All about garden strawberries Queen Elizabeth


Characteristics, photos and descriptions of garden strawberries (or strawberries, as they are often called) Queen Elizabeth are unlikely to leave indifferent a lover of this berry. Large, dense, yielding several harvests per year, frost-resistant - these qualities make it possible to grow this variety in many regions of the country.

What are the differences between strawberries and garden strawberries

Many gardeners refer to garden strawberries as strawberries or victoria. But in fact, strawberries and strawberries are different plants.

Distinctive features of strawberries:

  • has a powerful thick peduncle growing above the leaves;
  • the bushes are compact and most often tall;
  • leaves are large, soft, light green, slightly ribbed and pubescent;
  • the same variety has female flowers on some bushes and male flowers on others. Because of this, the yield of strawberries is low (there are no berries on male bushes);
  • berries are much smaller than large-fruited garden strawberries;
  • color - red-violet on the sunny side and white-pink on the shaded side. The pulp is almost white with a musky aroma, which is why botanists call it "nutmeg strawberry".
  • winter hardiness is higher than that of strawberries, loves moisture and withers in the sun.
  • strawberry whiskers are shorter.

The difference between garden strawberries and strawberries is obvious

Strawberries are a very rare "guest" on the plots of gardeners, therefore they are not selected for. Strawberries, on the other hand, are one of the most favorite berries for cultivation, so experts are constantly developing new varieties. One of the most popular is Queen Elizabeth.

Although many gardeners do not see much difference in the two sub-varieties Elizabeth 1 and Elizabeth 2, it is believed that Elizabeth 2 has enhanced remontant properties, she has larger berries than Elizabeth 1, and gives more mustache. There are no other differences.

Description of the variety Queen Elizabeth

  1. A repairing variety of garden strawberries. It is possible to collect from 2 to 5 harvests during the season. This strawberry bears fruit in "waves" between which it rests. The first wave in late May or June, the second in July, the third in August, the next in autumn. Fruiting lasts until frost, which is why this variety of strawberries is called "falling under the snow." In autumn, the berries are no longer as sweet as in summer.
  2. The bushes are spreading, powerful, with bright green leaves.
  3. Berry shape: asymmetrical, slightly bumpy cone. The color is bright red.
  4. The berries are large, with an average weight of 40-50 g, with dense pulp and a "varnished" surface. With a two-year replacement of bushes, proper agricultural practices and a reduction in fruiting waves (through breaking off flowers), the weight of berries can reach 60–65 and even 100 g. Up to 2 kg can be harvested from a bush. Ripe berries with a dessert flavor with a slight honey flavor.

Photo gallery: strawberry Queen Elizabeth

Table: advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Benefitsdisadvantages
  1. Begins to vegetate and bear fruit earlier than all other varieties of strawberries.
  2. Fruiting until the frost.
  3. Good repair qualities, several harvest waves.
  4. High resistance to disease.
  5. Large, beautiful berries.
  6. High frost resistance.
  7. Good transportability of berries, long shelf life.
  8. The berries do not fall apart during cooking.
  9. Fruiting in the year of planting.
  10. Powerful, tall peduncles perfectly hold the weight of large berries, due to this, strawberries get less dirty and more protected from decay.
  1. Stops growth at elevated temperatures.
  2. In rainy climates, the berry becomes watery and unsweetened.
  3. On three-year-old bushes, the berries become smaller, they have to be renewed every two years.
  4. The taste of the berry is highly dependent on the weather (requires a lot of sun, little rain) and on agricultural technology.
  5. High demands on soil fertility and frequent top dressing.

Landing

The place for your Queen must, of course, choose a royal one - sunny, protected from the north wind, not in a lowland and with fertile soil.

This strawberry grows well on light loam or sandy loam soils. Swampy and heavy soils are not at all suitable for her. The acidity is desirable low, in the range of pH 5.0-6.0.

To determine acidity, you can purchase an electronic device without batteries. It is inexpensive, very simple and easy to use.

It is preferable to plant strawberries after green (spinach, dill, etc.), cereals, crucifers, clovers, onions, garlic, carrots and any siderates. Not recommended - after nightshades, cabbage and cucumbers. If the presence of nematodes has been determined in the soil, the soil must be completely cured first.! To do this, the entire area is densely sown with oats. Nematofagin is used for soil cultivation.

Photo gallery: determination of nematodes in soil

Best time to plant: July-August. If planted in the fall, then you need to cut off all the resulting peduncles. Can be planted in spring if you are sure there will be no return frosts.

In the fall, strawberries can be planted under shelter.

Strawberries are planted with ready-made seedlings or rosettes from uterine bushes and mustaches. Rosettes should be with two or three leaves and small roots.

Planting is best in cloudy, dry weather.

Before planting, it is necessary to prepare the site: dig up a shovel on a bayonet, removing weed roots and stones, loosen and level. Mark the area in accordance with the number of seedlings and dig the required number of holes. The size of the holes depends on the size of the strawberry root system.

Too large root system needs to be pruned. Dry and unsightly leaves are best removed.

Cut off excess roots and bad leaves before planting.

The queen takes up a lot of space, so the bushes need to be planted according to the scheme: 25–30 cm between bushes and 55–70 cm between rows.

Strawberry planting plan Queen Elizabeth

When planting, mineral fertilizers (for example, calcium nitrate - 15–20 g per well) or organic (rotted manure) fertilizers must be added to each well.

