Pellea (Pellaea) occupies an important place among the fern crops of the Synopteris family. There are up to 80 different species in the genus. Under natural conditions, pellei is easily found in temperate and tropical latitudes on all continents. A particularly large concentration of wild fern is found in New Zealand.

The growing zone of the species is concentrated in coastal areas. The pellet is resistant to dry weather. However, if the drought is severely prolonged, the stems are exposed. When moisture appears, the plant is restored and regains its former splendor and curliness. For cultural representatives of pellets, it is necessary to create the most comfortable microclimate, then they will delight the owners with bright attractive greenery and decorate the room with their presence.

The height of an adult pellet bush grown at home in pots is barely 25 cm. The leaf plates are capable of stretching up to 30 cm in length. The width of the leaf is up to 1.3 cm. Vegetation continues throughout the year. The peak phase of the activation of life processes falls in the middle of spring or summer.

Caring for pellei at home

Location and lighting

Fern leaves prefer good lighting. Lack of diffused light causes fading and death of leaves. The development of young shoots slows down. If little daylight enters the room, fluorescent lamps are placed next to the flowerpot.


In the summer, when the fern bushes grow in size and grow green, try to keep the temperature in the room at 23 ° C. With the arrival of the first cold weather, the flowerpot is transferred to the veranda or glazed loggia, where the air temperature is about 16 ° C. Here the fern will be able to rest for a while and get stronger.

Watering mode

The soil in the pot is moistened moderately, but do not skip watering sessions, while making sure that the water does not accumulate at the bottom. With an excess of liquid in the root system, rot begins to develop. During the period of active life of the plant, from March to August, water is applied regularly. When the top layer of soil is covered with a dry crust, you can safely proceed to the next watering. The pellet is watered 3 times a week in spring and summer.

Air humidity

Frequent spraying gives the foliage freshness. After the heating season comes, the air in the apartments dries up sharply. During this time period, greens need to be doused with warm water.

Growing soil

The soil mixture is collected from sand, peat and leafy soil in equal proportions. A drainage layer of pebbles or other materials, which is poured into the bottom of the container, will help to avoid stagnant moisture inside the pot.

When the necessary components are not at hand, the ready-made substrate is purchased in a store or on the market. Producers specially produce soil for fern crops. It is advisable to add a small amount of charcoal to it. Then the substrate will become much lighter and air permeable.

Top dressing

The crop is fed only in the first half of the year, while there is an increased growth of foliage. In winter, it is recommended to refrain from fertilizers. Mineral complexes are used as a fertilizing mixture, which are added to the soil every two weeks.


When transplanting pellets, a spacious flowerpot is selected so that the difference with the previous pot in width and height is at least 2 cm. The fern is transplanted by the transshipment method, keeping the old earthen lump on the roots. As a rule, pellea experiences such events painfully and takes a long time to acclimatize. Finish planting in a new flowerpot by filling the voids with fresh earthen mixture.

Fern should be subjected to such stress as a last resort, if, for example, the root shoots no longer fit in the container. After 2-3 years, new soil is poured, and the old substrate is shaken out by half. The bush taken out of the ground is carefully examined from all sides and divided into divisions. Then they are planted in suitable flowerpots.


Pelleia needs foliage pruning to maintain its shape. Dried or old shoots, leaves are removed from the bushes.

Pelleys breeding methods

Dividing the bush

This method is only suitable for healthy large specimens with a highly overgrown underground part. The mother bush is separated into several shoots. Developed roots are left on the parcels and planted in different containers filled with soil intended for ferns. The plant will take root in a new place faster if the flowerpots are wrapped in polyethylene or put a plastic cone from a cut bottle over the cuttings. To activate the rooting process, the seedlings are stored in a warm and ventilated room at a temperature of about 23 ° C.

Breeding from spores

On the back of the wai there are spores that are used for reproduction and are the main reproductive organ. Spores are spread on the surface of the soil and covered with glass or film. Crops are opened daily so that condensation does not collect on the surface, and they are sprayed from a spray bottle. Containers are kept in a dark place for early spore germination. Subject to the above conditions, the seedlings show their heads 1.5-2 months after planting.

When the seedlings turn green above the ground, the containers are returned to the lighted room. Otherwise, young plants will tend to the light source and grow too long in length. After the formation of a pair of strong leaves, they prepare for a pick, which is carried out into low compact pots.

Diseases and pests

Scales, thrips, aphids and nematodes cause special damage among insects to the vegetative parts of the pellea. For the destruction of pests, spraying with insecticides recommended by manufacturers is used. In order not to resort to chemical therapy and to prevent insect attacks, the foliage is constantly moistened with settled water.

Signs of nematode damage to shoots are expressed in yellowing and drying of leaf plates and stems. The reason for this phenomenon lies in improper watering, if cold water with a high chlorine content is used instead of soft, settled water.

Lack of fresh air, when the room is rarely ventilated, leads to a violation of the structure of the leaves. They twist and fade.

Types of pellets with photos

Round-leaved pellet (Pellaea rotundifolia)

The most simple and unassuming cultural type, which does not require special skills and quickly adapts to apartment conditions. The leaves are pinnate, small notches are visible along the edges. The outer side of the plate is painted in dark green shades, and the lower part is one tone lighter.

Green pellet (Pellaea viridis)

The plant is characterized by a creeping root system and a brown color of leaves and shoots. Lush fronds have a rounded shape and are slightly elongated. Green pellea bushes stand out from other species in large size.

Pellea spear (Pellaea hastata)

Fern shoots develop horizontally. The fronds are triangular in shape. Their length does not exceed 0.6 m.

