Kohlrabi cabbage (Latin Brassica oleracea var.gongylodes) - a biennial herb, which is a type of cabbage of the genus Cabbage of the Cabbage family. The kohlrabi plant comes from the eastern Mediterranean, in culture it has been known since ancient times. For example, there is evidence that kohlrabi was cultivated in ancient Rome. The name of the plant is derived from two words of the Swiss-German dialect, meaning cabbage and turnip.
And from the Italian language kohlrabi is translated as cabbage turnip. And in fact, outwardly, kohlrabi resembles a turnip, and its taste is cabbage. Kohlrabi vegetable is very popular in Turkey, Central Asia, China and Western Europe.
Read more about growing kohlrabi below.
Kohlrabi leaves are large, dark green, the stem of this cabbage is formed faster than a head of cabbage. In kohlrabi, it is the stalkbark that is edible, acquiring a turnip-like shape in the aerial part. Kohlrabi cabbage is a valuable dietary product that tastes like a cabbage stump, only juicier and sweeter. Kohlrabi is a close relative of such popular vegetable crops as white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, broccoli, radish, radish, turnip. Among these cultures, kohlrabi is considered the most vitamin, it contains all the active biological elements necessary for a person.
We will tell you how the cultivation and care of kohlrabi is carried out, how to plant kohlrabi cabbage, when to plant kohlrabi seedlings in open ground, what kinds of kohlrabi exist for open ground, how kohlrabi is useful and what is its harm.
Readers often ask if kohlrabi can be grown in seedlings. It is possible, and in some cases, this method of growing is more convenient than a seedless one, you just need to know how to properly implement it. We sow kohlrabi for seedlings five weeks before planting in open ground. To get an early harvest, kohlrabi seeds are sown for seedlings in greenhouses in mid-March, and then the harvest can be harvested from early to mid-June.
The second sowing date for kohlrabi seedlings - in early May, and it will ripen after landing in open ground by the end of July. The third sowing date is the last decade of June, but the seeds are sown directly into the ground, and you will collect this kohlrabi in early October.
The cultivation of kohlrabi from seeds begins with their pre-sowing treatment: the seeds are kept for 15 minutes in water heated to 50 ºC, after which they are immediately immersed in ice water for a minute, then placed in a solution of trace elements for 12 hours, washed and kept in a vegetable box for a day. ... Then the seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth, wait for them to bite, and sow in separate containers with a mixture of humus, peat and turf soil in equal parts, so as not to carry out a pick that damages the root system of the seedlings in the future. Contain crops under glass at a temperature of about 20 ºC. As soon as shoots appear, the glass is removed and the temperature is lowered to 8 ºC. After 10 days, set the temperature in the range of 17-18 ºC.
How to grow kohlrabi cabbage through seedlings? The cultivation and care of kohlrabi cabbage during the seedling period is carried out in the same order and according to the same rules as the cultivation of white cabbage seedlings: sprinkle the soil with water as needed, maintain the required temperature in the room, do not let the seedlings stretch too much, watch out for so that kohlrabi seedlings do not get sick with a black leg and, as a preventive measure, once pour it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In the phase of development of two true leaves, feed the seedlings over the leaves with a solution of half a tablet of microelements and half a spoonful of complex mineral fertilizer in 1 liter of water.
Seedlings of this variety of cabbage do not tolerate picking well, therefore seedlings are grown in separate containers. But if you sowed seeds in a common box, spread them out in the development phase of the first true leaf in peat-humus pots. Immediately after the pick, the temperature of the content should be about 20 ºC, but after a few days the temperature is set to 17 ºC during the day, and 11 ºC at night.
Two weeks before planting seedlings in open ground they begin to carry out hardening procedures, gradually accustoming the seedlings to the sun's rays, wind and outside temperature. You should not rush to plant seedlings in the garden bed, since cold weather can provoke the formation of arrows.
Planting kohlrabi cabbage, if you want to get a harvest in summer, is carried out in early May under a film, and two weeks later - in open ground. Late varieties of kohlrabi are planted directly in the ground from mid-May to early June. At the time of planting in the ground, the seedlings should have 5-6 leaves.
Perennial herbs, potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, squash, legumes, and tomatoes are good precursors for kohlrabi, and any cruciferous is bad. The best spot for kohlrabi is in open, sunny areas on the southeastern or southern slopes.