Strawberry roots that are too long should be pruned. If you bought strawberries with a lump of earth, then it is better to remove the soil by soaking it in warm water and examine the roots.

It may be that the root system has outgrown the glass, but all the bent roots do not take root. Strawberries will take longer to recover. It is better to do everything right right away, and the plant will take root faster in a new place. As a result, you will immediately get a good harvest.

Remove the strawberries from the glass and examine the roots

Before planting, the roots must be straightened and planted, preventing them from bending upwards. It is very good to use when planting any of their root stimulants (Kornevin, HB-1, Heteroauxin and the like). It is also a good idea to add ExtraFlor white mustard extract. It is biosecurity against nematodes and plant strengthening.

Step-by-step instructions for planting strawberries

  1. We put a mound at the bottom of the hole. Add fertilizer and water the hole. Next, we put a bush of strawberries, spreading the roots down the hill. We cover the roots with earth. In this case, you need to be careful not to deepen the heart of the bush (otherwise it will rot).

    Follow the strawberry heart

  2. After planting, cover the strawberry plants with covering material (or plastic bottles with slots).

    So you can cover the strawberry seedlings and air them through the cork.

  3. Water when the top layer of the earth dries out. We fertilize before the first harvest with foliar dressing (you can make a solution of ash and spray the strawberries or buy a special fertilizer for this plant).

Culture care

Proper care of strawberries will bring a rich harvest of beautiful berries.

Watering

A clear sign that the strawberries need watering is that the leaves have become lethargic. But it is advisable not to bring it to such a state.

On average, you need to water twice a week. When the weather is dry and hot, the soil is moistened every two to three days. It is possible to reduce watering at the expense of mulch. It is better to remove hay during rains and cool weather, avoiding the invasion of slugs. You can mulch with coniferous litter, ground cones, sawdust. During flowering and fruiting, it is undesirable for water to get on flowers and berries. Better to water the strawberries under the bush.

Water the strawberries under the bush

When the ground dries out a little, it is advisable to loosen the furrows between the bushes. You can plant green manures in the aisles - for example, mustard. It loosens the soil, retains moisture and protects against fungal diseases.

Top dressing

Fertilization rates:

  1. Phosphorus-potassium (agrophoska): 40-50 g per 10 l of water or 1 m2.
  2. Nitrogen (sodium or calcium nitrate): 20-40 g per 10 L of water or 1 m2.
  3. Potash: potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate): 20-30 g per 10 l of water or 1 m2... Wood ash: 600 g per 1 m2.
  4. Phosphorus-nitrogen (superphosphate): 40-50 g per 10 liters of water or 1 m2.
  5. Organic: 4–6 kg / 1 m².

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in spring and early summer. The best type of nitrogen fertilization is sodium or calcium nitrate (they lye the soil). At the end of summer, potash fertilizer is sufficient. Fertilizers with chlorine (potassium chloride, potassium salt) are excluded!

The difference between calcium nitrate and potassium: the first is used as nitrogen and calcium fertilizer (only in spring!), And potassium - as nitrogen and potassium fertilizer.
  • nitrogen is necessary for the growth and development of the green parts of the plant;
  • potassium - for the development of the root system, the development of fruits, strengthening the immune system;
  • calcium accelerates the ripening of fruits and "takes" excess trace elements from the soil.
You need to feed Queen Elizabeth strawberries once every two weeks.

Strawberries respond best to organic fertilizers: rotted manure, humus, herbal infusion. You can buy ready-made fertilizer based on vermicompost.

Solutions for foliar dressing during flowering

  1. For 1 liter of water: potassium nitrate 2 g, potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) 2 g, boric acid 1 g Dilute boric acid with warm water!
  2. Ash solution: pour a glass of ash with 1 liter of hot water, stir. We insist for 2 hours, filter and spray the strawberries.
  3. Yeast solution: dissolve 1 kg of pressed yeast in 5 liters of water, infuse for a day. We dilute 1 liter of solution in 20 liters of water for spraying.

You can also use ready-made preparations such as Ovary, Agros, Rubin, etc. To strengthen immunity and prevent ovaries from dropping, Alirin-B and Epin preparations can be added to the spraying feed.

Spraying should be carried out in cloudy weather or early in the morning so that the leaves do not get burned.

Video: root feeding of strawberries during flowering

Top dressing during fruiting

During the formation of berries, all inorganic foliar feeding is excluded. At this time, you need to feed the strawberries at the root.

Root Fertilizer Options:

  1. We dilute 2-3 kg of manure in a bucket of water, insist for three days. We dilute 4 liters of infusion in 10 liters of water.
  2. We dilute 1-2 kg of chicken manure in a bucket of water, leave for three days and use in the proportion: 1 part of the infusion to 10 parts of water.
  3. Dissolve 10-15 g of powdered yeast and 50 g of sugar in 200 ml of warm water. Stir until dissolved. We dilute with warm (!) Water up to 10 liters and leave for several hours.

Video: about root dressing of strawberries

Top dressing at the end of fruiting

Since Queen Elizabeth is a remontant strawberry, top dressing at the end of fruiting depends on what time the rest period begins.

  1. The beginning of summer - feed with calcium nitrate, then organic.
  2. End of summer - agrophoska and then organic.
  3. Autumn - potassium and organic matter.

