Plum is a fairly common plant that can be found in every garden. You can get a good harvest of tasty and healthy fruits only from a healthy tree. However, growers are often faced with growing problems such as plum diseases and pests, which can lead to the death of the entire garden.
Diseases of the tree are associated with inadequate care and improper planting. Most often, plum is affected by viral and fungal diseases that appear on weakened trees. In order to start treatment on time, it is important to know the main signs of the manifestation of the disease.
This fungal disease in the common people was called "witch's broom". On the affected tree, many thin, short shoots are formed, which are collected in bunches. Such shoots will not bear fruit. In the fight against the disease, only the destruction of infected plants will help.
As a preventive measure, not only mineral and organic fertilizers are used, but also Bordeaux liquid. In addition, to protect the site, only healthy seedlings are planted in the garden. They must be purchased only in proven nurseries.
The disease is widespread in stone fruit crops that have previously been affected by fungi. Most often, the disease begins to develop if the irrigation regime is violated or too much fertilizer is applied to the soil. Resin on wood can be released after frost breaks or improper pruning. The signs of gum flow are as follows:
If you do not pay attention to the signs that have appeared in time, the tree may die. Infected bark is a great place for bacteria to develop that leads to tree cancer.
The affected areas on the trunks must be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or garden pitch. It is better to cut out strongly affected shoots. In order to further increase the plant's immunity and avoid re-infection, you need to properly care for the plum.
An insidious viral disease that often occurs in a latent form. It is difficult to identify the affected tree. Dwarfism can manifest itself only at the last stage, when the fight against the disease is meaningless. Therefore, all the gardener's actions should be directed rather towards preventive measures.
Signs of the disease:
At the last stage of the development of the virus, there are practically no leaves on the branches of the tree, they are bare. Single needle-shaped leaves can be seen only at the tops of the shoots.
Dwarfism affects not only plums, but also other stone fruit crops. The virus spreads along with infected planting material, parasites (ticks, aphids), with a working tool for pruning.
Infected trees cannot be treated and must be uprooted.
As a preventive measure, resistant varieties of plums are planted in the garden, and the plants are regularly treated against pests.
Fungal disease, the causative agent of which is the voiceless fungus. Infection occurs in a cold, protracted spring, when the air humidity is increased. The spores of the fungus penetrate the flowers of the tree, so ugly ovaries are formed.
The fruits of the affected plant are unsuitable for food, they grow deformed. The development of the fungus occurs inside the fetus, in a kind of pocket, so there is no bone in the plums. The pulp becomes grainy and wrinkled. Since the fungus affects only fruits, the disease manifests itself once per season.
Mycelium overwinters in tree branches, so the fight against the disease should be started in the fall. To do this, they carry out sanitary cleaning and pruning of shoots, preventive spraying with copper oxychloride, copper sulfate.
Fungal disease develops in conditions of a prolonged warm, but rainy summer, when the air humidity exceeds 70%. The fungus hibernates under the bark. The mycelium begins to develop at a temperature of +4 degrees. It can be found on the shoots or buds of a plant in the form of a dark, weak bloom.
Spores are carried to young leaves by wind and most pests. The disease spreads very quickly. During the season, many colonies of the fungus are formed, which adversely affects the condition of the tree.
Signs of damage can be seen on all plant tissues, but especially often they appear on young leaves.
To prevent the disease in the fall, the garden is cleaned, the tree trunks are dug up, the shoots are destroyed, the affected fruits and fallen leaves are collected and disposed of. In addition, it is important to treat wounds and cracks in the tree in time, avoiding gum leakage. For processing, a solution of copper sulfate, manganese or garden var is used.
In the fight against the fungus, spraying the tree during the growing season will help. Treatments begin in early spring, repeat in late autumn. Use drugs Kuproksad, Skor, Horus, Topaz or Vectra. The last treatment is carried out 20 days before harvest.
