour.
Is it possible to grow medlar at home in Russia, how to do it, you will learn from the article.
Southeast Asia is considered the homeland of the tropical fruit. The culture is grown in the Caucasus and Turkey. Warm countries are suitable for plant breeding, where the temperature does not drop below 0 Celsius.
If you grow a medlar in central Russia, in the Moscow region or in Ukraine, you get an ornamental shrub. But observing agrotechnical recommendations, you will get a beautiful tree with delicious fruits.
Medlar berries contain a large amount of useful vitamins and minerals. The culture has a low calorie content.
The fruit contains the following beneficial substances:
Nutritionists usually prescribe the plant for overweight... If consumed in sufficient quantity, the fruit will bring great benefits to the body.
The main benefit of the fruit is that it is rich in vitamin A, which is considered essential for human eyes. The use of medlar will improve the muscles of the eyes and help restore the lost luster.
In cooking, jams, compotes, jam, liqueur liqueurs are prepared from medlar.
Who is not recommended consume tropical fruit:
Wine and juices will only harm such people, while jams and preserves will be beneficial.
A tropical plant can cause an allergic reaction, therefore, for children, the use of culture should be limited or given after consultation with a specialist.
Medlar is a Japanese relative of the Russian hawthorn ^
Medlar, like other fruits, can bring many benefits to the human body:
If a person has kidney dysfunction, it is recommended to use medlar to increase their filtration. This fruit contains molecular water, so it is easy for the human body to get rid of toxins after eating the plant.
The common seeds of the plant serve as seedlings.... Before growing the seeds, it is recommended to keep them in the cold for no more than 3-4 months.
Natural conditions allow the formation of shoots for 2-3 years of life, when the destruction of the shell occurs.
To speed up the procedure, a solution of sulfuric acid is used, the bones are placed in it and kept for 5 hours, and then washed.
Such processing allows you to plant a crop in the fall in open ground, in the spring you can expect the appearance of sprouts. Before planting a medlar, seeds should be in warm water during the day.
Use sawdust, peat or plastic wrap to mulch the soil. A good option for planting seeds indoors: after the formation of the first shoots 25-30 centimeters, the plant must be grown in advance and placed in the designated place.
It is necessary to plant seedlings in prepared soil.containing the following components:
It is recommended to dig a hole before planting, not exceeding the size of the soil clod, designed for the root system. The seedlings are placed in the holes neatly without damaging the roots, and then they must be covered with soil mixture on top.
Cutting the leaves in half can reduce moisture evaporation.... To prevent decay, as well as to prevent the penetration of pathogens, it is recommended to pour wood ash in the cut points.
Plant roots can get a fire blight if the soil contains a large amount of nitrogen. Frequent watering will also ruin the root system.
Artificial pollination is necessary for the fruit during the flowering period... It is necessary to deal with the formation of the crown, cut dry and damaged branches in time.
Most gardeners know that the culture is susceptible to disease, as well as attack by pests... The plant eats aphids and thyroid gland.
Twice a season, the shrub needs insecticide treatment... Thus, the variety can be protected from spoilage.
Carry out the treatment with "Fitoverm" - no more than 2 milligrams per 1 liter of water, "Insegar" - use 5 grams of the drug for 10 liters of water, "Lepidocid" - dissolve 30 grams of the substance in 10 liters of water.
After dyeing the fruit, do not harvest immediately. During this period, the fruit pulp has excessive astringency.
When the fruits begin to turn brown, the tart taste disappears, the plant becomes sweet. and suitable for collection and further use.
Gather ripe fruits carefully, without damaging them. Whole fruit will stand for a long time and will not spoil.
For storing tropical crops, it is necessary to provide a cool place without access to light., but it is allowed to store the plant at room temperature. The fruits should not come into contact with each other during laying.
To grow a varietal loquat, it is necessary to choose seedlings with the best qualities of the mother plant.