Kohlrabi will grow in soils of any composition, except for acidic and depleted soils, on which the stems grow coarse and tough. The optimum soil pH for the development of kohlrabi is pH 6.7-7.4. In the fall, the area under the kohlrabi is dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet and 3-4 kg of organic matter, a glass of wood ash, a teaspoon of urea and a tablespoon of superphosphate are added for digging for each m2 of area.
How and when to plant kohlrabi? For landing, choose a cloudy day or evening after sunset. Early ripening varieties of kohlrabi are placed on the garden bed according to the scheme 60x40 or 70x30 cm, and later ones - 60x55 or 70x45 cm, adding 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, a teaspoon of urea, 2 glasses of wood ash to each hole before planting.
Seedlings are planted, deepening them along the cotyledonous leaves, since a deeper planting can lead to a delay in the formation of the stalk or provoke flowering. The roots of the plant must be placed at the very surface of the soil and only lightly sprinkled with earth. After planting, the soil is slightly trampled, watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, sprinkle the area with dry earth so that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly.
Caring for kohlrabi cabbage is no more difficult than for any other type of cabbage. The stem crop is formed at the stage of development of 7-8 leaves, after which it begins to quickly gain volume. Growing kohlrabi cabbage in the open field requires regular weeding, as well as loosening the row spacings and soil around the plants in the row. Only in loose soil do tender and juicy stems ripen. Before the start of the growth of the stems, the plants are spud.
Seedlings planted in open ground are watered every 2-3 days, and when they start and grow, it will be enough to water the seedlings once a week. Most of all, kohlrabi needs moisture in June, especially if it is hot and there is no precipitation. Kohlrabi should be watered frequently, but not as abundantly as other cabbage varieties. The main requirement is that the soil on the site is slightly moist all the time.
After watering, it is most convenient to remove weeds and loosen the soil in rows and aisles to a depth of 8 cm.
During the growing season, kohlrabi must be fed three times. In the phase of development of two true leaves, foliar feeding of kohlrabi seedlings is performed with a solution of complex fertilizers and microelements. At the beginning of hardening, two weeks before planting in the ground, it is sprayed over the leaves with a solution of a tablespoon of potassium sulfate and a tablespoon of urea in 10 liters of water at the rate of one glass per plant, and before planting on the garden, organic and mineral fertilizers are placed in the holes.
As you can see, planting and caring for kohlrabi is not as laborious as it might seem to a beginner.
Diseases and pests are common in all cruciferous crops. Of the diseases, kohlrabi is most often affected by keel, vascular and mucous bacteriosis, powdery mildew - false and real, white, as well as dry rot and black leg. Sometimes kohlrabi cabbage can get sick with alternaria, linen, mosaic, tracheomycosis and black ring spot. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to observe agricultural practices, take seed from healthy plants and expose it to heating in hot water or dressing in a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing. After harvesting, it is necessary to remove plant residues from the site and dig deep into the soil in the garden bed. Grow disease-resistant kohlrabi varieties.
Among the pests of kohlrabi cabbage, there are also many enemies: cruciferous, wavy and black fleas, petiolate mosquito, wireworm, tobacco thrips, various kinds of scoops, spring cabbage and sprout flies, turnip and cabbage white flies, rape flower beetle, bedbug and secretive bobber and cabbage gobbler , slugs, bear, babanukha, cabbage aphids, moth and moth.
In pest control, preventive measures are very important, and the main point of the preventive action plan is the observance of crop rotation. In addition, it is very important to remove plant residues from the site after harvesting and dig deep into the soil. During the growing season, it is necessary to regularly control weeds.
If, despite the observance of all the rules of agricultural technology, kohlrabi was struck by a disease or it was occupied by parasites, you will have to resort to treating the plants with special preparations. Insects can be fought with insecticides such as Ambush, Decis, Karate, Rovikurt, Corsair, and other drugs of a similar action.
As for diseases, fungicides cope well with fungal diseases - Quadris, Fundazol, Skor, Topaz and others. And drugs for viral diseases have not yet been invented, alas. We'll have to remove diseased plants from the site, burn them, and disinfect the soil in which they grew.
