Plant garlic (Latin Allium sativum) - a herbaceous perennial, a species of the genus Onion of the subfamily Onion family Amaryllis. It is a popular vegetable crop with a characteristic smell and pungent taste due to the presence of thioesters in the plant. The homeland of garlic is Central Asia, where garlic cultivation took place in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern Iran. Scientists believe that the vegetable garlic originated from the long-pointed onion growing in the gorges of the mountains of Turkmenistan, in the Pamir-Alai and Tien Shan.
For a long time, garlic has been valued by people for its ability to stimulate appetite, improve digestion, and strengthen immunity. They used it both as an antidote for poisoning, and as a prophylactic agent for dangerous diseases. A clay bulb of garlic was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, the vegetable garlic is mentioned, and in the inscriptions on the ancient Egyptian pyramids, Pythagoras called garlic the king of spices. But despite the fact that garlic has been known to the world for 3000 years, it is still popular: in countries such as China, India, Korea and Italy, the per capita consumption of garlic reaches from 8 to 12 cloves a day.
How to cultivate garlic outdoors, how to plant garlic, how to water garlic, how to fertilize garlic, when to dig out garlic, how to store garlic until spring, and much more, you will learn from this article.
Read more about growing garlic below.
The root system of garlic is fibrous, the bulb is rounded, slightly flattened, complex, forming scales from 2 to 50 children in the sinuses, called lobules or cloves, covered with white, yellowish, pink-purple or dark-purple leathery scales. Leaves are narrow, lanceolate, grooved, keeled on the underside, whole-edged, drooping and erect, up to 1 cm wide, 30 to 100 cm long. Leaves germinate one from the other, forming a false stem like onion stem, but more durable. The peduncle reaches a height of 60 to 150 cm and ends in an umbrella-shaped inflorescence, hidden by a film membrane until the disclosure of sterile flowers on long pedicels with lavender or white petals up to 3 mm long and six stamens. The fruit is a capsule. Distinguish between spring and winter garlic.
Planting garlic in the ground is carried out early - no later than the first ten days of April, but since it is difficult to dig frozen ground at this time, the area for spring garlic has been prepared since autumn. Planting of garlic in the fall is carried out in the time period from the second half of September to mid-October, so that it has time to form a strong root system before the cold weather, penetrating 10 cm deep, but at the same time it would not have time to start growing.
The soil for garlic needs fertile and neutral, but this culture grows best in loam. The soil should not be dry, but avoid planting garlic in low areas where melt and rain water can accumulate. The area for garlic needs to be dug deeply since the fall, adding 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium salt and a bucket of humus to each m². In the spring, you just have to level the area with a rake.
The best precursors for garlic are any cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin, beans, peas and green manures, the worst are onions, cucumbers, carrots, tomatoes and garlic itself. And for plants such as strawberries, strawberries, raspberries, potatoes, gooseberries and black currants, garlic planted next door will protect against insect pests. Plants such as roses, gladioli and tulips will also benefit from the proximity of garlic, since garlic scares away not only slugs, caterpillars and borers, but even moles do not dig their holes near the places where this culture grows.
Have you ever heard the phrase "garlic seeds"? Or "Growing garlic from seeds"? It is strange if you have heard, since garlic does not form seeds and propagates vegetatively - with cloves, and winter varieties can also reproduce with air bulbs.
The yield directly depends on the quality of the planting material, therefore, 2-3 weeks before the spring planting, place the teeth in the refrigerator for stratification, then sort them by size, rejecting sick, twisted, damaged, soft, too small or irregularly shaped, as well as those that were left without a shell. After that, the teeth selected for sowing are disinfected for two hours in an ash solution: 400 g of ash is diluted in 2 liters of water, boiled for half an hour and cooled.
The ash solution can be replaced with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or a 1% solution of copper sulfate, in which the teeth are kept for 12 hours. Then the slices are germinated at room temperature, wrapped in a napkin moistened with water, which is placed in a plastic bag for 2-3 days, although this stage of seed preparation is not necessary.
As soon as the soil temperature reaches 5-7 ºC, prepare the bed by making grooves in it 7-9 cm deep at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, plant the cloves in them vertically with the bottom down with an interval of 6-8 cm. The planting depth is , equal to twice the height of a clove - something about 5-6 cm. If you place the cloves in the furrow with the edge to the south, green garlic feathers can get the maximum amount of spring sun, which will increase yields and make it easier for you to care for garlic.