Tanaka - fruits are large in size, colored yellow-orange. Usually they reach a weight of 50-80 grams. The fragrant pink pulp is characterized by the presence of juiciness and a delicate sweet and sour taste.
Champagne - a large-sized crop with a slight fluff, the color of the fruit is bright yellow. The pulp has a light creamy hue, the taste of the fruit is delicate and pleasant.
Premier - the fruits of this variety are distinguished by an orange-yellow tint. This variety has a juicy creamy pulp with a delicate sour taste.
Sayles - The usual weight for a ripe fruit is 80 grams. The culture tastes like apricot.
In addition to high taste, the fruits are preserved for a long time, they are not damaged during transportation. Simple agrotechnical recommendations allow a novice gardener to grow at home.
Without leaving your home after 4-5 years, you can collect a good harvest of exotic fruits.
Morozko - is considered a suitable crop for growing not only indoors or in a greenhouse, but also for a winter garden. The low degree of fragility of the wood allows the plant to be set in any shape.
Large fruits, rich in aroma and lack of astringency, are characterized by a large amount of vitamins. The berries are red-brown in color.
Among the fruit trees in the garden, the medlar will take pride of place and will delight its owner with delicious fruits for many years.
A wonderful tropical fruit suitable for fresh consumption, as it is rich in beneficial properties.
The peel is removed from the plant before use.... It is not useful, does not have pleasant taste properties and it is advisable not to use it.
Among lovers of home exoticism, an evergreen tropical plant, which is not familiar to every inhabitant of the middle lane, is very popular - medlar. Thanks to the large leathery leaves, glossy on the top and velvety on the bottom, as well as fragrant flowers, white or yellowish-cream, the medlar looks very aesthetically pleasing and was originally grown only as an ornamental crop. However, later, the high quality of its juicy, fleshy fruits, which have an invigorating pear-cherry taste with a characteristic acidity and have a number of properties valuable for the human body, was also appreciated. They strengthen the intestines and improve digestion, are very useful for urolithiasis, are good both raw and processed.
Unlike many capricious tropical crops, medlar is very unpretentious in content. The climate of the middle latitudes is not very favorable for its cultivation in the open field (although some gardeners succeed in this), but it is not at all difficult to grow medlar at home. Its bisexual flowers are capable of partial self-pollination, and artificial pollination allows an increase in the number of fruit ovaries. In the juicy pulp of each medlar fruit there are from 1 to 8 seeds with a dense glossy shell (most often there are 3).
At home, medlar is grown most often from a bone extracted from a ripe fruit. It is worth noting that for home cultivation, of the two common varieties of this culture, the Japanese medlar (Lokva) is considered the most suitable, since the cultivation of the second variety, the Germanic medlar (Caucasian), is too troublesome and not every experienced gardener can do it.
To "settle" this pretty fruit tropicana at home, it is enough to take into account the main features of its agricultural technology.
Medlar is a tree-like plant that has two varieties that are unlike each other. The fruits of the Japanese medlar or lokva outwardly resemble apricots, and the leaves are similar to the leaves of a walnut. Lokva begins to bloom in November and bears fruit in May. They have an apricot color and taste like a very aromatic applesauce with a delicate melting taste. The fruits are not lay at all, they have a thin skin and an incredibly delicate puree-shaped pulp. This is why lokva is not sold in supermarkets like apricots or kiwi.
Such a heat-loving plant is difficult to grow in temperate climates. However, there is a variety adapted for Europe. This is a Germanic medlar, which belongs to the Rosaceae family. Unlike the Asian variety, the European medlar has sour hard fruits that, when ripe, resemble rose hips. The tree blooms in late spring and early summer, and fruits appear in October-November. To improve their taste, gardeners wait for frost. Frozen fruits become much softer and tastier, but in size and taste they are much inferior to loqua.
The European plant variety gets along well in cool climates, tolerates frost firmly, and is not picky about soils (with the exception of drainage). However, the Japanese variety of medlar can also grow in the southern regions of Russia. Lokva does not tolerate frost, therefore it should be grown in a subtropical climate, on the Black Sea coast, in the countries of the Caucasus. With the approach of cold weather, the tree begins to bloom, unlike the rest of the flora, its leaves turn red, and the lokva deservedly takes an honorable place as an adornment of the autumn garden.