Pests and diseases

Queen Elizabeth is almost not affected by diseases, but with heavy rainfall, gray rot or mottling may appear. Therefore, during long rains, you need to cover the strawberries.

Cover the strawberries during the rainy season to prevent rotting.

You can simply throw in the film, pressing it along the edges from the wind. But it is better to build arcs so as not to crush the leaves. Agrofibre will not help in this case, as it allows water to pass through.

Tangible harm to strawberries can be caused by:

  • slugs;
  • beetle larvae;
  • pliers4
  • weevils4
  • nematodes;
  • birds;
  • ants.

It is more difficult to treat remnant strawberries from pests than ordinary ones, because chemistry cannot be used during fruit formation.

As siderates, you can plant marigolds, calendula, garlic in the aisles. They repel many pests and protect the soil from disease.

Dandelions repel insect pests

From a complex of pests, you can buy a biological agent Bitoxibacillin. The recipe for a solution for self-preparation: for 10 liters of water, 2 tsp. ammonia, 1 tsp. iodine, 2 tbsp. birch tar, half tsp. boron, 1 tsp. fir oil (1 tbsp. per 10 liters for spraying).

Destruction of pests

Examine the bushes carefully for pests. If you find signs of damage, immediately start processing the plant.

May beetle larvae

An effective remedy for the worst enemy of strawberries is to scatter pieces of Metronidazole (Trichopolum) under the bushes or directly over the beds if there are a lot of bushes.

May beetle and its larva

If you notice the defeat of specific bushes by the larva (they wither and dry out), then pour them with ammonia: 1 tsp. for 1 liter of water. Process several times per season. This tool is also a nitrogen supplement. It can be used in spring and summer.

Nematodes

Nematodes are microscopic worms that make holes in leaves and fruits. The soil is rid of the pest by oats, marigolds, calendula. Of the drugs, you can use Nematofagin.

Bedbugs

If you notice an unpleasant smell from forest bugs on the berry, then you can plant a bedbug in the aisles, which scares away herbivorous bugs.

Bedbugs give off an unpleasant odor, so it's easy to detect their presence.

It is especially important for strawberries not to harm pollinating insects. Despite the fact that Queen Elizabeth does not need pollinators, more berries are tied with them and the fruits grow larger.

Slugs

Slugs are not as harmless as they seem at first glance. Not only do slugs eat berries (even green ones!), They are also carriers of helminths and a number of diseases.

Even such a small slug causes a lot of damage to the berry.

Measures to protect bushes from slug infestation:

  1. From slugs, you can pour coniferous sawdust, crushed ash, pine needles and cones, crushed eggshell around the strawberry bushes. This only works in dry weather. Remove the mulch from the hay.
  2. Slug repellent plants: fennel, garlic, rosemary, parsley.
  3. Solutions that act against slugs: a solution of copper, urea, soda, tinctures from pungent-smelling plants (cloves, garlic, tobacco).
  4. Dig bowls of beer into the ground. The traps must be protected from rain. The slugs gather there and die.
  5. The mechanical method is to put boards next to the strawberry bushes, under which they will accumulate, and collect them by hand.
  6. Preparations for slugs: Ulicide based on iron phosphate. Chemicals based on metaldehyde: Thunderstorm, Meta, Slug-eater. These substances can be consumed 20 days before harvest! Natural preparation from mustard extract "ExtraFlor from slugs and snails". It protects against slugs and other pests, as well as against fungal diseases, stimulates the growth and development of plants.

Video: about special slug traps

Autumn activities

  1. Remove all bad and yellow leaves, treat strawberries with biological products for diseases: Trichodermin, Pentafag. If you will not harvest the crop already, then you can treat it with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid (for 10 liters of water, 300 g of copper sulfate and 450 g of lime).
  2. Before the onset of frost, it is necessary to spill the strawberry bushes well with water and not water any more.
  3. Sow mustard aisles and embed it in the soil before winter. Before the very frosts, you do not need to loosen the soil! This can lead to the fact that through the open passages in the ground frost penetrates to the roots.
  4. Rak up the soil to the strawberry bushes without covering the heart.
  5. You can mulch the bushes, but not with straw! Mice are very fond of settling in such a bed. Peat, humus, pine needles are suitable as mulch.
  6. To cover the bushes, you can use special materials - spunbond, agrofiber.

Reproduction

The easiest way to propagate strawberries is a mustache. The second way is to divide the bush. The seed propagation method for this strawberry variety is useless, because the seeds of Queen Elizabeth are not very similar and do not retain varietal characteristics.

Mustache reproduction

There are several ways to breed strawberries with a mustache.

If you have a few bushes planted and you need to fill the area, just press the rosettes growing from the mother bush in the place necessary for rooting. You can use aluminum wire or stones for this. The opinion that only the first sockets are suitable for reproduction is wrong.

Root mustache rosettes where you need a new bush

Do not forget to water and feed these outlets through spraying. After rooting, cut the rosettes from the mother bush.

There are also ways for the case when the beds are already planted, but you want to grow seedlings for sale or plant bushes in another place. Plant the outlets not in the soil, but directly in the shipping pots. After rooting, just trim the whiskers and you have your seedlings ready!

Planting the mustache directly into the shipping pots

Method two: cut off the long mustache from the rosettes you like and plant the rosettes around the basin dug into the ground. Dip the strawberry whiskers into a container of water. Cover the basin with a lid so that the water does not evaporate.