If the soil is wet with melted snow, no watering is needed after planting, but if the soil is dry, water the area as abundantly as possible. Spring garlic grows at a temperature of 3-4 ºC, the seedlings are not afraid of frost, however, garlic will be grateful to you for mulching the soil with peat.
We have already written about how to plant garlic in the fall, especially since planting winter garlic is carried out in the same order and according to the same principle as planting spring garlic, but the plot for garlic is prepared not six months, but two weeks before planting. , and a layer of coarse sand or ash with a thickness of 1.5-3 cm is poured onto the bottom of the furrow to prevent contact of the seed with the soil and protect it from rot. Winter garlic, as a rule, is larger than spring garlic, therefore, the largest cloves are planted at a distance of 12-15 cm from each other, and those that are smaller, at a distance of 8-10 cm. And the depth of winter planting should be more - 15-20 cm ...
The bulbs are sown at the same time to a depth of about 3 cm according to the 2x10 scheme - next year they will turn into single-tooth bulbs, planting them again, you will get full-fledged garlic bulbs. Mulching the plot with dry peat or a mixture of soil with sawdust for the winter is mandatory: the mulch protects the garlic from frost, and its layer should not be thinner than 2 cm.If very severe frosts hit and there will be no snow, cover the plot with a film or roofing material that can be removed when the snow starts to fall. Under the snow cover, winter garlic is able to withstand frosts of twenty degrees.
Garlic care consists in regular watering, weeding, loosening the area and feeding. It is imperative to remove the garlic arrows as soon as they are formed, and also know how to process the garlic in the event of an attack by insect pests or infection with any disease.
Water the garlic as the soil dries up, in dry weather watering is abundant - 10-12 liters per m², but if it rains regularly, you can refuse watering and refuse. They completely stop watering the garlic in August, when the bulb begins to gain weight and volume.
As soon as shoots appear in spring, green garlic is fed with nitrogen fertilizers (Fertakoy, mullein or urea), after two weeks garlic fertilization is repeated. In just a season, it is enough to apply top dressing to the area with garlic four times.
What is garlic sick with, and what other enemies does it have in the open field? Diseases and pests of garlic and onions are almost the same. Of the diseases, the most dangerous are white, cervical and gray rot, helminthosporiosis, fusarium, smut, jaundice, downy mildew (or peronosporosis), mosaic, rust and tracheomycosis.
Of the insects, the most common cause of trouble for garlic is the onion burrower, tobacco thrips, stem nematode, caterpillars of winter, cabbage, garden and gamma moths, sprout and onion flies, common bear, onion moth and long-stalk.
We could list you drugs for fighting diseases and insects that will help you cope with almost all enemies of garlic, but before treating the area with an insecticide or fungicide, remember that the head of garlic absorbs both nutrients and poisons that you then eat. Isn't it better to try to avoid a situation in which you have to risk either the crop harvest or your own health?
The key to a rich harvest of high-quality garlic is compliance with crop rotation and agrotechnical requirements of the culture: do not plant garlic on the previous bed until 4-5 years have passed; process the storage facility two months before laying the garlic with a solution of 400 g of bleach in 10 liters of water and take seriously the presowing treatment of cloves and bulbs. The health of the seed, in addition to the methods of processing already described by us, can be provided by heating the cloves at a temperature of 40-42 ºC for 10 hours.
The harvest of garlic is carried out from mid-August to the end of the first decade of September, and the winter harvest is carried out at the end of July or early August.
So that you are not mistaken with the timing, here are the signs that will tell you that the garlic is ready for harvest:
If you are late in harvesting, the garlic will grow again, the head will disintegrate into cloves, and such garlic will become unsuitable for long-term storage. The garlic is dug up with a pitchfork or pulled out of the ground, leaving it to dry at the edge of the furrow. Then they shake off the earth and dry the heads in air at a temperature of about 25 ºC for ten days or a week in a ventilated room at a temperature of 30-35 ºC, after which the roots and leaves are cut off, leaving a neck about 5 cm long in non-shooting varieties and about 2 see the shooters.
The optimum storage temperature for spring garlic is 16-20 ºC, and for winter garlic - 2-4 ºC. Winter garlic is capricious of spring and is not suitable for long-term storage, it is more often affected by rot already during storage and dries quickly, therefore, the room where the garlic will be stored should not be too dry or too humid. Optimum humidity for storing garlic is 60-80%. The best keeping quality is possessed by heads with three covering scales and a bottom with a burnt fire.