The causative agent of the disease is the Monilia mushroom. The tree becomes infected during the flowering period if temperature drops or drops occur. Cold spring weather only speeds up the process. Spores penetrate the plant tissue through the pistil, gradually affecting the entire tree.
Signs of defeat:
The disease spreads not only to fruits, but also to shoots, plum leaves. The pathogen overwinters in the affected tree tissues. Prevention of moniliosis begins in the fall. All affected shoots are cut out and the garden is treated with Hom, Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride. To spray one tree, you will need up to 4 liters of solution.
Sharka, in the common people, plum pox is a viral disease. It appears on young leaves of the tree in the form of chlorosis, spots or stripes. Over time, the leaves acquire a characteristic marbling, light areas appear on them. If you do not take any measures, then the disease passes to the fruit. They become spotty, the pulp coarsens and loses its flavor. In addition, the spots begin to deepen into the fetus. Sick plums ripen ahead of time, crumble or dry out right on the tree.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to fight the disease. All affected trees must be burned. Control measures are only preventive in nature, aimed at timely processing of the garden from pests that can spread the virus.
In July, rusty spots can be seen on young plum leaves, which gradually increase in size. Affected trees shed their foliage earlier. You cannot leave the plum in this state. The winter hardiness of the plant and the future harvest are sharply reduced.
For prophylaxis, trees are treated with copper oxychloride before and after flowering. In the fall, after harvesting, spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture is carried out.
A dangerous fungal disease that affects the leaves of a tree, less often fruits and young shoots. The first signs of the disease are noticeable in early summer.
Most often, the disease develops in warm and humid weather, and reduces the winter hardiness of the tree. The fungus hibernates in fallen leaves, so in the fall it must be collected and burned. In addition, the tree trunk circle is sprayed with copper preparations or Bordeaux liquid.
Recently, the disease has been frequent. It is caused by pathogenic bacteria in the soil, which penetrate the plant tissue through cracks in the roots. Specific growths form on the infected plum roots, which leads to the death of the tree. Severe drought and slightly alkaline environment contribute to the development of the disease.
As a preventive measure, the garden is located in a place where no outbreaks of the disease have previously been observed. Severely affected seedlings are destroyed. The landing site is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate.
Dangerous fungal growths on the bark of a tree. Penetrating through small cracks in the bark, spores destroy the wood. Hollows form in the affected areas. After a few years, a solid fungal body grows instead. Sometimes she looks completely harmless.
To prevent infection of the tree, you need to carefully treat the wounds and cracks in the bark of the plum. Fruiting bodies of the fungus are destroyed before the spores spread, as a rule, in early June. The remaining wounds are cleaned of rot, washed with a solution of copper sulfate, and then poured with a mixture of cement and sand (1: 4).
This is an insect of a bizarre shape that settles near the fruit buds of a plum in growths - galls. One gall can contain up to 400 insects. At the end of May, overwintered individuals come to the surface of the bark and feed on the cell sap of the plant. In places of bites, reddish growths again form on the bark, where females lay eggs. More than one generation of pests grows in one season. It is possible to determine the defeat of a plum with a gall mite by the characteristic ugly growths.
Fight insects right after the plum blossom. Several treatments are carried out with colloidal sulfur preparations. In case of massive defeat, it is recommended to cut and burn the shoots.
It is a white butterfly, the abdomen of which is covered with yellowish hairs. Caterpillars of the pest overwinter in fallen leaves. The goldtail begins to harm after the blooming of the buds of the plum, actively eating them. Butterflies are nocturnal, laying eggs on the surface of the leaves. The caterpillars that appear are very voracious, causing great damage to young leaves in a short time. They eat holes in them, slowing down the normal growth of the plant.
As a fight against insects, trees are sprayed with a solution of karbofos. In the fall, they do not stop fighting the goldtail. They collect fallen leaves, loosen the soil under the trees, thereby destroying the pest's nests.
For the first time, spraying is carried out before the plum blossom.
