Among the variety of coniferous trees, larch occupies a special place.
It is a summer green coniferous. In early spring (already at the beginning of May), her buds wake up. The tree is covered with a greenish haze. In autumn, the needles begin to turn yellow, like those of deciduous trees, but they remain on the tree for a long time, falling completely shortly before the onset of winter.
The fact that the needles change every year is a boon for the tree in a highly gassed atmosphere. All the dirt that settles on the needles is thrown down in the fall, and the tree, thus, protects itself from poisoning.
There are real giants among larch trees. The most powerful larch trees grow in the village of Roshchino, near Zelenogorsk. The famous Lindulovskaya Grove is located there. Some of the giants reach heights of over 40 meters.
The genus larch includes about a dozen species that grow in the northern hemisphere. In our parks, the most common larch european (Larix decidua MiII.), Siberian larch (L. sibirica Ledeb.), Japanese larch (L. kaempferi (Lamb.)).
Japanese larch is perhaps the most suitable species for a summer cottage. It has bluish needles. The branches extend horizontally from the trunk and extend far in width. The cones are surprisingly reminiscent of miniature roses. Other larch trees are also very decorative. The main thing, perhaps, is not a specific species, but the ability to find a place and beautifully form a plant.
Only sunny areas are suitable for larch, since it is a light-loving plant. The close occurrence of the water-resistant horizon in the soil negatively affects the development of the plant. Larch grows well on a slope, especially if the soil is deep light loam.
A free-growing powerful tree is beautiful in itself, but it is clear that not every gardener can place such a larch on his site. This is helped by the peculiarity of larch to tolerate pruning... In Japan, it is largely for this reason that it is cultivated in bonsai form. The amazing ability of larch to recover after pruning gives a lot of scope for personal creativity. To create such a highly artistic form, like bonsai, requires a long, painstaking work, the description of which is beyond the scope of this article.
To begin with, you can master the simpler formation of a plant using pruning. So, armed with ordinary garden shears, you can create a spherical or oval crown. Even more unusual is the crown in the form of several umbrellas located one above the other. Thus, larch can be a substitute for yew, especially since it grows much faster.
Pruning should be done when young growths have finished intensive growth, but have not yet fully lignified. One haircut is enough per year. Pruning not only gives the plant an unusual shape, but also determines its desired height. Cutting should be started when it has almost reached the height that will be maintained in the future. There is no need to strive for the large size of the tree, as this significantly increases the time required for maintenance, and there is always not enough time. It is better when the very top can be reached from the ground without the aid of a stepladder. When pruning, they tend to remove most of the one-year growth. If necessary, you can remove not only the last increase, but also part of the previous one. Such a strong pruning is carried out in the spring, no more than once every few years, before bud break, and it is done to adjust the size of the plant. Heavy pruning has a negative effect on crown density.
Among the variety of coniferous trees, larch occupies a special place.
Larch is planted at the beginning of autumn, when the needles have already turned yellow, or very early in the spring (as soon as the soil thaws). The seat is prepared as follows. The pit is dug 50x50 cm in size. When planting, the substrate is a mixture of turf soil and high-quality aerated peat in a 1: 1 ratio. If the sod land is heavy, add 1 part of the sand. Watering is necessary after planting.
Manure is not suitable for making up a nutrient substrate. Mycorrhiza forms on the roots of larch, which plays a very important role in the life of the plant, and sour high-moor peat is added for its normal existence. High-moor peat also significantly improves the aeration of the root system.
Excessive nutritional value of the soil does not benefit the conifers. These are still not fruit trees and their needs are different. However, in the first years after planting, you can feed the plants with a complex fertilizer, for example Kemira, in early May. Fertilizer is applied in the amount of 20 g / m² (one matchbox). In June, to increase the weight of the needles, you can pour the crown with a solution of urea 10 g / 10 l (2 teaspoons per 10 liters) from a watering can.