Video: how to root rosettes with mustaches in water

Reproduction by dividing the bush

For reproduction by dividing the bush in spring or autumn, you can use a 3-year-old bush.

For reproduction by dividing the bush, you can use a 3-year-old bush

Dig out the bush and examine the roots. If they are healthy, then divide the bush into "horns" with rosettes. Sections should be sprinkled with fly ash or crushed activated carbon. Plant in holes as you would for a normal planting.

This bush can be split into multiple outlets

Video: how to divide a strawberry bush

How to increase the yield of remontant strawberries

The best way to grow strawberries is to plant early, mid-late and remontant varieties. In this case, your harvest will be plentiful until winter.

In order for the Queen to produce more large berries, you need to pick flowers at a time when there is a crop from another variety. For example, if you do not have early strawberries, but have medium late ones, then the first harvest will be from the Queen. The next crop you harvest is from a medium late variety, at this time, picking flowers from remontant strawberries. In the fall, let it bloom again, which will ensure a good harvest until the very frost.

Harvesting and storage

To collect for storage, you must choose unwrinkled, unripe and dry berries. Harvesting is better in the evening or early in the morning.

The berries are stored at room temperature for 3 days, in the refrigerator - 1.5 weeks (unwashed and not in plastic). Unripe fruits ripen during storage.

If the harvest is large and there is no time for urgent processing, you can keep the strawberries in the cellar, laying them in a small layer on trays without damage. You can put sheets of paper between the layers. The berries are laid unwashed. This way you can store them for five days before processing.

The Queen's harvest is very well preserved in frozen form, without losing its taste, aroma and shape. You can use small berries for this or make mashed potatoes with sugar. In the second case, it is better to use overripe, ugly strawberries mixed with unripe ones. And from good it is recommended to cook jam.

The best option is freezing.

All types of processing are suitable for berries of this variety: drying, preparation of marshmallows, preserves, jam, compotes, juice.

A tricky way to feast on strawberries in winter: root your mustache in shipping pots and transfer them to your windowsill for the winter. There you can grow them and at the same time collect a home harvest of berries!

Delicious berries can even grow on a windowsill

Strawberry reviews Queen Elizabeth

Despite the fact that many new strawberry hybrids have been bred recently, the popularity of the Queen Elizabeth variety has not waned. He has excellent remontant qualities, large and sweet fruits. With proper farming practices and proper care, you can enjoy all the benefits of this variety.


Strawberry Lyubava: cultivation, variety description, photos and reviews

I must admit that in determining which variety is considered the best, there are no universal criteria, because each summer resident has his own preferences. Moreover, the ideal is known to be unattainable. But maybe this is exactly what is not bad?

15 years ago, my family moved from city to village, where from scratch, one might say, began to raise virgin soil. Yes, I will not hide it, it was very difficult, because at first we knew nothing and did not know how. But we persistently understood the tricks of agriculture by experience.

In general, our site has gradually changed. Now we grow almost everything: from peppers and eggplants to blueberries and Japanese quince in the garden. But most of all, I and my household love strawberries.

RARE PLANT SEEDS FOR YOUR GARDEN - FREE SHIPPING. PRICES ARE VERY LOW. THERE ARE REVIEWS

It was her, by the way, that we first of all planted on the very first developed beds. A wonderful berry, you will not say anything. But we have to admit that she has two shortcomings: a wildly growing mustache and a short fruiting period.

With the first point, it is clear: here everything must be ruthlessly removed, although this work takes time and effort. And since I have a small child, and my mother is in poor health, I can hardly cope with this task, but there’s nothing you can do about it.

As for the second drawback, in order to prolong the "strawberry" pleasure, I began to plant plants of different ripening periods.

At first we are pleased with the berries early Darselect Is an excellent student in all respects. Then Mashenka ripens, which differs in that her fruits are extremely sweet, and besides, they also have a nutmeg aroma. Lovely, not strawberries! Well, the season ends with a late variety Bogota. These three are my permanent favorites. After all, among other things, these varieties are highly resistant to disease and frost resistance.


Description and characteristics of the garden remontant strawberry Queen Elizabeth

A rare suburban area does without a strawberry bed

Garden strawberries are a very common berry. Rarely does a summer cottage do without strawberry beds. But for some reason such a popular culture is very often called by the name of another berry - strawberry.

Why garden strawberries are called strawberries

The Strawberry genus includes up to 100 plant species. These are wild-growing wild strawberries, green, nutmeg, Bukhara, Chilean, Virginia and others. Crossing the last two species gave birth to large-fruited pineapple strawberries, from which all modern cultivated varieties have gone.

In Russia, wild strawberries were called strawberries (grows near the ground), and green strawberries (steppe, half-moon) were called strawberries (the shape of a berry, like a tuber). gardens of Russia since the 17th century it was grown.

When, at the end of the 19th century, large-fruited garden strawberries were brought from abroad to Russia and began to grow them massively instead of musk strawberries (strawberries), the name strawberry was inherited by inheritance - that is how people were accustomed to it. The situation was also confused by the fact that by the name of one of the first varieties of garden strawberries, long forgotten, they began to call it Victoria. In the villages, until recently, one could hear: "Strawberries are in the field, and in the garden is Victoria."

So, both wild strawberries and strawberries grow in the wild in our country. Both are good, but each has its own taste and appearance.