If you are interested in the medlar plant, then you should know that it is not difficult to grow such exotic at home with proper care and certain skills. The Caucasian medlar reproduces in different ways: by bone, layering and cuttings.
From the bone
The most commonly used method of propagation by seeds (from the seed). This method is attractive because the young tree will receive all the qualities of the mother plant.
Bone planting algorithm:
After 4-6 years, you will receive the fruits of the plant.
If desired, the fruits can be obtained already in the first year, but the plant will have to be propagated by air layers. To do this, you need to root the medlar branch. For this:
The tops of the medlar, which grew in the last year, are perfect for propagation by cuttings. We do the following:
At a temperature of 25-27 degrees, the cutting should take root in a month.
The main thing! You need to cut off the top with at least two buds.
After the seeds are buried in the ground, you need to create ideal conditions for germination and further good development.
To create a greenhouse effect, the pot is covered with a package on top. Then it is placed in a lighted place, but not in direct sunlight.
Without proper watering, it will not work to grow a healthy medlar at home. In order not to create stagnation of liquid, it should be rather moderate, but the soil should not be allowed to dry out either.
If all stages of preparation are followed, the seeds will germinate. within a few weeks after landing. When the sprouts reach a height of 2-3 cm, it is necessary to start airing the greenhouse every day.
The film is removed completely after the medlar gets used to the drier air and the ambient temperature is at least 18 degrees.
Recommended also sprinkle the sprouts periodically, while using warm boiled water. Watering is necessary at least several times a week.
A month after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are dived and planted in separate pots.
Medlar is a fast growing plant, so it needs to be replanted annually. A feature of the plant is a thin root system, therefore the procedure must be carried out carefully, removing the tree along with the earthen lump and moving it from one container to another. In the process of transplanting, an important component is the change of soil, in which there must be a sufficient amount of nutrients necessary for the full growth of the plant. If you neglect these instructions, then very soon the growth of the medlar will stop, and the leaves will begin to fall off.
Young and actively growing trees need to change the soil and capacity in which they grow annually, choosing a new one, which will be several centimeters larger than the root system. If the medlar reaches a respectable age, then it needs a transplant less often, it can be carried out only once every three years. An important component of a correct transplant is the presence of a drainage layer that will prevent water from stagnating, and the plant will develop normally.
There is no need to often change the location of the tree, because it grows in open ground, and nothing interferes with the normal growth of the root system. To ensure the availability of useful components that are introduced into the pot with new soil, it will be enough for the suburban area to apply fertilizers in a timely manner. In the garden, caring for the plant is easier, since it is not necessary to monitor its growth. When pinching the top, it is enough to prune the tree once or twice a year.
Growing medlar at home is not so difficult if you understand all the nuances and carry out all the procedures on time. In a pot, a tree can be placed in a spacious room of a private house, you can also put it in an apartment if there is a well-lit area for a plant. With proper care, transplanting in the right sequence and at the right time, the culture will grow and develop well, delighting its owner with a harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.
To grow medlar at home, you need to properly care for it. First of all, you should pay attention to lighting and watering. For full-fledged growth and development, it is better to choose windows facing the south or southeast side. A crop can only be expected if the tree is in sufficient contact with the sun.
In addition to light, the temperature that is created for culture is also important. Heat-loving and tropical medlar grow comfortably at 20-25 degrees Celsius. The frost resistance of the tree is weak, therefore, at home, you should not allow the temperature to drop to +15 degrees. As for the warm season, it will be a very favorable procedure to take a container with a tree to the open air for a while. This is a great opportunity to get maximum sunlight and fresh air, which positively affects the growth of any plant.