However, you should know that chemicals are dangerous not only for pests and pathogens, but also for you, and therefore the best way to protect yourself from such troubles is to follow agricultural techniques and conscientious and timely care for kohlrabi.
Spring cabbage is harvested as it ripens, but it can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than two weeks. But kohlrabi, sown from late June to late July, is harvested at about the same time as white cabbage - when the daytime temperature drops to 3-5 ºC, and the night temperature stays within 0-1 ºC. By this time, the stems should reach 8-10 cm in diameter and weigh from 90 to 120 g. When overripe, kohlrabi cabbage coarsens and becomes fibrous, which does not at all improve its taste.
Kohlrabi cabbage has good keeping quality, but its storage requires certain conditions, and first of all, maintaining a high level of humidity in the room. Purple stems are stored better than others.
Harvesting should be done in dry, clear weather. Stem fruits are dug up along with the roots, dried in the shade, cleaned of the earth and the leaves are cut off on them. It is better not to remove the roots - this way the kohlrabi will be stored longer. Cabbage is put in boxes with sand so that the stems do not touch each other. In this form, at a temperature of about 0 ºC and an air humidity of 95%, kohlrabi can be stored for 5-8 months.
In the refrigerator, this type of cabbage, wrapped in paper and polyethylene, can lie no more than two weeks without loss of quality. And the best way to store kohlrabi cabbage is freezing. Before placing the stems in the freezer, they are washed, cut in half or into pieces, blanched for 3 minutes in boiling water, immediately after that they are cooled in ice water, soaked, dried, put into bags and frozen. Kohlrabi is stored in the freezer for 9 months. It is used for soups and side dishes.
Kohlrabi cabbage stems are greenish or purple in color. Inside, both of them hide white flesh. The varieties of kohlrabi cabbage also differ in terms of ripening: early ripening varieties are not suitable for maturation, they need to be eaten immediately, and later varieties, if properly stored, can lie for months. We offer you some well-proven kohlrabi varieties, among which you can choose those that will most likely suit you:
In addition to those described, you may be interested in the varieties Vienna White 1350, Dvorona, Delicatessen Blue, Delicatessen White, Caratago, Kortis, Kolpak, Kossak, Vienna White and others.
Kohlrabi cabbage, in addition to a large amount of vitamin C, which is why this species is called "lemon from the garden" or "northern lemon", also includes vitamins A, B, B2 and PP, vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, mineral salts, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, cobalt, iron, pantothenic acid, carotene, glucose and fructose.
Kohlrabi helps to normalize metabolism, so it is indicated for those who have been painfully losing weight for a long time and want to consolidate their success. The B vitamins contained in the product help to strengthen the nervous system. Kohlrabi has a diuretic effect and removes excess fluid from the body, cleansing it of toxins and helping to eliminate disorders of the liver, gallbladder and kidneys, relieves inflammation in the stomach and intestines.
Due to the presence of sulfur-containing substances in it, kohlrabi cabbage is a good prophylactic agent against rectal and colon cancer. With hoarseness, inflammation of the mouth and cough, diseases of the stomach, intestines, spleen, kidneys, liver, with anemia, kohlrabi juice is very useful. With hepatitis and cholecystitis, it is recommended to consume a quarter of a glass of kohlrabi juice mixed with a tablespoon of honey 3-4 times a day for two weeks. A decoction of kohlrabi tops in folk medicine is used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis and asthma.
Kohlrabi cabbage is recommended by nutritionists for baby food. In cooking, kohlrabi is used to make salads, it is stewed, baked, stuffed with meat or other vegetables. In many countries, in addition to the stalk, young kohlrabi leaves are used for food, which are just as useful as the stalks. They are put in salads, soups, borscht, and boiled or stewed ripe kohlrabi leaves, after chopping, can be used as a side dish or made pancakes from them.
We offer you some wonderful kohlrabi dishes:
Kohlrabi cabbage is contraindicated for people suffering from high acidity. The most dangerous of all are those vegetables that did not grow in the open field, but in greenhouses or greenhouses, because, like the cabbage stalk, the kohlrabi stalk can accumulate nitrates and other unhealthy substances that cause all kinds of diseases. Here, perhaps, is all you need to know about the harm of kohlrabi.
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Plants on K Stem Cabbage
Hello dear readers!