This gray-brown butterfly damages plum fruits. Its reddish caterpillars hibernate under the bark of a tree or in the topsoil. In early spring, the butterflies lay their eggs in the still green fruit. When caterpillars appear, they feed on the pulp of the fruit, after which they leave for the winter. Affected plums turn purple and fall off, often you can see drops of gum on them.
Against the plum moth, preventive spraying with karbofos is carried out, trapping belts are put on the trees, and the soil is regularly loosened.
At the beginning of autumn, additional tillage and loosening are carried out in order to destroy the pest nests. In addition, all wounds and cracks are washed with manganese, covered up with a garden thief.
A small pale green insect that sucks out cell sap. You can determine the presence of aphids with the naked eye:
At the beginning of the growing season, the plum is treated with preparations against leaf-gnawing and sucking insects. Spraying is repeated after 10-14 days. The first treatment is carried out "along the green cone".
A white butterfly that is diurnal. Its caterpillars feed on the buds, leaves, buds and flowers of the plum. The methods of struggle are the same as with the gold-tailed, plum moth.
Very often, gardeners complain that almost the entire harvest is wormy. Why does this happen, which leads to fruit spoilage?
This is due to the presence of pests on trees. Sometimes there may be more than one insect.
The larvae of this insect destroy plums while still green. They eat not only the bone, but also the pulp of the fruit. As a result, the cream falls off unripe, but already wormy. To get rid of the parasites, you will have to try and remove the painful fruits.
The females of this insect eat the buds and flowers of the plum, biting into the ovary. There they lay larvae, which eat the fruits from the inside. The harvest is all ruined. For wintering, larvae and beetles go into the soil. Trees should be treated in the spring.
It is necessary to process trees in the garden as early as possible, without waiting for the pests to get down to business and the fruits begin to rot. The first treatment should be carried out in early spring. You need to re-spray the plum before and after flowering. If the number of pests is very large, then the treatments are repeated at intervals of 10 days. But the latter should be carried out no later than 25 days before harvest.
To prepare a working solution, use the drugs Phosphamide, Dursban, Metaphos, Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol. With a small number of insects, spraying is done with infusions of tobacco, wormwood, dandelion or ash. Infusions are prepared in different ways.
A universal recipe for herbal infusion is prepared at the rate of 200 grams of dry plant parts per 1 liter of boiling water. Boil the mixture for 15 minutes, then strain and cool. Dilute to 10 liters with water.
Every gardener knows that preventing disease is easier than curing a garden. Therefore, prevention should always be.
It is very important that all actions are ongoing. If a neighbor's garden is affected by worms, scab, coccomycosis or curliness, then this means that it is time to get to work and cultivate your own trees. Do not rely on "maybe it will blow."
To reduce the risk of damage to trees by harmful insects and various diseases, it is necessary to regularly inspect the garden. In addition, to carry out prevention, and at the first signs of illness, immediately take action. This will increase not only the yield of the plum, but also the quality of the fruit.
Plum diseases spread rapidly throughout the garden. If you do not start to treat plum diseases in a timely manner, the consequences can be extremely devastating.
The fact is that this garden culture is affected by all those pathogens that successfully parasitize on other stone fruit crops (cherry, sweet cherry, apricot, peach, etc.).
Therefore, we suggest that you learn about plum diseases and the fight against them in advance in order to be able to conduct effective monitoring of the state of trees during the season.
If signs of plum disease appear and fight against them is necessary, then this knowledge will help to correctly apply all chemical means of effective protection against fungal, bacterial and viral infections. Read about how the treatment and timely protection of this fruit crop in the backyard are carried out. See the illustrations, which are presented in large numbers on the page and demonstrate the characteristic signs of the diseases.
Diseases of plum fruits, photo which can be seen next to the description can affect a wide variety of parts of the tree. As a rule, these are fungal diseases that spread to the bark, trunk, leaves or fruits of the plum.