The second important maintenance criterion is watering. The amount of moisture applied to the soil will vary with the season. In the summer, it is necessary to water the plant often and a lot so that the ground is moist all the time. During this period, twice a week, it is worth carrying out the procedure of loosening the soil so that it breathes and is light. When carrying out irrigation work, you should know that the medlar is afraid of spraying, so you should not add this procedure.
As for winter, watering is infrequent at this time of the year, since the plant is dormant. The main task is to ensure that the soil does not dry out completely. Another important detail of irrigation measures is the temperature and condition of the water.
Watering is carried out only with settled water at room temperature, so that the medlar does not receive a temperature shock, which will negatively affect the development of the tree.
To properly care for a fruit crop, it is difficult to do without fertilizing the soil. These procedures are usually carried out from April to September. It is considered optimal to apply complex fertilizers or mullein infusion, diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 8. Feeding should be done no more than twice a month, this amount will be enough to fully support the tree. If you ignore this procedure, then dark spots on the leaves or signs of any other disease may appear on the medlar, which will negatively affect the development of the culture.
Caring for a plant at home also involves the procedure for forming a bush, for which you cannot do without pruning. You can create a spherical shape or form a bush, depending on the availability of free space in the room and the task that is entrusted to the medlar. The plant usually takes a bushy appearance on its own, but in case of any deviations, it is enough just to pinch off the top in order to enhance the growth of side branches.
Those who wish to have a small tree will need to cut the side branches before they are lignified. It is important to carry out the process of shaping and pruning branches after the medlar has yielded a crop, and it is completely removed, otherwise there is a risk of losing buds for future flowers, and, accordingly, remain without a crop.
If we are talking about caring for a plant in a personal plot, then there are insignificant differences from ordinary fruit trees. It is necessary to water at such a frequency that the near-stem circle is wet, while trying not to flood the roots. After watering or rain, it is best to loosen the soil and remove any weeds. You will need to fertilize the tree two or three times per season, for which you cannot do without organic and mineral compounds. The care of young trees, which need feeding every 20 days, is different, for which a mullein solution is best suited.
In the spring, before the plants begin to revive from hibernation, sanitary pruning of the loquat branches should be carried out. Those parts of the tree that have been damaged or frozen are removed, in addition, they pay attention to the correctness of the formation - if there are branches thickening the crown, they also need to get rid of them. For the first three years of tree growth, it is necessary to shorten the main skeletal branches by 1/3. Internal twigs intertwined with each other are shortened to 2-3 buds.
4 years later, after the seedling was planted in the ground and took root, the next stage will be the formation of the crown, which must be maintained annually to form a correct and strong tree.
Already 22-24 days after germination, the plant will acquire three pairs of true leaves. Once you see this, you will need to decide what you want to see in the room - a tree or a bush. If it's a tree, then you don't need to touch anything yet, but if it's a bush, then you will need to pinch the top of the seedling.
The formation of the tree must be carried out after about six months, then it will also need to pinch the top, otherwise you are unlikely to have enough ceiling height to fit the tree in the room. You need to keep this plant in the light, in an open place, only in this way the maximum number of fruits will be tied.
Medlar has a number of useful properties:
Admire the beauty of the subtropical Japanese medlar fruit tree in the video:
As you can see, the Japanese medlar is a very beautiful, useful and unpretentious plant. Any floristIf you dream of acquiring an exotic tree or picking outlandish fruits at home, you can recommend the medlar.
At all some regular grooming - and a wonderful plant will delight you with decorative foliage, delicate and fragrant flowers and tasty and healthy fruits.
Hello! Please tell me. My medlar grows in a pot on the windowsill. Complex mineral fertilizer 1: 8. Can't figure out how to count on a little
the amount of water - for 1.5 liters, for example. How much fertilizer, and
how much water?
It is better not to dilute the complex mineral fertilizer 1: 8, it will be very concentrated, this is an infusion of mullein in a ratio of 1: 8, you can take 200 grams of mullein and 1.6 liters of water, mineral fertilizers are better to dilute according to the instructions or 1-1.5 grams per liter of water.