By cultivating kohlrabi on the site, you can harvest three crops per season. First, I will say a few words about this original vegetable plant.
Literally from German “kohlrabi” is translated as “turnip cabbage”, which looks like a turnip. The taste of the culture resembles a stump of ordinary white cabbage, only juicier, sweeter and without pungency. They eat the stem, which has the shape of a ball.
Kohlrabi came to us from the Mediterranean, Sicily is considered its homeland: even in ancient Rome, it was massively used in cooking. The culture contains a lot of fructose, glucose, vitamins PP, B1 and B2, as well as a lot of ascorbic acid, almost like lemon. No wonder it is called "northern lemon". Food kohlrabi is consumed both in salad form and processed: boiled, fried, stewed and stuffed. Kohlrabi grows well in northern climates - it is a cold-resistant and moisture-loving culture. It has a strong root system, so it is easier to tolerate irregular watering.
Garden beds do not have to be boring and monotonous. See how beautiful the gardens are in these photos thanks to the shape of the beds.
They can be given a wide variety of configurations.
And decorative bumpers and borders can liven up the look of your garden like nothing else.
They can be made from any material at hand, including old planks, metal, brick, or stones.
The fence of the beds in the form of wattle is very beautiful. In order to prevent soil from spilling out of the box, agrofibre is placed under the sides on the inside.
Growing conditions and requirements are no different from ordinary cabbage. Kohlrabi grows on all types of soil. This is an early ripening vegetable, it is grown in seedlings or seeds are planted directly in open ground. If you create good conditions for the culture, you can get a crop throughout the summer and autumn, until the first frost.
The vegetable grows well in open, light areas, but does well in slightly shaded beds. The main requirements of kohlrabi are growing in not very moist and well-fertilized soil. Fresh organic matter is not brought under the cabbage, the land is prepared in advance or fertile cultivated areas are selected. The plant prefers moderate air temperature.
An important condition in the cultivation of cabbage is the correct crop rotation. The crop should not be planted after other cruciferous plants. It grows well after plants, under which manure and other fertilizers and microelements have been applied for a long time.
The predecessors that kohlrabi prefers are zucchini, tomatoes, pumpkin, carrots. Chicory is sown between rows of early cabbage plantings in mid-May.
Cultural cultivation of kohlrabi began in time immemorial. It is believed that the plant was obtained by hybridization during the Roman Empire, but the exact time of the appearance of this vegetable is not known for certain. In Europe, kohlrabi was especially popular among the nobility, as it had a very delicate (compared to ordinary cabbage), refined taste. But the common people, this vegetable was practically not grown, since its seeds were very expensive.
Kohlrabi came to our country during the time of Peter the Great, who decided to cultivate "wonderful cabbage" on the territory of his state. And he was absolutely not mistaken in his choice, because the plant was in high demand among rich landowners and ordinary peasants. Kohlrabi is also very popular these days, and it can be found in almost every vegetable garden.
Late-ripening kohlrabi varieties are not grown in seedlings, but sown directly in open ground in mid to early June. It is advisable to carry out crops in the beds with carrots or onions. On individual beds, the distance between bushes is calculated as 60 cm between rows and 30 cm between bushes.
Before planting, you need to add humus, or compost, but not fresh manure. For each hole, mix a large handful of humus with the ground.
In May, kohlrabi takes root well, does not suffer from heat, but after germination of seeds, it is necessary to timely thin out the crops.
Kohlrabi does not look like a cabbage, it can rather be called a turnip or a turnip. The overgrown stem tastes like a cabbage stump, but kohlrabi is much tastier and juicier. The sweet taste of kohlrabi is given by the sucrose it contains. Kohlrabi surpasses lemon and orange in vitamin C content. It is especially useful for children.
Giant... The variety is late ripening. From sowing seeds to the onset of technical ripeness - 110 - 120 days. The stem is large, 15 - 20 cm in diameter, rounded, whitish-green, with a concave apex. The pulp is white, juicy, tender. Weight - 4-6 kg. Taste and keeping quality during winter storage are good. The variety is heat- and drought-resistant. Recommended for fresh use, processing and winter storage.
Cartago Fi... The hybrid is mid-season. From full germination to the onset of technical ripeness - 80 - 90 days. The stem fruit is medium in size, inversely elliptical, light green in color, with tender, juicy pulp, does not woody, does not crack. Weight 250 - 350 g. Recommended for fresh use.