Pellea nude (Pellaea glabella)

It belongs to the North American species and lengthens by no more than 0.35 m. The fronds look attractive. The graceful cinnamon-colored leaves of a feathery structure have bare petioles, which are evenly distributed along the stem. Naked pellets are often planted in alpine slides as a gardener or kept in pots as an indoor gardener. The culture is frost resistant. Vases are recommended to be placed closer to the light.

Pelleia dark purple (Pellaea atropurpurea)

The length of the reddish-brown leaves is about 0.5 m. The petioles are purple, the shoots are pubescent with a layer of delicate nap. Thanks to its rich color, the fern will perfectly complement any interior. Florists recommend cultivating it in a room located on the north side of the building, or planting it in a garden.

Ovate pellea (Pellaea ovata)

In this type of pellea, the ground part is represented by heart-shaped olive-colored leaves. The height of the bush is 0.4 cm. The plant tolerates heat normally and prefers bright diffused lighting. Pellea ovoid has not yet become widespread in comparison with other forms, but it also deserves attention.

Indoor fern: features of care and cultivation

Fern (Polypodiophyta) is one of the oldest representatives of the plant kingdom, growing on our planet millions of years ago. In total, there are more than 10 thousand species of ferns belonging to 300 genera and united by one department. Plants are resistant to different weather conditions, but not so many varieties are suitable for breeding at home - polypodium and pellea, nephrolepis fern, platycerium and maidenhair, some others.

Ferns in the garden, planting, care, useful tips

The association with the word "fern" is always ambiguous.

Someone has something secret and mysterious in their thoughts, someone associates this beautiful plant with lush green foliage, while others immediately imagine a finished rock garden composition.

The fern is indeed a wonderful addition to garden compositions. It can be adapted even in the most difficult, at first glance, conditions. This can be done with proper care and choosing the type of frond plant.

The fern has been growing on the earth since the days when dinosaurs still inhabited it. From that period to the present day, many species of this herbaceous plant have survived.

According to researchers, this figure is more than 10,000. Despite the wide variety of images of this plant, it has one feature: the fern never blooms. Whole legends are made up about him, but no one has documented the fact of flowering.

Even considering the fact that the fern does not have a flowering part, they love to use it in landscape design. Here are some of the popular types of this plant:

  • Fern Adiantum - the most suitable for the climatic zones of Russia is the fern Adiantum Stop and Venus hair. The first subspecies takes root especially well in the Far East, in the forests of the Amur Region and Primorye. As for the Venus hair, it feels favorably in the Crimea and the Caucasus near mountain rivers and water bodies. Hair veneer is considered one of the common types that grows well on the territory of a private farm, as well as in natural conditions. It is distinguished by its delicate dissected leaves, which grow on petioles, similar to a thin wire. Leaves grow like bunches from a powerful root stem. Its height does not exceed 0.5-0.7 m. On the bottom of the leaves there are spore sacs, they look like dark spots. The adiantum, by its nature, does not like windy areas. The plant develops full life in shaded areas where there is enough moisture. One has only to allocate the right place for him and he will delight with his appearance for several decades. If very hot days come, then the fern needs to be watered. Watering is arranged in a special way - sprinkling. The soil should be slightly acidic and fertilized with organic fertilizers such as humus or compost. A drainage layer is put into the base.With proper care, the fern turns into a luxurious spherical shrub literally in a few years. Landscape designers recommend planting it in rockeries, along water bodies, in garden compositions along with a navel or sedum. Some gardeners like to decorate the garden with ferns of this kind directly in pots, without planting in the ground.

  • Fern Dwarf male - has a wide variety of subspecies, among which there is: Austrian Shield. A favorite growing place on loamy moist soils. It has triangular leaves with a span of up to 1 m. Color: light green. It spreads on the ground with a carpet, for which it is called "Prostrate". Amur Shitovnik - gardeners prefer this plant variety for its high frost resistance. The color is bluish-green, the shape of the leaves resembles feathers. With the onset of frost, the triangular frond die off. The Crested Dwarf is one of the most common species of its group. It can grow on any territory of Russia. Moisture conditions will be more suitable for him. It is good if there is a pond nearby. A perennial plant in mature age reaches no more than 0.5 m. It has a short but thickened rhizome, covered with scales on top. The color of the leaves is close to dark green. On the back of them are black spores in a row. The leaves have an elongated shape. They are attached to erect petioles.In addition to the above listed species, the Fragrant Shieldworm is suitable for garden flower beds, which has a pleasant aroma and a miniature size, a decorative view of the Falsery Shieldworm, Sikhotin Shieldworm.
  • Fern Eagle - is an unusually useful plant. It will always come in handy in the household. Many owners of household plots prefer this particular fern. It has an attractive aroma due to its high tannins content. Due to this property, fern leaves are used for storing garden crops. Vegetables, fruits and berries are spread on the leaves of the bracken, then the crops are covered with them. The shape of the branches of the bracken fern is lush and spreading. Leaves are hard, triple-pinned. In height, it is no more than 0.5 - 0.6 m. The root is branched, horizontal. The plant is naturally unpretentious and can grow even in the most depleted areas. Below, if you look closely at the lower pairs of leaves, you can see a nectary. It attracts ants. Spores are located on the bottom of the sheet, for additional protection, its edges are curled
  • Fern ostrich - This species is characterized by upright erect leaves. They are quite dense and can reach a height of 2 m. Leaves grow in rows in a circle. In the center there are smaller ones - spore-bearing. Dark spore points are attached to their back. The root system is underground, rapidly developing. Fern Ostrich is of several types: Eastern and Common. The common Ostrich is not afraid of frost, which cannot be said about the East. The fragile plant does not tolerate winds and needs constant moisture. The shape of the fern resembles a bouquet of ostrich feathers, hence its name. Gardeners often grow this species for its decorative effect. Leaves look great in floral arrangements
  • Kochedyzhnik - there are several types: Female, Chinese, Nippon, Burgundy Leys. All ferns from this subspecies are shade-loving and can grow up to 10-15 years in one place. The soil must be well-groomed and fertilized in advance. Kochedzhnik is not afraid of frost. Female Kochedzhnik has green shoots. They are very delicate to the touch and have a feathery complex shape. Petioles grow up to 1 m in length. The root of the plant is short and thickened. The Chinese Kochedzhnik, like the female, reaches a height of 1 m, but the color of its leaves has an unusual reddish tint. The Nippon plant also has an exotic purple color. Burgundy Leys is shade-loving. The darker its habitat, the richer the wine color of the leaves. It is characterized not only by the reddish color of the foliage, but also by the burgundy color of the petiole.