Strawberry on the left, strawberry on the right

The royal berry has a royal size

So, let's remember: strawberries have not been grown in our gardens since the 19th century, unless they were brought from the forest by a lover of true strawberry taste and aroma. But this is in theory, but in life you may be surprised at the market if you ask to weigh a large-fruited garden strawberry - this is how the name strawberry has grown together with it.

Varieties Queen Elizabeth and Elizabeth 2

In our country, there are two similar varieties of remontant garden strawberries with similar names - Queen Elizabeth and Elizabeth 2. They also have a lot in common in terms of basic characteristics. As stated in Runet, the remontant variety of garden strawberries Queen Elizabeth appeared in Russia at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. The famous English breeder Ken Muir is considered its author. But it seems that the strawberry got this name already in Russia: on the website of Ken Muir, who died in 2011, there is no such thing among the 21 varieties of strawberries offered for sale.

But the origin of Elizabeth 2 is associated with the research and production company "Donskoy Nursery" in the Rostov region, which was one of the first in Russia to start working with Queen Elizabeth. And in 2000, among the plantings, several bushes were noticed, distinguished by a special size of berries, an increased shoot-forming ability and a longer fruiting cycle, with which the selection work was continued. In 2004, the variety was included in the official State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use.

Already at the end of April, residents of the southern regions can treat themselves to the berries of the remontant strawberries Elizabeth 2

Table: Comparative description of the varieties Queen Elizabeth and Elizabeth 2

Characteristic Queen Elizabeth Elizabeth 2
Ripening terms from early June to September. Mid-May to September.
Yield per bush, kg up to 2. up to 2.
The appearance of the bushes Semi-spreading. Erect, semi-spreading, larger.
Berry appearance Scarlet, dense, shiny. Dark scarlet, dense, shiny.
Berry weight, g 20–40, maximum and very rarely 100. 30-50, maximum and very rarely 125.
Tasting assessment 4,4. 4,7.
Vegetative ability Average. High.
Life span, years 2. 3.

These new varieties of remontant garden strawberries are neutral day varieties.

In remontant varieties of a neutral day, flower rudiments are formed regardless of the length of daylight hours, so they bear fruit almost continuously. In ordinary remontant varieties, the interval between summer and autumn fruiting can reach up to 8 weeks.

Do you want to treat yourself to strawberries in winter? Root the mustache in pots and transfer it to the windowsill for the winter. There they can be grown, at the same time collecting a home crop.

As you can see from the table, the characteristics are very similar, but in general, the Elizaveta 2 variety looks preferable.

Photo gallery: berries of royal varieties

Video: Queen Elizabeth's Harvest

Table: advantages and disadvantages of varieties

Dignity disadvantages
High productivity. Demanding for regular feeding.
Long fruiting period.
Great taste and beautiful appearance of the berries.
Winter hardiness and drought resistance.
Good transportability, allowing you to grow berries for sale.
Resistance to fungal diseases.

Dressing rabbit skins at home: stages

In addition to tasty and healthy meat, you can also get good skins from rabbits. The main thing is that the breed of rabbits belongs to the meat and skin direction.

Rabbits are slaughtered for skins after molting, which can last from March to November. To determine whether the molt is over or not, it is easy - blow on the coat so that the skin of the animal becomes visible. If the animal is still shedding, the hair of the undercoat is easy to pull out.

Skinning a rabbit

Before processing, the skin of the killed animal must be removed correctly.

To do this, the carcass is tied by its hind legs upside down. Then, with a sharp knife, small incisions are made: in the area of ​​the hock joints, along the inner surfaces of the legs and along the perineum.

Next, the front legs are cut to the wrist joint. The tail and ears are cut off last. After that, the skin is pulled together, like a stocking, from the thighs down to the head. To remove the skin from the head, incisions are made around the nostrils, mouth, and eyes.

You should try not to stretch the stocking so that the fur does not thin out.

Rabbit skins making process

Making rabbit skins at home is a rather laborious task. If you can't get the desired result the first time, don't be upset. Any business requires a certain skill and experience.

Fingering

First, the skin should be softened. This process is called pulling, and it consists of the following actions:

  • a small, pre-dried area of ​​the skin is taken
  • then it is sprayed with milk
  • after that, it is necessary to make such movements with your hands, as if you were shaking off dirt from your trousers, centimeter by centimeter, while simultaneously removing the films.

After pulling, the skin becomes soft, but it takes a lot of time and effort to get the desired result.

Further processing technology is divided into the following stages:

  • soaking
  • the washing up
  • fleshing + degreasing
  • pickling or pickling + neutralization
  • tanning
  • fattening
  • drying
  • cosmetic treatment.

Soaking the skin (soaking)

The dried skin is placed in a pre-prepared enamel container and filled with water. In order for the skins to be preserved for a long time, they must be kept in water for several days. The water needs to be changed periodically.

Well-soaked skin looks like fresh skin. To kill putrefactive microbes, the raw materials are soaked in a prepared solution, which includes a kitchen antiseptic and salt, at the rate of 50 grams of salt per liter of water.

As antiseptics, you can use:

  • formalin (half to one gram per liter of water)
  • zinc chloride (two grams per liter)
  • norsulfazole (two tablets per liter)
  • sodium bisulfite (two grams per liter).

Fleshing and degreasing

After soaking, the skin is rinsed and the water is allowed to drain, after which it is pulled onto a special deck with the fur inside.

After the end of washing, the skin is suspended and waited for all the water to drain from it, and then the skin is wiped off with a dry, clean cloth. There should be no water left on the skin, since even a small amount of it can interfere with further actions.

Pickling

Prepare a pickel like this: add 50 grams of salt and 12 milliliters of acetic acid to one liter of water heated to 35 degrees. If there is no concentrate of the latter, you can use 70 percent vinegar essence at the rate of 60 milliliters per liter. In this case, the amount of salt in the pickle should be 30 grams per 940 milliliters of water.

You can also cook a pickel from a table 12 percent bite. The proportions in this case are as follows: 350 milliliters of table essence, 650 milliliters of water. If the essence is 9 percent, then 466 milliliters of this vinegar per 533 milliliters of water. Salt in such solutions should be from 35 to 40 grams per liter of water.

To make one kilogram of skins, you need three liters of pickel. The raw materials are kept in solution for two days, stirring quite often.

Fermentation method

A solution for fermentation is prepared as follows: hot water is poured into a glass or enamel container and oat or rye flour is added to it. Proportions - 200 grams of flour per liter of water. The solution must be stirred until a homogeneous consistency, and then seven grams of yeast, 30 grams of salt and 0.5 grams of baking soda are put into it (all for each liter).

After several days, a white bloom appears on the flesh, and the solution begins to smell like bread. According to these signs, it is determined that it is time to finish making raw materials.

After fermentation, the raw material is taken out and hung to drain the solution from it.

To understand when it is time to finish pickling or pickling, you can use a pinch or dryer. Where can I get it? We take the skin out of the solution and in the groin area, squeeze it four times up with the flesh. Then we tightly squeeze the corner and run our fingernail along its edge, and then release it. If the skin is ready, a white mark will remain on the fold line from the nail, which is called drying.

After pickling, having taken out the raw material from the solution, it must be squeezed out thoroughly in order to remove the remnants of the pickel. Then the skins are transferred into a sulphate pickel consisting of: 50 grams of salt, 5 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid and one liter of water.

We sustain the skins for 12 hours, stirring constantly. After that, we take out, squeeze, turn the fur out and put it in a pile, which must be pressed down with a load from above. On lying in piles, the skins should be within two days.

During this time, the finished product will mature.

Tanning

The skins are kept in solution for a day, stirring constantly. One kilogram of skins requires three liters of tanning agent. After chrome tanning, raw materials may lose strength. To neutralize the tanning agent, I use the same means as after lying down.

A solution for such tanning is prepared by boiling the bark in water for one hour. Then the resulting tanning agent is drained and 50 grams of salt is put into it for each liter of water. After that, the solution is cooled and the raw material is kept in it from one to four days.

The amount of such a tanning agent is taken on the basis of one kilogram of raw materials - four liters of solution.

It is impossible to overexpose the skins in the tanning agent .. To understand that the process is over, you can do this: cut out a small piece from the groin and look at the cut through a magnifying glass if the tanning agent has penetrated well into the skin (with tannin tanning, a yellowish tint appears) - the process is over.

Fattening

Fat emulsion recipes:

  • egg yolk and glycerin (1: 1). Beat well - and you're done
  • Cut 50 grams of soap (household) into pieces and dissolve in half a liter of boiling water, stirring constantly, then add half a liter of pork or fish oil, stir the resulting solution constantly and add ammonia to it in an amount of 5-10 milliliters
  • For half a liter of boiling water, dissolve 50 grams of soap (also household soap) and add a fifth of any fat of animal origin, while carefully stirring the composition, then put 25 grams of household machine oil, 250 grams of egg yolk and 30 grams of glycerin, constantly stir the emulsion and add to it ammonia (30 ml) at the end, beat the mixture well.

Drying

After that, the flesh must be rubbed with chalk (you can also use tooth powder), and then wipe with sandpaper. Mezdra will become snow-white and beautiful.

Then the skins are knocked out, and the fur is thoroughly combed. Light and elastic raw materials are obtained.

Following our instructions, you will be able to make rabbit skins yourself and receive valuable and high-quality raw materials for fur.


Scissors for beauty of beds and lawns

Garden shears are designed for cutting the crown of small bushes and hedges. This tool is simply irreplaceable for a gardener, summer resident or professional landscape designer.

These devices will allow you to work more comfortably, save energy and time.

They are great for lawns, flower beds, and strawberry beds that require special care.

To create a lawn covering on your summer cottage is still half the battle. The most important thing is to preserve it and give it a chic look. The main step in maintaining its beauty is mowing the lawn.

Just as it is important for French women that after cutting the hair on their heads, every hair is perfect, so for the English lords it is necessary that every blade of grass should be perfect on the lawn.

We create lawn coverings, while trying to be like prim British in everything, which means it's time to learn how to mow lawns correctly.

If, above all, you value the beauty of your backyard and care for the grass and other plants on it, then you can use a mechanical shears. However, in the evening, after rubbing calluses on your fingers and spending the whole day, you will think about buying a garden shears, an electric or gas cutter.

When sowing and caring for a lawn, it is quite possible to do with improvised means without resorting to buying special equipment and equipment, but experienced gardeners know how useful the same grass shears or a special lawn seeder can be. Special techniques and equipment make life much easier for the gardener, helping to make the lawn beautiful without any extra effort.