Violet... The variety is late ripening. From sowing seeds to the onset of technical ripeness - 100 - 110 days. The stem fruit is medium in size, 6-9 cm in diameter, round-flat, dark purple in color, with a flat top. The pulp is white, juicy, tender. Weight 0.8 - 1.2 kg. Good taste. The variety is frost-resistant. Recommended for fresh use, processing and short-term storage.
Athena... The variety is early maturing. From full germination to technical ripeness - 70 - 75 days. Stem fruit with a diameter of 6-8 cm, light green color, white flesh, tender, juicy. Weight 180 - 220 g. Recommended for fresh use and processing.
Early... The growing season of the variety from the moment of planting seedlings in the open field is 42 - 53 days. A thickened spherical stem with a diameter of 6-7 cm, reminiscent of a turnip, is used for food. Possesses good resistance to cracking.
Late... The variety is suitable for eating 60 - 70 days after planting seedlings in open ground. Medium crack resistance. Thickened stem with a diameter of about 10 cm.
Delicacy blue... Mid-season, resistant to shooting. The stems are large, the flesh is tender. The taste is excellent.
Early ripening cabbage gives production within 2 months after germination. The term for sowing seeds and planting seedlings in open ground is from April 25 to May.
In a permanent place, seedlings are planted at a distance of 20 - 25 cm between plants and 30 - 40 cm between rows.
Stems are ready for consumption when they reach a diameter of 8-10 cm and a weight of 90-120 g. Overripe stems become rough and lose their nutritional value.
Early ripening summer varieties of vitamin cob ripen in 60-70 days, and the vacated space, after harvesting this cabbage, the area can be used for repeated sowing. However, I act differently. Growing kohlrabi of different varieties on the same bed, I place 2-3 plants of an early variety between two late ripening plants. Cabbage "Vienna White" - ready to eat earlier than others. Already with a diameter of 7-8 cm, you can already begin to fortify with a delicate stem crop. At this time, apples, currants and gooseberries are not yet ripe, the garden is still empty with the yield of the harvest, and kohlrabi comes in very handy.
The early varieties have a softer peel than the coarse peel of the long-stored ones. Peeling a small summer stem-ball, you can leave an apical rosette of leaves, for which it is convenient to hold the fruit. Children like the delicate sweetish taste of juicy pulp. Kohlrabi, like carrots, helps to strengthen the gums and teeth, and for this, as you know, you need to train them with solid food.
Seedling of kohlrabi cabbage. © geekgardener
Kohlrabi cabbage is grown mainly with seedlings, however, you can hardly find it on the market. Therefore, you will have to grow the seedlings yourself. Growing kohlrabi seedlings is no different from growing seedlings of any other cabbage. You can try several varieties at once, and share the surplus seedlings with family and friends.
Early spring sowing under the film is convenient because the seedlings have time to get stronger before the appearance of a massive cabbage pest. Young plants can withstand frosts up to - 2 degrees, and adults - up to 7. After a month from the moment of germination, kohlrabi cabbage is ready for transplanting, but painlessly tolerates the seedling phase for up to 60 days, but no more.
You can read more about growing cabbage seedlings in the article: Proper cultivation of cabbage seedlings
Kohlrabi cabbage is less demanding on soil fertility and heat than other types of cabbage, but sufficient moisture is required during cultivation. On dry soil, the stems grow small, rough, unattractive, and you will not be able to appreciate all their advantages.
It is more convenient to plant kohlrabi cabbage next to white cabbage, providing simultaneous care. It is advisable to take into account the previous culture, it is best to plant kohlrabi after potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, squash, legumes, perennial grasses. Root plants and cabbage's closest relatives are best excluded from this list, as they can contribute to the development of keels.
According to the rules, the return of cabbage plants to their previous place of cultivation is possible only after 4-5 years. For some summer residents, due to the small areas of vegetable gardens, these recommended periods are not met.
In autumn, after harvesting vegetables, we scatter fluff lime (kg per 10 sq. M) over the plowing area. We believe that such a technique will protect our garden from late blight and keels, at least this is one of the elements of comprehensive protection against diseases.
A bed with kohlrabi cabbage. © Maja Dumat