A garden fern can be selected for any area, both for a darkened area and for an area saturated with sunlight. The same goes for the type of soil. Each gardener is able to choose the one suitable for himself from the many species: emitting aroma, edible, decorative or even medicinal.

Before planting a fern, you need to know some rules for the care and maintenance of this perennial. If you want to get a ready-made plant, then you can dig it up in the forest.So you will be sure that it will take root, as it is grown in home latitudes. But there are other methods available for growing.

As for the place where the fern was planted, then it should be planted in wide holes, no more than 0.5 m. Part of the land that needs to be brought into the hole should be from the place where you took the process from.

You need to transplant the fern right away so that the roots do not have time to dry out. Otherwise, it will not be possible to revive the plant. The same should be taken into account in the leaves. The stems should not be withered.

Do not separate the soil from the roots, it will be better if you dig up the fern in such a way that a lump of earth remains on the rhizome.

Ferns in the garden cultivation

A fern in a home garden can be grown in several ways: by separating a fragment from the rhizome of a tall fern, by budding and by growing from spores.

  • Separation of roots the fern is carried out as follows. In the garden, in the forest or in the area where the fern grows, you find a healthy individual. An adult bush should not have dried or damaged leaves. Divide the rosettes at the root, transplant the separated part to a specific area in the garden within 24 hours. Try to keep the clods of forest land to the maximum so that the plant takes root better. Cover the fern root with moss to transport it home. This will keep moisture in the roots and plant in a shaded area. Place drainage and a small amount of fertilizer on the bottom. Ferns can take root in poor soils. But watering should be abundant at least the first time after transplanting (7 days)
  • Budding ferns are held in the fall or late summer. Find a suitable bush around the end of August. Bend the developed leaves to the ground. Sprinkle this place with soil about 1-1.5 cm. Do not cover the main vein, leave it open. With the arrival of spring, several new shoots will grow in the place of the buried shoot. They will need to be separated from the twig and transplanted into the garden.

  • Fern seeds are collected in several ways. Option one: break off the spore sheet on the back. Place it in a paper bag or on a lighted windowsill until the shoot is completely dry. As soon as the leaves are dry, you can collect the spores and plant them in a bowl. The second option is to take a knife, turn over a leaf of a living plant and scrape the spore-bearing bags into a box, a sheet of newspaper or some kind of container. Next, dry the seeds and plant them in a container filled with earth (part of the forest land and part of the universal or garden soil). Seeds are sown on top of the soil and watered from a spray tank. Rainwater irrigation will awaken spore growth. Next, insemination will occur, and only then small shoots will begin to appear. This usually occurs 25 days after spore planting. By the spring, in the prepared hole, the fern is transplanted to a permanent place of growth.

Planting ferns in the garden

  • Planting the plant should be done in the spring. For planting a fern in a gardening area, a shaded place is selected. As an exception, plants can also be planted in a sunny area, only this should be done with such species as Female Cochinate and Male Shitovnik. After transplanting, for these fern groups, it will be necessary to provide timely abundant watering so that the plant develops comfortably
  • The depth of the hole should be no less than the clod of earth with which you are replanting the plant. Add a drainage layer and some amount of fertilizer for an accelerated set of phytomass
  • As fertilizer for transplanting, you can use three equal parts of compost, sand and peat (humus). Further, the use of a universal fertilizer for garden plants is allowed. Top dressing should be done once a month from May to July. Possible more often, but no more than once every three weeks
  • Fern soil should be moist. Especially this fact must be taken into account the first week after transplanting a forest plant. Make sure that the plant does not "float". An excess is detrimental to the developing root system. Also try to keep the soil hydrated as it grows.
  • The listed fern species tolerate frost and cold well. But Kochedyzhnik requires additional care. It needs to be covered for the winter. It is allowed to use fallen leaves, peat, spruce branches.

Why does the fern dry in the garden

Despite the fact that the fern is a perennial plant, any disease can lead to its wilting, and, as a result, its death.

One of the most common cases of fern extinction is the gradual drying of the plant. This can happen for the following reasons:

  • Incorrect plant maintenance. Fern loves shade, only some varieties are capable of receiving sunlight. Perhaps it is this fact that affects the drying of the stems. You can fix this by transplanting the plant. Insufficient moisture supply can also affect leaf drying. It is recommended to prepare a drainage layer before planting.
  • Improper watering. In the first week after planting in the garden, the fern should be watered abundantly. If you fill it with water, the leaves may turn yellow. If the fern grows in a shaded garden area, but the air is very dry, then it should also be additionally watered. For irrigation, you need to use water without chlorine and lime
  • Pests. Fern scale, fern aphid can harm the plant. At first, the leaves dry out, then fall off. In order to avoid the death of the plant, you need to periodically inspect the fern leaves and, if pests are found, treat them with soapy water (laundry soap mixed with water). The mealybug also kills the plant. If found, soak a swab in an alcohol solution and wipe the parasite off the sheet. In advanced cases, treat the plant with karbofos. Leaf nematodes affect the plant no less than the above insects. At first, the leaves turn red, then dry out. Use heterophos emulsion to prevent fern death.

Take a time to periodically inspect all the plants in your area. This can extend their lifespan and the splendor of your garden. Observing these simple tips along with the rules for planting and reproduction, you will admire the forest plant on your site for more than a dozen years.

Indoor fern - growing at home

One of the oldest plants on Earth inhabited our planet millions of years ago, long before the advent of dinosaurs. Ferns survived meteorite falls, land ice and flooding.

Amazing vitality, ancient origin gave rise to many legends and beliefs associated with the plant.

The Slavic custom is still alive on the summer holiday of Ivan Kupala to go into the forest in search of a blooming fern, which supposedly indicates the location of treasures buried in ancient times. In fact, flowers never form on a plant.

Currently, the fern, a popular and unpretentious houseplant, enlivens the room with its lush openwork greenery. Some varieties (ostrich) are successfully grown in a shady garden.


Fern (Polypodiophyta) is an extensive division of vascular plants, including about 300 genera and about ten thousand species of spore plants.

The homeland of the fern, a modern houseplant, is considered the tropical and subtropical belt of the planet, although there are species that prefer a cool, temperate climate.

Plants have good adaptability to various natural conditions, but most species are found in humid forests, parasitizing on tree trunks, settling among stones, along the shores of forest lakes and swamps.

Ferns are herbaceous and tree-like. The plant consists of leaves, root and shoots.

Interesting... In fact, the fern is such an ancient plant that it has not yet managed to form leaf plates. What everyone is used to calling foliage is thin twigs - shoots located in the same plane. They are called "flat" or "vayi".

The fronds perform a double function in plant life - through them photosynthesis is carried out, and plant spores are formed on them. Reproduction also occurs with the help of long shoots that take root in the ground.

The fronds perform a double function in plant life - through them photosynthesis is carried out, and plant spores are formed on them. Reproduction also occurs with the help of long shoots that take root in the ground.

As indoor flowers, several types of fern plants are grown:

  • Nephrolepis is the most common and easy-to-care fern, with spectacular delicate green openwork leaves, up to half a meter long.
  • Davallia (hare paw) is attractive with brown, pubescent rhizomes that hang from a pot.
  • Platizerium forms unusual leaves, resembling antlers sticking out to the sides.
  • Derbyanka looks like a palm tree, its hard fronds reach half a meter in length.

You can admire the luxurious fern bushes in the presented photos.


The main advantage of ferns is their luxurious bright green foliage. In order for it to retain its beauty, the flower requires good diffused lighting.

It would be a mistake to consider that the fern loves the shade, but bright direct sunlight is contraindicated for it. Under the scorching sun, fern fronds quickly burn and dry out.

Plant pots are placed near the western or northern windows, the fern responds well to artificial lighting.

The plant forms large and lush bushes, reaching a meter in diameter. The length of the leaves of the nephrolespis can reach one and a half meters. The flower should be placed in hanging pots, on pedestals or stands.

Important! Fern flowers cannot stand polluted air, they immediately begin to wither. Avoid placing the fern pot in a smoking room or in an area with poor ventilation.

On the one hand, the good condition of the plant serves as an indicator that the air in the room is clean, but on the other hand, the plant should be kept in a well-ventilated area in order to enjoy its healthy appearance.

The soil

The plant requires light and breathable soil. At home, it is prepared from forest sod land, semi-rotted needles, peat and sand. The soil and needles brought from the forest must be disinfected by roasting in the oven or steaming.

At the bottom of the pots, drainage from expanded clay or gravel must be poured. It is better to take containers for ferns that are wide and heavy so that the overgrown crown does not turn the flower over.

Watering a houseplant is carried out regularly, in moderate portions. The soil in the pot should be slightly damp, but without stagnant water. Enough 2 - 3 waterings per week. Water must be taken not cold, settled or rainwater.

Some growers boil water to water flowers, believing that this is how they protect pets from infections. It is not right.

Boiled water is not suitable for watering a fern; it is better to stand for ordinary tap water for a couple of days or run it through an ordinary household filter.

The plant needs high humidity. Fern crown spraying is carried out at least two per week. In winter, a flower pot should not be placed near heating appliances, they dry the air too much. You can correct the situation by overlapping the pot with a plant with wet moss, and place a bowl of water next to it.

The comfortable air temperature for a fern depends on its variety. For example, nephrolespis, platiterium love warmth, they need a temperature of +25 degrees. And polypodium and pellea appreciate the coolness, no higher than +14. In summer, ferns can be taken out into the fresh air, provided they are placed in shaded areas.

For active growth of green mass, ferns need to be fed with mineral compositions with a predominance of potassium and phosphorus. From spring to autumn, top dressing is applied once every 3 weeks.

Important! The concentration of the nutrient solution is prepared twice as weak as for feeding ordinary indoor flowers.

In autumn and winter, the plant is satisfied with a dormant period: the air temperature is somewhat reduced (in thermophilic varieties up to +18 degrees), watering is reduced and feeding is stopped.

In the spring, the plant can be transplanted. Young fern bushes are transplanted annually, increasing the volume of the pot by a couple of cm. An earthy clod with roots must be kept as undisturbed as possible. Adult plants are transplanted, combining this operation with division.

Pests, diseases

The fern is rarely affected by ailments and pests, subject to the rules of care. With excessive moisture, the roots can rot. At the same time, frond plants turn yellow and dry.

You can save the fern by transplanting it into a new loose and disinfected soil, with the removal of all damaged parts of the plant.

Before planting in new soil, it is useful to soak the fern roots in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.

Attention... The brown dots on the underside of the leaves are not a disease, but fern spores.

With insufficient air humidity, spider mites, scale insects, and aphids can parasitize on the bush. The fern is treated with insecticidal preparations (Actellik).

Advice... It is convenient to spray the houseplant by placing the crown in a large plastic bag. So the poisonous drug will only get on the foliage, and will not contaminate anything in the room.


A fern can be propagated by a novice florist. The plant in abundance forms shoots in the form of long green shoots. They can be easily rooted by bending them to the ground and securing them with a hairpin.

When a new rosette begins to start up new fronds, the young plant can be separated from the mother bush by cutting off the shoot - the "umbilical cord" and digging it out of the ground.

Shoot rooting can be carried out immediately in a small separate pot, placing it next to an adult plant.

During the transplantation of a large overgrown fern, the bush is divided. With a sharp disinfected knife, the rhizome is cut into pieces so that 1 - 3 rosettes and a good lobe of roots are preserved on each section.

Some fern species can be grown from adventitious buds that are broken off from an adult plant and rooted in wet peat.

Spore reproduction is a long and laborious process. Flower lovers rarely use it.


The airy and delicate foliage of the fern can serve as an excellent background for beautifully flowering plants: roses, balsamines, jasmine, orchids. In the home garden, with the help of different types of ferns and decorative elements (stones, snags), you can arrange a picturesque landscape of a tropical rainforest.

Planted in the garden, in shady corners, the fern goes well with hosts, badan. It is used as a ground cover, planting under trees.

Low-growing species are placed in rock gardens and rockeries, along paths in parks.

Watch also a video on the topic:

What mistakes do gardeners make when growing tomatoes?

Each owner makes every effort, working in the garden and wanting to achieve a generous harvest. But sometimes our efforts do not bring the expected results, and we, out of habit, blame everything on bad weather, a lean year, etc. Or maybe the reason is not at all in the weather, pests and other reasons of this kind ?! Many summer residents from year to year plant vegetables, fruit trees, berries on the site, but do not get a stable harvest. So why is this happening? Any vegetable, fruit, berry or ornamental crop requires certain growing conditions, but often gardeners do not know fundamentally important nuances. Tomato is rightfully recognized as the most favorite vegetable, and we will talk about it. Find out what mistakes you need to avoid so that the tomatoes bear fruit and not “hurt”.

The first mistake can be considered an ill-considered purchase of tomato seeds. Before purchasing seeds, you need to understand what task you are setting yourself. When you plan to grow tomatoes in large quantities, for example, for sale or for all kinds of winter preparations, if you have a large family, then in this case it is preferable to choose hybrids.They are known to be more resistant to various diseases and climatic fluctuations. And most importantly, they have a much higher yield than varietal crops. If you just want to enjoy delicious homemade tomatoes in the summer season, then choose varietal tomatoes, as they say, a flag in hand. Fortunately, the choice of seeds in stores is great, of which there are no shapes, sizes and taste.

The second mistake is the wrong place for planting the vegetable. The information that is indicated on the packages should not be ignored. If you have purchased heat-loving tomato seeds, they should not be planted outdoors. Greenhouse tomatoes grow worse outdoors, which affects their growth and fruiting. The same with determinant varieties intended for open ground, such seedlings will be uncomfortable in an enclosed space with a high temperature regime. As a result, varieties and hybrids will not be able to realize their potential, and you will not get the harvest volumes that could be given by these vegetable crops planted in the appropriate place.

Another wrong step is the choice of film for summer cottages. If you are used to using arched greenhouses on your site, then you need to find out which material for shelter is better. An inexperienced gardener will probably buy high-density plastic wrap for his greenhouse. It transmits light well and reliably protects from bad weather. However, it is much more efficient to obtain a hydrophilic coated film material, which has a number of advantages. The advantageous difference of this material is that it has a longer service life due to its special composition. The film is less prone to contamination, so the light transmission does not suffer. On an ordinary film inside the greenhouse, harmful condensation accumulates, where bacteria multiply, mold forms, etc. All this has a negative effect on plants. The hydrophilic film is unique in this regard, since condensation drops do not collect, but gently roll down the surface.

The next nuance is related to temperature conditions and lighting. Many believe that the seedlings require constant lighting and high ambient temperatures. Allegedly, a lot of light and heat will have a beneficial effect on the planting material. This is not entirely true. For tomato seedlings, 15 hours of illumination is enough, while the night temperature can fluctuate between 10-14 ° C. The fact is that at higher temperatures, the process of photosynthesis and plant growth is significantly reduced. Some cold tolerant tomato varieties require even lower temperatures for better growth. And if in sunny weather the daytime temperature reaches above 27 ° C, then the tomatoes should be protected from the sun's rays.

The fifth point of gardeners' oversights is the method of planting seedlings in a permanent place. Gardening shop sellers sometimes offer tomato seedlings already with inflorescences, reassuring ignorant buyers that they will be lucky with an early harvest. These are false assurances, since when planting overripe seedlings, all inflorescences will need to be removed. Moreover, it will take time for the root system to grow, so that the plant in a new place will get stronger and start growing again. You won't get a quick harvest. Another important point is watering. Before planting, you need to generously water the seedlings. If you do this in advance (a day or two), the stems will become sugar and fragile, which means they can break during planting. Watering takes place like this: pour water abundantly into the prepared hole, let the soil soak well, after which tomatoes are planted in this resulting mud. So they take root better. Watering from above is not recommended, since a crust often forms, this is important if the soil on the site is solid. Plants may die as a result.