In a drought follows to water plant and cut through the grass near the trunk, since larch does not tolerate moisture deficit well. Watering can be done once a week, but abundantly, in order to wet the layer of earth, which contains the bulk of the root mass. Watering is especially important in the first two years after planting, when adaptation to a new place is still underway.
It is not always possible to purchase larch seedlings in a nursery or store. In this case you can grow larch yourself... This activity itself is very interesting. It all starts with collecting seeds. Cones hang low on larch, so they can be easily picked. The collection can start from November. If the buds are harvested earlier, the seeds will be unripe.
Not only the last harvest, but also the previous ones, which are no longer suitable for our purpose, hang on the tree at the same time. How can you tell them apart? The cones of the last harvest are the lightest. If you peel back their scales, then the seeds will be visible, while in the old ones they flew out long ago.
If it was possible to collect cones of Siberian or Japanese larch, then there will be no problems with the extraction of seeds. To do this, they should be folded into a linen bag and placed on the central heating battery. After two or three days, the scales on the cones will bend back, and it will be possible to knock out the seeds by tapping on the base.
The situation with European larch is somewhat more complicated. Cones open very poorly. Therefore, they act simply: cut each with a pruner along the axis and with a knife break off the scales one by one, freeing the seeds. The process is easier when the buds are processed without drying.
The recovered seeds can be stored in a paper bag until sowing. They must be sown in the third decade of April, using a film greenhouse for this. Sowing in a greenhouse is good because there is no threat of pecking of seedlings by birds, which often happens in open ground.
The first year it is better to grow seedlings with a closed root system in a container. For this, drinking plastic cups with a volume of 200-300 cm³ are used. At the bottom of the cup, a drainage hole is made with scissors (the bottom edge is simply cut off). The container is filled with nutrient mixture. The main component of the nutrient mixture is high-quality aerated peat with a low degree of decomposition. This peat is commercially available and should not contain any mineral additives. Before preparing the mixture, the peat is moistened so that when squeezed in a fist, water begins to ooze. For deoxidation, add 35 g of limestone flour (matchbox with top) to 10 liters of peat and mix for 5 minutes, and then add 20 g of Kemira (matchbox without top) and mix again. The finished mixture is not very lightly packed into the container, since you will have to water it often, but not very much, since the seedling root system will lack oxygen.
Larch seeds are often empty, so before sowing, empty seeds are separated from full-grain ones. To do this, the seeds are poured into a vessel with water, preferably from snow, and mixed so that the surface of all seeds is moistened. After a day or two, full-grain seeds sink, and empty ones remain floating on the surface. After the separation of full-grain seeds, they are etched for another 20 minutes in a 0.2% solution of potassium permanganate. Before sowing, they are dried on a newspaper. Sow 2-3 seeds in each glass, since not every one germinates. From above, the seeds are mulched with a mixture of high-moor peat (without additives) and fresh sawdust of coniferous species in a 1: 1 ratio, then the mixture is watered.
Two weeks after the emergence of shoots, foliar top dressing is done with urea - 0.1% solution (2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water). In the future, until August 1, the same top dressing is done with an interval of two weeks.
Since larch seedlings do not like thickening very much, it is better to grow them in the future on a ridge in the open field. To do this, add 3-5 buckets / m² of peat mixture of the same composition as when sowing on a dug up and weed-free bed. And again, everything is being dug up.
Annual seedlings are planted at the end of August so that they can adapt to a new place this year. The planting step is 30x30 cm. The root-closing lump is carefully removed from the container, but after planting, it is compacted by trampling the ridge and the seedlings are watered.
Further care consists in dry top dressing with Kemira in the first ten days of May in the amount of 20 g / m². As necessary, plantings are weeded and watered. The seedlings are grown for another three to four years to a height of 1.2-1.5 m. Compared to other conifers, the period for growing seedlings is short.
S. Shevchuk, employee of the Botanical Garden of the Botanical Institute named after V. L. Komarova
The garden on the site can be planned in any shape, the main thing is that it is convenient to move around with inventory or a wheelbarrow. However, there are general laws and principles that must be considered in order for the beds to bring a good harvest:
Adherence to all the rules and recommendations will help to plan the site competently. As a result, it will be possible to create a plot that meets all the needs of family members, taking into account their wishes. On such a site, it will be possible to fully relax after a working day and receive guests.
More information can be found in the video:
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Vitamins that are either almost absent or are present in small doses in other products are of particular value. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Hard work, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is not suitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables.These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but this is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and alternation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.
Cochia is a favorite plant of many gardeners and ordinary flower lovers. Today this ornamental plant is very popular. This popularity is due to the fact that kochia can acquire splendor in a short time. In addition, the plant is well able to tolerate decorative pruning. The homeland of Kokhia is China. It was there that a large number of plant varieties were bred, which can take absolutely any color during growth. The plant was introduced to Europe in the 17th century by the botanist Koch. In this article, we will talk about how to grow a flower such as kochia from the seeds. You can also learn about when to plant and remember other important points.
It is worth saying that if you open special literature on floriculture, you can see that this plant has a lot of names. For example, kohija can be called:
Cochia is very similar to cypress. And if you look at these plants from afar, then they can be confused. The plant is considered unpretentious. For growth, minimal care is required. Cochia is able to tolerate lack of moisture and light shading. In favorable growing conditions, the plant can grow to a height of 1 meter.
Well, now it's time to talk about how to grow cochia from seeds at home. At the beginning, it is worth emphasizing that the seeds of the plant are distinguished by a high degree of germination. And the vigor of growth allows the plant to reproduce by self-seeding.
On a note! Pay attention to the expiration date of the plant's seeds. Their shelf life should not exceed 1.5 years.
If you are going to sow seeds in the ground, then choose the first days of May for this purpose. It is at these numbers that frost does not occur, and their plant is very afraid. In general, the sowing of the plant can be carried out until mid-July. Kohia grows very quickly. Therefore, she still has enough time to grow up and please you. Of course, annual seeds will grow well in a place where there is a lot of light. When planting, it is not recommended to sprinkle the seeds with soil. When planting, it is enough to press the seeds lightly into the soil, which should be moist. After that, the soil with seeds must be covered with a white covering material.
Covering material must be removed after a week or two. If it gets colder, then the fabric is left. You need to remove it when the weather is warm. When the first shoots appear, then the shoots should be thinned out. Leave a distance of 10 cm between the plants. When the kochia becomes 15 cm long, then it must be sent to the permanent place of growth. Cochia can be sown before winter. But sowing is best done 2 weeks before the onset of frost. Otherwise, if you do it differently and in warm weather, the plants will germinate and simply die. If you sow kohija before winter, then spread its seeds along shallow grooves and sprinkle with a thin layer of earth, which should be loose and fertile.
This section is worth talking about how to grow kochia seedlings from seeds. Kokhia seedlings are grown in order to have the opportunity to acquire very early an ornamental plant that will decorate the backyard. Seeds are sown for seedlings in March-April. But then it's worth talking about how to grow seedlings step by step:
When the annual reaches a height of 15-20 cm, then it can be planted in open ground. Be sure to plant the kochia in loose soil and find a sunny place for this purpose. Sand, ash and a small amount of lime can also be added to the soil for planting on very acidic soils. In order for the kochia to reach its characteristic sizes, it is important to leave a distance of 30 cm between the plants.And if you want to create a decorative fence from the kochia, then the distance can be 15-20 cm.
Now you have been able to learn how to grow kochia seedlings. Now it's worth talking about how to care for this plant. Remember that proper and regular care can make the kohija even more beautiful.
So, the most important maintenance condition is watering. It is not recommended to carry out it often enough. Cochia may have enough precipitation. If the weather is dry, then watering the kohija is worth once a week. Avoid stagnant moisture. Remember that such a phenomenon is more dangerous than drought. To keep the soil moist, apply mulching with fine gravel, decorative stones and bark.
Regular fertilization will allow you to quickly restore the vegetative system of the plant after cutting. Plus, the fertilizer will make your plant look great. The feeding schedule should be as follows:
The active growth of the plant falls on a month and a half after sowing. If the kochia was planted in open ground, then ten days after germination, apply full mineral fertilizers.
After a month or one and a half, the annual plant is fed with any mineral fertilizer in which nitrogen predominates.
After cutting and forming the bush, one more fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizer is needed, which will allow the leaves to grow quickly.
Farmers pay special attention to permaculture in the garden. It helps to increase the productivity of plants and makes the work of gardeners easier.
Fruit guilds are a collection of plants that actively "cooperate" with each other:
For example, garlic, onions and daffodils keep rodents away. Borage is an excellent fertilizer. Oregano protects trees from various kinds of pests. Creeping clover nourishes the soil with nitrogen.
Of course, first select suitable fruit trees common in the region. Then they are planted on the site. With the help of sticks, mark the prospective crown of the plant and fertilize the near-stem area of the soil. Between them, the planned crops are grown and bountiful harvests are collected.
When planning the placement of a residential building on a small area, you should take into account the aesthetic point of view:
You should also take into account external factors: will there be neighbors nearby, how close the roadway is and from which side the sun rises. For a residential building, the south or southeast side is better.
When planning the layout of rooms, many people prefer to have south-facing windows. In this case, the rooms will be bright and sunny. If there is a desire to create twilight, for example, in the bedroom, then its windows should be placed on the north side.
If you take into account not only your preferences, but also the peculiarities of nature, then you can achieve the greatest comfort while living in a properly built house.
The children's room should be located away from the roadway. This will maximize silence and reduce dust intrusion. Particular attention should be paid to the location of the kitchen. Firstly, so that soot, grease and dampness from steam does not spread throughout the living area. And secondly, the garden and children's play area should be visible from the window. You should also provide for an autonomous exit, which will be convenient during the preparation of blanks and when organizing picnics and outdoor feasts.
Welcome to the site "Garden and Vegetable Garden"! It is for those who love the land, who like growing vegetables, relaxing on their garden plot, decorating it, taking care of plants. For those who, working on the land, want to receive a worthy reward for their work. A large harvest is not only beneficial, it is the joy and satisfaction that we get if we know how to competently grow vegetables and fruits, have enough knowledge about growing vegetables, and how to provide them with proper care.
Have you ever grown vegetables in your garden? Not sure where to start? Don't be embarrassed. Visit our website more often and you will not only acquire knowledge about growing vegetables, become a skillful owner on your site, but also fall in love with this business. Here you will find useful information on important topics such as:
The site greenness.ru publishes articles on gardening topics. Read, gain new knowledge, learn the secrets of experienced gardeners and gardeners. Apply them on your site and enjoy wonderful harvests.
A good harvest is important not only to get it, but also to preserve it. Harvesting vegetables is no less important than growing vegetables, you will receive a lot of useful information and advice on how to properly harvest vegetables for the winter. There are also many canning recipes, cucumbers and cabbage will be crispy, and tomatoes will be fragrant. You can prepare the preparation of vegetables in the form of delicious and healthy canned salads.
In the articles on landscape design, you will learn how to rationally plan the territory and decorate it, turning a plot with a garden and a vegetable garden into a cozy and comfortable place to relax. With your own hands, you can break a beautiful flower bed, arrange a small decorative reservoir in the garden, build a fence, make garden figurines.
Lovers of home plants did not remain deprived. There is a lot of interesting information for them in the section on indoor flowers. Here you can learn about popular and rare indoor plants. About caring for them, and breeding methods. About the fight against diseases and pests. You can even grow exotic fruits at home.