In addition to the above diseases, there are also plum trunk diseasethat can destroy even the healthiest tree very quickly. These include various types of tinder fungus, a fungal disease that causes rotten cracks in the bark of branches and tree trunk. There are several types of this fungus that can cause different manifestations on the affected parts. In general, this disease is characterized by the presence of fungi-like growths on the tree and damage to the bark. Treatment should be carried out by cutting off the affected parts and treating the cut sites with copper sulfate. In some cases, the only way to get rid of this disease is by uprooting the tree.
Consider the main plum pests and how to fight with them:
But not only viruses and fungi can infect a plant. Various midges and insects that threaten planting during their development cycles are also dangerous for the crop. Who eats radish leaves and radish?
We can talk for a long time about the advantages of folk remedies in the fight against diseases of radish, but still the most effective are chemical agents - fungicides. They help fight fungal diseases of this culture. In particular, it is recommended to use the following drugs:
As for the destruction of insects, in this case it is better to use the following insecticides:
In general, saving the crop from the development of diseases and insect infestations should be reduced to adherence to agricultural technology: do not plant the crop in a place where the disease was previously noticed, do not neglect the processing of tools, carry out pre-sowing treatment on time, be sure to pickle the seeds before planting and remove all foliage and residues plants from the site, and most crop damage can be avoided.
You can learn more about the diseases that most often affect this culture in the video.
Every gardener knows that preventing disease is easier than curing a garden. Therefore, prevention should always be.
It is very important that all actions are ongoing. If a neighbor's garden is affected by worms, scab, coccomycosis or curliness, then this means that it is time to get to work and process your own trees. Do not rely on "maybe it will blow."
Respiratory mycoplasmosis is a form of rhinitis that is transmitted by airborne droplets. As a rule, respiratory mycoplasmosis takes birds by surprise during cold weather. All breeds of turkeys, broad-chested whites in particular, can suffer from this disease. The high probability that birds will get sick is manifested not only with increased cold and humidity in the barn, but also as a result of malnutrition.
With respiratory mycoplasmosis, the bird's immunity decreases; during examination, there will be a lack of vitamin A and B in its body.
As for the symptoms, in general, the birds do not feel well: their eyes become inflamed, their vision deteriorates, which can be seen from the gait of the turkey - the legs will give way a little, the birds often fall. In addition, secretions will constantly come out of their eyes and nose. White wide-breasted turkeys, having a lot of weight, lose it very quickly. In general, the productivity of birds decreases, if the disease is started, the bird will die. If young animals fall ill with mycoplasmosis, then the turkey will experience a deterioration in breathing.
If the turkey poults fall and their legs do not hold them, then there is no point in treating them. Why? Because experienced poultry farmers immediately isolate and kill the young, since in most cases it becomes severe. If symptoms appear in adult turkeys, which are not supported by their legs and which periodically fall, then oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline should be added to the diet of birds.
Vaccines are added for at least a week to feed at the rate of 400 g per 1 ton of food. Often veterinarians prescribe antibiotics to turkeys, such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin, or streptomycin. Prevention involves regularly cleaning the barn and airing the room, as well as drawing up the right diet.
All breeds of birds, including white broad-chested, can get sick with this terrible disease. The tubercle bacillus infects both the lungs and the upper respiratory tract and is considered one of the worst viruses. In practice, birds get sick as a result of the spread of the bacillus through dirty eggs, bird bedding, and water.
The symptoms of the disease are obvious:
Since tuberculosis infects all breeds very quickly, treatment is almost impossible. If at least one symptom of this disease appears, then the sick bird must be killed, and the barn must be disinfected. If there were sick breeds in the barn, then it must be left open and let the sun and fresh air get into it. All this should last at least two months, since only the sun's rays can eliminate the pathogen.