Everyone knows the way to weave garlic into braids or wreaths. To do this, the false stem at the head is not cut off, but only the leaves are removed, after which they begin to weave the braid from below, gradually adding new heads, and to give the braid strength, twine is added to the weaving. A loop is made at the end of the braid so that you can store it hanging. You can not bother weaving braids, but simply tie the heads for the false stems with a bundle. You can store such braids or bundles under the very ceiling or under the roof of dry sheds or attics.
A popular way to store garlic is to hang it in nylon stockings or nets. You can also store garlic in wicker baskets by placing them in a living room, but not heated in winter - in the attic or veranda. Garlic is stored in sterilized glass jars, sometimes sprinkled with salt, and sometimes not. Garlic sprinkled with salt can also be stored in small wooden boxes. Some housewives rinse the heads of garlic in brine, let them dry and put them in linen bags for storage, which are hung from the ceiling.
Do not forget to sort out the stored garlic from time to time in order to identify a rotten or drying head in time.
Outdoor garlic varieties are divided into three groups:
Winter varieties are distinguished by early ripening, a bountiful harvest with larger heads and chives, but winter garlic is stored unimportantly, therefore it is better to use it for cooking and as a seasoning for canning and pickling vegetables.
Main winter varieties:
In addition to those listed, the varieties Parus, Prometheus, Sofievsky, Spas, Kharkovsky violet, Lyubasha, Donetsky violet, Promin, Leader, Saki and others are popular in culture.
Spring varieties are characterized by a higher keeping quality than winter varieties, however, they require certain storage conditions, otherwise they may be affected by rot. The growing season for spring garlic is about three months.
The most common varieties of spring garlic:
Of the varieties of foreign selection are of interest:
Sections: Garden plants Amaryllis Plants per H Onions Bulbous vegetables Stem
Even a novice gardener can handle the cultivation of this crop. However, without knowing the basic agrotechnical rules and crop rotation, it is unlikely that he will have a good harvest. Let's analyze the different points in planting and caring for a crop.
Shallots are cold-resistant crops that tolerate temperature extremes. Therefore, it can already be planted as soon as the snow melts. In the southern regions of the country - this may be the end of February, in more northern regions - the end of April. There is another advantage of early landing. It is this fact of planting later, namely in the second half of May, that does not allow the onion fly to lay its larvae in the neck of the root crop.
If you want to plant a vegetable for food and planting next season, plant it separately from the green and summer food. The fact is, if you want to get a good harvest of a large vegetable, then do not cut off its feathers for eating. They are necessary for the nutrition and growth of the future crop. For greenery, plant it must be planted separately.
A rich harvest largely depends on who grew up in this place before him last season. In this case, the vegetable will receive enough nutrients, it will be less sick and will not be overcome by pests. Onions will grow well after any legumes: peas, beans, beans. Good predecessors are cabbage, tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin.
But crops such as beets, sunflowers, carrots, garlic and corn will not have a very good impact. But the neighborhood with carrots, on the contrary, will be useful for the root crop. So the carrot fly will scare off the onion fly, and vice versa, the onion fly will scare off the carrot. Strawberries, radishes and lettuce will have a good neighborhood. Spinach and broccoli are best avoided as they will negatively affect the growth of shallots.
The culture loves light, fertile soil in an open, sunny area. Dislikes very wet soil and close-lying groundwater. If the soil in the area is rather damp, make high beds so that excess moisture goes into the furrows. Sour soil must first be deoxidized.
Since autumn, the garden bed for future planting is fertilized with rotted manure, humus, compost - up to 4-5 kg per 1 c. m., after which the earth is dug onto the bayonet of the shovel. If fertilizers have not been applied since autumn, then before digging, humus, ash, superphosphate are added to the ground and dug up.
2 weeks before the intended planting, the planting material must be sorted out. For planting, medium-sized root crops are selected. If you plant a large onion, then many small ones will grow out of it, up to 7-8 pieces in the nest, since they will all lack food. Having planted small or medium-sized, 3-4 pieces will grow, but they will grow large.
Why is this happening? If you cut a large onion across, then on the cut you can see up to 4-5 primordia on it. If you do the same on a small one, then you can see the rudiments of two there, that is, two will grow out of this, but large ones.
The cut shows that the larger the onion, the more rudiments of future bulbs it has.