Every gardener believes that after planting the lawn, nothing serious is to come, but this is far from the case. A lawn that has taken root requires care, since if properly cared for, it will delight you with its appearance.

To keep your lawn looking good, you need to mow it regularly. The lawn cutter is the ideal tool for straightening the length of your grass. All scissors can be either rotated or straight.

This feature allows you to use the tool at any convenient angle.

Many gardeners have appreciated the advantages and benefits of using curb tape in the garden. Manufacturers today offer a large assortment of tape borders, which have an extremely wide range of applications and are used not only for landscaping garden plots.

A well-groomed lawn, which pleases with bright emerald greenery, is considered by any gardener to be his pride. But it is impossible to achieve such beauty without some effort.

Mowing grass is far from the last on the list of necessary activities.

How to choose garden shears to keep your grass looking good while making it easier for yourself to care for your lawn? We will consider this in detail in the article.

Their main advantage is that they are purely mechanical, powered by hand, requiring no additional sources of energy or fuel. Another advantage is the maneuverability, precision and accuracy of the haircut. With a very narrow cutting edge, you can reach anywhere in the grass, in a flower bed or doing topiary art.

12 simple steps To achieve beauty, freshness and health of the lawn, you need to properly care for it: mow, fertilize, process, clean, water. A variety of special tools will help you cope with this task. Let's consider them in more detail.

The pride of a true summer resident has always been considered the fruits of his labor: a garden, a vegetable garden, flowering flower beds and manicured lawns.

A unique device - the border tape for the beds, helps to create real masterpieces on the territory of a country house.

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With its help, you can lay out various configurations on the site in the form of even corners, circles and smooth lines. As a result, each design element stands out against the background of the overall picture, which looks very beautiful from the outside.

For aesthetically pleasing lawn edges, use grass shears. With their help, they quickly and accurately trim vegetation that could not be mowed with a lawn mower. Convenience lies in the fact that you can work the lawn even in hard-to-reach places, achieving the perfect result.

Do you want your garden to become your pride? Read in our article how to do it How to arrange beautiful beds for the lazy, the beds are tall and smart - this is what a gardener needs to know, who wants to make his life as independent as possible from garden worries.

If you wish, you just need to master the method of decorating lazy beds, which you can see in the following photos. A garden bed of this type will allow you to enjoy a well-deserved rest in the country and will not require weeding every time.

In addition, it is not only convenient, but also increases the productivity of crops.

To keep your planted lawn looking perfect, you need to trim it regularly with lawn scissors. Only then will its appearance delight with its magnificent appearance.

Shears are used to cut grass that grows close to fences, trees and flower beds, in places where treating the lawn with other implements is problematic.

They are also very convenient for working the edges of the lawn, and for the final trimming of the grass after using the trimmer, brush cutter or lawn mower.


Popular types of indoor cacti for home growing

Aporocactus

Usually it is A flagelliformis (flagelliformis), - a graceful epiphytic bush with numerous thin, long, hanging branches. The name of this type of indoor cactus is known to many cactusists. The ribs on its branches are barely visible and densely covered with short dark golden bristles. During flowering, it is beautiful - large (up to 8 cm long and up to 7 cm in diameter) crimson-red flowers are downright crowded on the bush.

Aporocactus are undemanding and live well in indoor conditions, easily propagated by cuttings. However, without sufficient sunlight, the bristle spines will not turn golden, but will be whitish, although the plant will still bloom. Aporocactus has a weak root system, it does not need a deep pot, and it is dangerous to water it abundantly in cool weather.

This type of domestic cactus is at risk, especially for the flat red mite. An intensively growing aporocactus bush sometimes needs to be cut off - to remove old and ugly branches at their very base. This promotes more abundant branching and the formation of a dense, ornamental plant.

Aporocactus flagelliformis beautiful, but natural beauty is always not enough for breeders. Recently, there are more and more varieties obtained as a result of hybridization of this type of cacti for home cultivation with other cacti, primarily with epiphyllums. These varietal plants are called aporophyllums and combine the advantages of aporocactus with a variety (in color, size, shape) of flowers created by the imagination of breeders.


Epiphyllums

"Epiphyllum"The most common type is E. oxypetalum (oxypetalum) with long, thin, rounded and very strong skeletal branches and soft, light green, wide and leaf-like flattened end shoots. The stems of this epiphyllum reach 3 meters in length, and the width of the terminal branches sometimes exceeds 12 cm. This giant can close the entire window in the room. Its flowers are also huge, fragrant, similar to the flowers of the "queen of the night", with which it is often confused, but unlike the Selenicereus flower, the epiphyllum flower has a long flower tube, almost devoid of hairs and thorns. Natural epiphyllums are very good, but too large and are more suitable for greenhouses than for indoor crops.

Melocactus

"Melocactus"... Large, mostly spherical cacti with pronounced ribs and powerful, often curved spine-like spines. The main feature of melocactus is that, upon reaching the flowering age, they begin to grow in a completely different way, and form at the top of the stem, first a flat, and then elongating densely pubescent organ with abundant bristle-like spines, from which flowers appear. It is called cephalic. Cephalic is also found in some other cacti, but only in melocactus is it so expressive, characteristic and widely known.

  • Fifty species of melocactus grow in nature in such a variety of conditions - from humid sea coasts to cold highlands, that there are no uniform recipes for their cultivation.
  • However, all melocactuses are considered difficult to cultivate, and they are not kept on grafts due to their large size.
  • Without cephalia, these plants are not very expressive, while growing adult specimens takes many years and requires experience.