Another gardener's mistake is the daily watering of tomatoes. For example, some believe that tomatoes should be watered every day like cucumbers. However, they do not need frequent watering, but plentiful, about once a week or even one and a half. It is advisable to water gently, without getting on the leaves. If vegetables grow in a greenhouse, then with daily watering, the humidity rises, and various parasites, including fungus, feel great in such an environment.

Due to the constant workload, summer residents often miss the moment when it is necessary to carry out certain manipulations with plants. In the case of tomatoes, we are talking about the pinching procedure. It is necessary to remove excess lateral shoots when the stem grows 3 - 4 cm, not more. Some experts recommend leaving the stumps to prevent new growth from growing. But, in truth, such hemp should not be left. The bottom line is that pathogenic microorganisms appear in these places, which are very difficult to get rid of later. Pluck shoots should be at the very base.

Also, errors occur during the formation of plants. First of all, you need to take into account the characteristics of a particular variety. As you know, undersized tomatoes require the formation of 2-3 stems and the removal of all unnecessary ones. Tall varieties, as a rule, are advised to grow in one stem, cutting off stepchildren from all sinuses. Some compassionate vegetable growers feel sorry for pinching the tops and removing strong shoots. And subsequently they have a large spreading bush, which lacks fruit. Therefore, this problem needs to be given a little more attention.

Like any plant, tomatoes require feeding. Often, gardeners ignore this problem, especially if the land was fertilized with manure in advance, then there are enough nutrients. Unfortunately no. The lack of magnesium can be seen on the leaves, when yellowness appears on them between the veins, the plant begins to wither. This is a reason to think about it, since it is important for tomatoes to get this mineral on time. The problem is solved by foliar feeding with magnesium sulfate, which should not be a big deal for any summer resident.

Also worth mentioning is prevention, which cannot be avoided. Plants must be protected from all kinds of pests and diseases. You should not wait for the onset of symptoms, as you can miss the first signs, losing the opportunity to save the plant. The first treatment must be carried out in the seedling period before flowering, this primarily applies to greenhouse varieties. For the first visit, spraying with biological products is suitable, and subsequently fungicidal preparations can be used.


The most unpretentious plants

If you do not plant flowers in the house, because you do not have the time or experience to care for them, choose unpretentious plants to your taste, believe me - there are more than enough of them.

The heart-shaped philodendron is a robust ornamental plant that has long been the most popular in indoor gardening. It has heart-shaped leaves and adapts well to low light. Philodendron weaves very nicely around the edges of bookshelves or other furniture. Pros: Tied to a moss tube or root plate, the philodendron takes on the shape of a green tower. Name: Philodendron hederaceum oxycardium Growing conditions: Low or bright lighting temperature 15-26 C Let the soil dry out between waterings. Size: 2-3 m of the length of the creeping or tied plant

Important: All parts of this plant are highly poisonous and can irritate the lips, tongue or throat if the leaves are chewed by children or animals.

This unpretentious flower does not require much maintenance. It is ideal for beginner gardeners who have only dealt with artificial plastic plants. All varieties of mother-in-law's tongue tolerate a lack of light well, but still prefer bright lighting. Do not water this plant too much, or root rot may develop. Pros: The plant is very unpretentious and has beautiful, xiphoid leaves. Name: Sansevieria trifasciata "Laurentia" Growing conditions: Low or bright lighting temperature 15-26 C Let the soil dry out between waterings. Size: up to 1.2 m in length and width

Important: May cause irritation to sensitive skin.

Don't confuse it with a similarly named vegetable. This beautiful plant has bright, straight leaves that seem to stretch out into a palm tree. Plant several corn palms in one large container for an eye-catching interior design. Pros: Colorful leaves with yellow-green stripes on a straight trunk. Name: Dracaena fragrans "Massangeana" Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 12-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings Size: Up to 3 m in height and 0.9 m in width.

In most cases, English ivy is known as a creeping plant. For a decorative effect, place the ivy pot on the edge of the fireplace or on a bookshelf with the stems hanging down. Try pruning the plant to shape it. English ivy reproduces very easily: it is enough to cut off a 10-centimeter piece of the stem, tear off the leaves from below and plant in moist soil. If you remember to water the seedling, it will take root in a few weeks. Little tip: The plant is often damaged by a red mite. To scare him off, periodically rinse the ivy in the shower or in the bathroom at room temperature. Pros: It is a hardy climbing plant with dark green variegated leaves. Name: Hedera helix Growing conditions: Medium or bright lighting, temperature 12-23 C, uniform watering. Size: 1.8 m of the length of a creeping or tied plant

Important: All parts of English ivy are poisonous, so make sure children and animals do not chew it.

Peperomia is a group of different types of small houseplants with waxy leaves. Peperomia with red edges has broad creamy leaves. Well known are wavy peperomia, watermelon peperomia, navel peperomia, and silver leaf peperomia. Pros: The waxy, colorful peperomia leaves fill the room with color, and the plant itself doesn't take up much space. Name: Peperomia spp. Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 15-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings Size: Up to 30 cm in height and width.

Important: The plant is toxic to dogs and cats.

This plant, like its name, is very impressive. It has bunches of long, narrow, dark green leaves and woody gray stems red at the edges. The Tricolor variety is distinguished by its pinkish-creamy edges on the leaves, which is why it is also called a rainbow plant. Pros: Herbaceous leaves on tall stems give the dracaena a festive look. Title: Dracaena marginata. Growing conditions: Medium to bright lighting, temperature 18-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings Size: Up to 3 m long and 0.6 m wide.

Important: The plant is poisonous to dogs.

The old-fashioned classic plant gets its second name from the sticky, milky sap that comes out when cut. It grows quite tall, but by cutting off long stems you can control its growth and even turn a rubber tree into a bush. Pros: Large dark green ficus leaves are very pretty. The older the ficus, the larger its leaves. This creates a wonderful decorative effect. Name: Ficus elastica Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 15-26 C, let the soil dry between waterings Size: Up to 2.4 m in height and 1.2 m in width.

Important: Ficus juice can irritate sensitive skin.

This shrub tolerates twilight, but its leaves acquire the brightest color in good light. They cast gold, pink and orange in the sun. Rinse the croton leaves from time to time to maintain their radiant appearance. Pros: Strong leaves of beautiful shades. Name: Codiaeum variegatum pictum. Growing conditions: Bright light, temperature 15-23 C, let the soil dry out between waterings. Size: Up to 1.2 m high and 0.9 m wide.

Important: This plant is poisonous, therefore dangerous for children and animals.

One of the most common and unpretentious indoor plants, syngonium has arrow-shaped leaves of a pronounced shape (hence another of its names - arrow-shaped syngonium). Unlike many other plants, the syngonium has a lot of species and varieties. Most of them have bright leaves. Depending on the species, the leaves can be green with white marks or bronze-green with a pink tint. Young plants begin to curl over time, so take care of an artificial trunk or hanging planter for them. Pros: Colorful leaves let you brighten up every corner of your home. Name: Syngonium podophyllum Growing conditions: Low or bright lighting, temperature 15-23 C, uniform watering. Size: Up to 0.9 m in length and width.

Important: All parts of this plant are poisonous and can irritate the lips, tongue or throat if the leaves are chewed by children or animals.

If you constantly forget to water your plants, the jade tree is made for you. It goes well with cacti. The jade tree prefers room temperature during the growing season, but it will grow better if you keep it cool and give it enough moisture to keep the leaves from drying out in winter. Pros: An unpretentious tree plant with interesting twisted branches and fleshy leaves. Title: Crassula ovata. Growing conditions: Bright lighting, temperature 18-23 C (12 C in winter), keep the soil dry

Size: Up to 3 m high and 0.6 m wide

Goya, or wax tree, is distinguished by waxy leaves and pink flowers with a waxy scent. Gold goya has cream colored leaves. Goya can curl, form a topiary, or just look good in a flower pot. Pros: The goya has beautiful flowers (often with a pronounced aroma). This is not a very water-loving plant, so don't be discouraged if you suddenly forget to water it. Name: Hoya carnosa Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 12-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings

Size: Can curl up to 1.2 m in length.

The secret to the health of Norfolk pine lies in rich light and moisture. In low light, the lower tiers of leaves can turn yellow and fall off. When it's dry indoors, the plant becomes a tasty morsel for red mites. Pros: Ideal tree for Christmas or other holiday. In addition, it brings a unique cozy atmosphere into the house. Name: Araucaria heterophylla. Growing conditions: Bright light, temperature 15-23 C, let the soil dry out between waterings.

Size: Up to 3 m high and 1.5 m wide

Also known as potos or devil ivy, this hardy climbing plant is often confused with the heart-leaved philodendron. Like phyladendron, potos has heart-shaped leaves and can be grown in a pot on a table, in a hanging basket, or tied to an artificial tree. This plant does not require a lot of light, but the more it is, the more variegated the leaves will be. Pros: Devil ivy is one of the most practical indoor plants. It looks great in a hanging basket. Name: Epipremnum aureum "Marble Queen" Growing conditions: Far from direct sunlight, the temperature is 18-23 C, the soil is relatively dry. Size: creeping plant 2-3 meters long.

Important: All parts of this plant are poisonous and can irritate the lips, tongue or throat if children or animals chew on the leaves.

The lacy, arrow-shaped leaves of the Boston fern make it ideal for planting in a pot or planter. However, don't be fooled by this delicate plant on the outside: it can grow for decades if you remember to water it and keep it in a medium-lit room with medium humidity. The Dallas variety is more unpretentious to dry air. Pros: Boston fern creates a classic look in any space. It goes well with a country or country style. Name: Nephrolepis exaltata Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 15-23 C, evenly moisten the soil.

Size: Up to 1.2 m in height (length).

Some varieties of green dracaena, such as Janet Craig, have strong green leaves. Others have white, cream, gold, or yellowish green stripes on their leaves.All varieties have rosettes at the beginning of growth, but then become upright green plants. They tolerate poor lighting well, but the leaves take on a richer color in medium to bright light. Pros: Long-lasting unpretentious plant with beautiful leaves. Title: Dracaena deremensis. Growing Conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 18-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings. Size: Up to 3 m high and 0.9 m wide.

Important: This plant is poisonous to dogs.

Surely you remember how this plant was grown by your grandmother, chlorophytums were and remain very popular. Just look at the number of varieties - from those with simple green leaves to those decorated with cream or white stripes. Pros: Growing chlorophytum doesn't require much hassle. Name: Chlorophytum comosum Growing conditions: Medium or bright lighting, temperature 15-23 C, uniform watering.

Size: Up to 30 cm long and 60 cm wide.

It is also called an eternal plant, because zamioculcas is durable, does not require a lot of light and care. The leaf stalks of this plant are so thick that they can be mistaken for plastic. Zamioculcas grows slowly, so buy it already large. Cut stems remain green and healthy looking for several weeks, even without water. Pros: This plant is so unpretentious that you still have to try to get rid of it. Name: Zamioculcas zamiifolia Growing Conditions: Low to bright light, temperature 15-23 C, let the soil dry out between waterings. Size: 0.6-0.9 m in length and width.

Important: This plant is poisonous, so make sure children and animals do not chew on it.

"Ellen Danica" - a variety of grape ivy - is also called oakleaf, because its leaves are more prominent than other varieties of this plant. Grape ivy is a climbing plant, the shoots of which willingly master the trellis or pole. Pros: This is a great plant for neat hanging baskets. Name: Cissus rhombifolia Growing conditions: Average lighting, temperature 15-26 C, uniform watering.

Size: Up to 1.8 m in length of a climbing plant.

Aspidistra (cast iron plant)

One of the most undemanding plants, aspidistra can withstand lack of maintenance, light, humidity and a wide range of temperatures. It grows slowly, so buy a plant that is large enough. Pros: This plant really lives up to its name. It is very persistent. Title: Aspidistra elatior. Growing conditions: Little light, temperature 7-29 C, well moisten the soil during active growth, slightly moisten the soil in autumn and winter.

Size: Up to 60 cm in length and width.

Also known as the umbrella tree, this plant has glossy green leaves that spread out to resemble the spokes of an umbrella. A close relative of the cheflera, the dwarf cheflera, has shorter and smaller leaves. Both plants are sometimes classified as Brassaia species. Pros: The bright green leaves of the cheflera instantly create a tropical atmosphere. Name: Schefflera actinophylla Growing conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 15-23 C, evenly moisturize the soil.

Size: Up to 2.4 m high and 1.8 m wide.

Chinese evergreen aglaonema

A plant with beautiful leaves in silvery, gray and green shades that will brighten up dark places in your home. Use aglaonema as a neighbor to upright tree-like houseplants, or set the pot apart. Pros: Very unpretentious plant. Name: Aglaonema commutatum. Growing conditions: Low to medium light, temperature 15-23 C, evenly moisten the soil. Size: Up to 0.9 m in length and width.

Important: All parts of this plant are poisonous and can irritate the lips, tongue or throat if the leaves are chewed by children or animals.

Ficus lyre is a wonderful tree that gets its name from the dark green leaves in the shape of a lyre. It tolerates poor lighting well, although this may cause the lower leaves to fall off. If your lyre ficus is too tall, do not be afraid to cut it to the desired height or tear off the shoots and plant them separately. Name: Ficus lyrata Growing Conditions: Medium to bright light, temperature 18-23 C, let the soil dry between waterings.

Size: Up to 4.5 m high and 1.5 m wide.

There are several types of dieffenbachia. All of them are upright plants with white-green leaves. Grow one Dieffenbachia as a tree, or grow several plants together to make a shrub. One of the names of dieffenbachia, "dumb rods", comes from the toxic sap of the plant, which seems to cause numbness in the mouth and throat. Pros: Large white-green dieffenbachia leaves create a tropical look in any room. It is great for decorating balconies and loggias in the summer. Name: Dieffenbachia spp. Growing conditions: Low to medium light, temperature 15-26 C, evenly moisten the soil Size: Up to 1.8 m in height and 0.9 m in width. Important: All parts of this plant are poisonous and can irritate the lips, tongue or throat if the leaves are chewed by children or animals.

Plants for forgetful gardeners who forget to water.

Dracaena. Dracaena deremensis 'Lemon Lime'

Kalanchoe. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Prefers bright light.

Haworthia fasciata (Haworthia striped)

Palm Ponytail. Beaucarnea recurvata

Cactus Rabbit ears. Opuntia microdasys. Prefers bright light

Zamioculcas. Zamioculcas zamiifolia

Panda plant. Kalanchoe tomentosa. Prefers bright light

Milkweed Mila, Milkweed beautiful (lat.Euphorbia milii)

Donkey's tail. Morgan's sedum (Sedum morganianum) Prefers bright light, native to Mexico

Crassula atropurpurea

Beef tongue. Gasteria bicolor. Prefers bright light

golden barrel cactus (Echinocactus grusonii). Prefers bright light

Peperomia Peperomia griseoargentea

Palm Sago. Cycas revoluta

Pothos aureum (Pothos golden, or simply Potos)

Plants with beautiful leaves

Soleirolia soleirolii

Hanging Zebrina, or Tradescantia zebrina

Radermachera (Radermachera sinica)

Wrapped saw - Pilea involucrata "Moon Valley"

Fatsia japonica. Japanese Fatsia.

Pilea cadierei Pilea Cadier

Fittonia albivenis Verschaffeltii Group

Plectranthus verticillatus is a falling plectrantus. This undemanding plant usually expects only one thing from us - to be placed in a well-lit place.

Hamedorea elegant (Chamaedorea elegans) Location - prefers a bright room, protected from drafts. In the summer you need to shade from the sun. Watering is quite abundant in the warm season. likes high humidity, so you need to spray more often, especially with dry room air in winter.

Neoregelia carolinae "Tricolor" Neoregelia carolinae "Tricolor"

Wicker saxifrage (Saxifraga stolonifera) Wicker saxifrage is grown in hanging pots. Can be used as a ground cover plant. The saxifrage will serve as a unique and elegant decoration of any room. It is recommended to plant several plants in one pot.

Elatostema creeping - Elatostema repens

Calathea makoyana.

Polyscias scutellaria 'Balfourii'

Tolmiea menziesii

Asparagus densiflorus 'Myers' For beautiful growth and the greatest effect from the contemplation of this graceful plant, it is desirable to provide ample space for its stems. Asparagus looks perfect in a hanging planter or basket.

Ginura orange - Gynura aurantiaca "Purple Passion"

Dracaena unbent Dracaena reflexa

White-veined variegated arrowroot Maranta leuconeura

Cordilina shrub (Cordyline fruticosa)

Hemigraphis alternata 'Exotica' Hemigraphis is sensitive to cold and does not tolerate drafts.

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