Having selected the material for planting, it needs to be warmed up. To do this, it is placed near a battery or stove. You can calcine the planting material in the oven with the door open at a temperature of 40º for 1 hour, or fill it with water of the same temperature and leave until the water cools completely. This is done for the following reason. Each bulb contains a generative bud, from which an arrow subsequently emerges. It develops at temperatures from +3 to + 18 ° C. Even if the onion was stored incorrectly, and a generative bud has already been laid in it, then when it warms up, it dies off, and then the root crop will not release the arrow.
3-4 hours before planting, even at night, the planting material is etched by soaking in a pink solution of manganese. This will kill fungal spores and bacteria on the surface of the husk. You can etch it in Maxim's solution by soaking it for 1-1.5 hours, then dry it and warm it up.
Immediately before planting in the ground, the neck of the bulb is cut to the shoulders, thereby facilitating the fastest germination of feathers. And some experienced gardeners cut the bottom slightly so that the roots grow back faster.
Having prepared the garden bed and the planting material itself, you can now plant the vegetable in the ground. It is planted in rows, the distance between rows is 10-15 cm. In each row, we stick it upside down at a distance of 15 cm from each other. You do not need to plant it very close, the root system needs a distance in order to absorb nutrients from the ground in sufficient quantities. So they plant if you want to get a large vegetable for food and a medium size for planting.
The onion itself is stuck into the ground up to its shoulders. You can cover it slightly with earth, later, as it grows, the root crop will rise itself from the ground.
[message] There are bulbs undivided to the end (as in the photo). When planting, you will separate them and plant them separately. Each of them will then grow into a full-fledged nest with several root crops. If planted without dividing them, the dough will be very new, and they will grow very small. [/ Message]
For greens, onions are planted much more often, even at a distance of 2-3 cm. Subsequently, they are pulled out for food, but not in a row, but after one or two.
Chard is a cold-resistant plant, therefore, seeds can be sown in open ground as early as April. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 5 °, the first shoots will appear within 15 days.
Interesting! The higher the temperature, the faster the seeds will germinate.
You can improve the germination of seed by soaking it in warm water for a day. During this time, the seeds will hatch, and then they can be sown.
Important! Dense planting leads to improper foliage development and the appearance of fungal diseases.
Seedlings are resistant to short-term frosts down to -3 ° С. With a prolonged decrease in temperature, the culture slows down growth. Instead of growing leaves, chard releases a flowering arrow and quickly sets seeds. This leads to a significant decrease in yield.
Advice! If a cold snap is expected, it is better to cover the bed with agrofibre at night, sometimes it is not removed even during the day.
With early sowing of seeds, germination can be accelerated:
Interesting! Chard gives a high yield, so for a family of 3-4 people it is enough to plant 5-7 plants. With proper planting and care, the collected leaves and stalks are enough for fresh consumption and freezing for the winter.
Watch the video! Growing chard outdoors
You can sow Swiss chard seeds before winter, especially in regions with short winters with light frosts.
Seeds sprout early, so it is better to cover the seedlings when it gets cold.
Important! Frequent winter thaws negatively affect seed germination.
Perennial propagates most easily by cuttings and dividing the bush.
In early spring, young shoots with a heel are cut off from the bush. Their length should be about 15 cm. Leaves are removed from the lower part of the cuttings and the shoot is soaked in a solution of one of the preparations for rooting. After that, they are planted in a container filled with light, moist soil. From above, the shoot is covered with a plastic bag, jar or other transparent cap. After a few weeks, the shelter is removed. Caring for cuttings consists in timely moistening of the soil and daily airing, for which the cap must be removed for a few minutes. Rooted shoots are planted in open ground next spring, when the weather is warm.
This type of reproduction can be combined with the transplant of the dicenter. It is carried out in April - early May or September, when the plant has faded. The roots of the perennial are fragile, so the bush is dug out carefully. It is recommended to dry the root system before dividing. When the roots are dry, they are cut into pieces with a sharp knife or secateurs. Each cut should have 3-4 buds and a length of at least 10 cm. Root cuts are treated with ash, and the cuttings are planted in holes 2-3 pieces to make the bush thicker. After planting, the plant must be watered abundantly.
Alyssum is not yet as popular with domestic gardeners as many other decorative and flowering crops, and in vain. This ground cover plant is able to revive any corner of the garden where the sun's rays fall. Alyssum is recommended for use in group plantings, rock gardens, rabatki, curbs and carpet plantings. It can be grown not only in the open field: the flower looks spectacular in balcony boxes, hanging pots and baskets in the form of an ampelous plant, as well as in compositions with other crops that need similar growing conditions. In response to minimal care and attention, alyssum will bloom with a colorful carpet from the beginning of summer until the very frost.
The blooming "rug" belongs to the Cabbage family and has about 170 species, most of which grow in Europe, Asia and North America. It is also called "burachok", but in cultural floriculture, a more euphonious name "alissum" is used. The history of the origin of this name is interesting: it consists of two parts, which are translated from Latin as "no" and "canine rabies". According to the assumption of modern biologists, in ancient times, the plant was used against this dangerous disease.
Burachok refers to ground cover plants - its height varies from 5-15 to 20-40 cm. These are one- or perennials with strongly branching semi-lignified shoots at the base. Their small obovate or oblong leaves are covered with light pubescence, which gives the leaf plates a grayish tint. Blooming flowers have 4 petals and are collected in a brush. The color of the inflorescences pleases with its diversity: you can find varieties with white, pink, lilac, yellow, red and purple petals. Alyssum belongs to honey plants - it attracts bees with its spicy honey aroma. Under optimal conditions, flowering begins in May-June and continues until late autumn.
Gardeners and even agricultural firms often confuse alissum (beetroot) and lobularia (lawn). These two plants belong to the same family and are so similar to each other that only a specialist can distinguish them. However, growing and caring for them is the same, so, following the proposed recommendations, it is easy to grow both plants on your site.
The most common in horticultural culture are several varieties of alyssum:
Among the varieties offered by flower shops, the most popular are:
With proper placement, any variety will become the highlight of the garden and create a bright, cheerful landscape.
Application in landscape design
Alyssum cultivation is practiced in two ways: direct sowing in open ground and sowing seeds for seedlings. The first method has one drawback - the flowering of young plants begins much later than that of the planted seedlings, and in some perennial varieties, only in the second year. In the first case, at the end of May, the seeds are sown immediately on the garden bed to a depth of 1.5 cm, and then the shoots that appear in a continuous carpet are thinned out, leaving a distance of 20 cm between them.
Alyssum seeds can be sown before winter - in November. During their stay in the cold soil, they will undergo natural stratification, and in the spring they will sprout with friendly strong shoots that are resistant to adverse natural conditions and diseases.
Experienced summer residents prefer to grow seedlings from seeds, using light nutritious soil for sowing:
The first shoots will hatch within a week after sowing. Then you need to remove the glass, water it carefully as the soil dries out, so as not to break the fragile shoots with a stream. After the appearance of the first true leaf, the seedlings can be fed with a complex mineral composition, and after the formation of 3-4 true leaves, they can be dived into separate pots, for example, peat pots.
Before planting in open ground, you need to choose a suitable place for the alissum. It is not difficult to do this - the beetroot is undemanding to the growing conditions, is not afraid of rocky soils, drafts and the proximity of other crops. When choosing a landing site, you should give preference to open areas, generously illuminated by the sun's rays. This can be a flower garden on the south side of the house, an alpine slide, a retaining wall, or empty spaces between stone slabs and boulders. The abundance of light will allow the plants to accumulate strength for a successful wintering. Only in regions with mild winters is it allowed to plant alyssum in light shade.
Burachka can be grown at home by planting it in a wide flowerpot and combining it with other indoor crops. It looks good in compositions with plants that bloom purple, pink or blue buds. In horticultural culture, this ground cover plant will create a spectacular combination with Turkish carnations, heliotropes, forest forget-me-nots, phlox, pelargonium, bearded dwarf irises, tulips or roses.
The composition of the soil does not play a special role, but it should not be heavy and moist. The best option would be a light, well-drained, fertile soil with a neutral, slightly acidic or slightly alkaline pH value - under such growing conditions, you can expect a bright, abundant and long-lasting flowering.
It is necessary to plant alissum on a flower bed in late spring, when the threat of return frosts has passed. Usually this time falls on the end of April or May:
As you can see, planting alyssum does not take much time, and caring for the flower is quite simple.
All a flowering plant needs is watering, feeding and pruning:
Experienced flower growers advise to rejuvenate alyssum every 3 years, as with age it becomes less attractive, blooms weaker and loses its resistance to diseases.
Alyssum does not require special conditions and is perfect for growing in the temperate climate of our country. Cheerful plants can be placed in any empty space, combined with other crops or create a bright "carpet" by planting varieties with different colors of petals.