Recently, melocactuses have been on sale; adult melocactus with cephalic and cephalic. They are expensive and are only intended for temporary decorative use. For phytodesigners, cacti of this popular species are really useful due to their large size, effective appearance that lasts for many months, and ease of maintenance (thorns do not break off, dust is easily washed off or washed off).


Growing strawberries in a greenhouse

Strawberry very suitable for growing under cover films. There are quite a few greenhouse varieties of Western European selection of strawberries. These are Glasa, Cambridge, Vigee, Gorella, Volya, Red Gauntle, Zenga Prekosa, Sayvetta, Glima, Pineapple, Zenga Lentessa, Zenga Gormell-la, Kama, Red Capulet.

In recent years, in the countries - producers of greenhouse strawberries (and this is primarily Belgium and Holland), almost exclusively the Elsanta variety has been bred.

In the year preceding the cultivation of strawberries in the greenhouse, planting material should be prepared in the open field. The plantation of mother plants should be established so that it is possible to water the plants if necessary.

The soil should be loamy, neutral or slightly acidic, with a sufficient humus content. The number of plants on the plantation should be 0.1-0.15 of the future demand.

In order to occupy a surface area of ​​1 hectare, it will be necessary to establish a mother plantation of 150 sq. m.

The mother plantation is recommended to be renewed annually. There are several ways to obtain planting material. The best, that is, abundantly fruiting, are the seedlings obtained from biennial plants.

For growing strawberries in a greenhouse or tunnel, seedlings can be prepared in several ways.

Strawberry seedlings are rooted on the mother plantation, and after the plants form an appropriate root system, they are transplanted in a 15 × 15 cm pattern into the nursery.

The nursery is a ridge with a 15-centimeter layer of fertile soil, which is preliminarily introduced with complex fertilizers. Plants can also be transplanted into boxes. During dry periods, the seedlings must be watered.

Before the onset of frost, the plants are transferred to a greenhouse or tunnel (this usually happens in November).

Young plants are rooted in pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm, filled with good soil or organic substrate. Before the onset of severe frosts, the pots will be transferred to greenhouses or other rooms, the temperature in which should not fall below -2 ° C, where the plants remain until they are transferred to the greenhouse for growing.

Strawberry seedlings grown in pots bloom profusely and bear fruit well. They can be grown both in their own greenhouse soil and in containers.

Seedlings can be rooted immediately in those containers where they will grow in. greenhouse, for example, in cylinders with a diameter of 18-20 cm.

In late autumn, seedlings are dug up on the mother plantation, the leaves are removed from them and stored in this form at a temperature of -2 ° C until the moment when they need to be planted in a greenhouse.

Suitable for growing in a greenhouse are strawberry seedlings grown in a nursery, a greenhouse or in pots.

The soil for strawberries is fertilized with peat and possibly manure. Immediately before planting, complex mineral fertilizers are applied to the ground. Seedlings are planted in greenhouses from late November to mid-December according to the 25 × 30 cm scheme.

In heated greenhouses, strawberry forcing can begin in mid-January, initially maintaining the temperature at 8-12 ° C on sunny days. As the light conditions improve, the temperature is raised to 15-20 ° C.

The night temperature should be around 8 ° C.With the onset of flowering, the greenhouse must be regularly ventilated to reduce air humidity and the associated risk of disease.

Carbon dioxide feeding is recommended... It accelerates the onset of fruiting and increases yields.

Pots of strawberry seedlings can be kept outdoors until frost, then they are transferred to the greenhouse. Saplings rooted on the ridge are also transferred to the greenhouse before the onset of frost.

The soil in the greenhouse should be filled with manure and complex fertilizers at the rate of 5-7 kg per 100 sq. m.


When is it better to plant tulips: spring or autumn?

All types of tulips are planted in autumn: from simple to double and multi-flowered. And it doesn't matter whether purchased or donated by neighbors-). From personal practice, I will say that the later you plant the bulbs, the better. Because with a warm autumn, you risk seeing sprouts in late autumn, and this is naturally very bad for further spring flowering. You can even plant after the first frost, I sometimes plant tulips in November, and they perfectly go into the ground and do not freeze at the same time. The only moment when planting is to maintain the depth of their embedding. If the height of your bulbs is 5 cm, then the minimum distance from the bottom of the bulb to the final backfilling with earth should be 15 cm.If it happened that you were too late with planting, then for insulation you can sprinkle it with a layer of peat, 2 cm thick - this will be more than enough ...

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Plant tulips it is better in the fall... so that the bulbs take root, then they will definitely bloom beautifully in spring!

You can plant tulips in spring, but then don't expect them to bloom this year. Some plants, of course, can bloom, but the flowers will be weak.

The best option: after the tulips bloom and their leaves dry (in May-June), the tulip bulbs must be dug out. Leave in a dry, dark place to dry. Then, around the end of August, plant it on a flower bed.

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Can be planted in autumn and early spring. It depends on when you want to get the flower. If there is a desire for flowers to delight you already next spring, then they are planted in late autumn a month before the frost on the soil. Planted in spring, flowers in the first year will not bloom, you can see their beauty only next year in spring.

Tulips are not very whimsical flowers, from my neighbor in the country, they grow like weeds.


Watch the video: Клубника на подоконнике. Выращивание круглый год


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