Histomoniasis usually occurs in young individuals of the breed, as a rule, if their content is not the best. If the barn is poorly treated with disinfectants or there were chickens or geese in it before the turkeys, then infection is quite possible. The disease is very dangerous and its treatment in no case should be postponed until later.
Histomoniasis affects not only the internal organs, but sometimes affects the joints. In sick individuals, green diarrhea is observed, their legs practically do not hold, the birds are generally apathetic. As for the turkey poults, their appetite leaves much to be desired, they practically do not eat, they walk poorly, the disease is reflected in the legs.
Treatment is possible only with the use of vaccines. Osarsol or Furazolindon vaccines must be added to food, the place where the birds are kept must be disinfected. In addition, in addition to vaccines, turkeys should also be dewormed with Phenotazine or Piperazine sulfate. In terms of prevention, the house should be kept clean and the birds given the new vaccine, Bromethronide. Bromethronide is added to feed for 33-39 days. As practice shows, Brometronide is an effective drug in this matter.
Worms are considered one of the most common diseases among domesticated bird breeds. As a rule, turkey meat picks up worms through the soil or from other pets. In principle, a bird can pick up worms anywhere - in food, in water, and simply through the bedding. Worms can infect not only the digestive system, but also the respiratory tract.
As a rule, in turkey breeds, the disease proceeds imperceptibly. Everything becomes clear when turkeys lose weight, their legs become thin, and immunity as a whole falls. The legs practically do not hold the bird.
As for treatment, phenothiazine or paparazine sulfate should be used as vaccines. The room needs to be processed. In pharmacies, you can find new drugs for worms. As a rule, new drugs are always effective.
Smallpox is a common among many turkey diseases and is transmitted by chickens through food and drink. Or by direct contact with an infected individual. In addition, smallpox can be transmitted by insects such as flies and mosquitoes.
As for the symptoms, the birds become lethargic, lose interest in life, and practically stop eating. In such cases, the feathers will be tousled, and specks will appear on the body, in particular where there are no feathers, that is, on the legs and head, as can be seen in the photo and video.
There is no cure for this disease, even the newest vaccines can only relieve symptoms for a while, but the affected individuals of the breed must be destroyed. For prevention, the Embryo vaccine is used.
Newcastle is a viral disease. This is very scary, because Newcastle disease can affect almost all young animals at once, and most of the infected turkeys die.
Limb paralysis is the first symptom of Newcastle disease. With Newcastle virus, birds cannot walk or flap their wings. When Newcastle is infected, birds develop diarrhea with a greenish or grayish tinge, the smell from it is extremely unpleasant.
There is no cure for Newcastle disease; there are no vaccines for that. As practice shows, almost all individuals infected with Newcastle die. Vaccination is possible only in case of prophylaxis. Newcastle-infested turkeys should be isolated and eliminated.
Pests choose a plum for themselves, gnaw holes in it and settle safely, as in a house. The larvae are left inside, gnaw through the passages. Such a plum falls prematurely.
The sawfly begins to wield the first, he lays his larvae in flowers, which hatch by the end of flowering.
The moth lays its eggs on the leaves, on the underside, after the plum has faded. After a week, caterpillars hatch, which begin to gnaw the fruit.
Read here about the causes of plum crop failure.
For worms in fruits, the same drugs are used. If you treat it on time, first against the sawfly, during the flowering period with kinmix insecticides (for 10 liters of water, 3 ml.), And then from the plum moth after flowering with fufanon (for 10 liters of water, 10 ml.), Then your harvest will remain intact.
Another unpleasant factor is the bitterness of the plum. This is most often due to a lack of moisture. Especially if the summer is hot. Therefore not
neglect watering. Water the trees at least once a week with water, and then instead of bitter plums, sweet and juicy plums will grow.
Despite many diseases, this fruit tree is worth growing in your garden. You should spray the trees on time, carefully monitor the integrity, remove last year's fallen leaves, water well, and it will delight you with its delicious fruits for more than one year.
From this video you can learn about the causes of fruit tree diseases: